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5 2.6 Rational Analysis Method Mechanically Fastened Membrane Roofing System Assemblies Rational Analysis Criteria This mechanically fastened membrane roofing system assembly rational analysis method shall only be used when the following criteria are met: Linearly-Attached The tested wind uplift load capacity of the proposed linearlyattached (rows) mechanically fastened roofing system assembly was determined utilizing a test chamber of sufficient size such that the tested row spacing did not exceed one half of the table length, and that one attachment row was centered along the length of the table. The minimum frame width shall be 8 feet (2.4 m). Spot-Attached The tested wind uplift load capacity of the proposed spot-attached mechanically fastened roofing system assembly was determined utilizing a test chamber of sufficient size to allow positioning of a minimum of nine attachment locations on the test frame. The minimum frame width shall be 8 feet (2.4 m) Rational Analysis Method Mechanically Fastened Membrane F mechanically fastened membrane roofing system assemblies, the influence area per fastener f the tested assembly (IA t ) shall be determined by multiplying the row spacing by the fastener spacing (along the row). F spot attached systems, multiply the distance between the attachment locations in each direction (2 ft 2 ft, 2 ft 3 ft, etc.). This gives the number of square feet of membrane held in place by one fastener. The influence area needed to meet the calculated design wind uplift load(s) shall be determined using the following equation: IA n = (L t IA t )/L d Where: IA n is the area of membrane needed to be held in place by one fastener to meet the design load, ft 2. IA t is the area of membrane held in place by one fastener f the tested assembly, ft 2. L d is the calculated design wind uplift load f the perimeter cner area of a roof, psf. L t is the Facted Tested Load Capacity, psf. The fastener row spacing the spot attachment grid spacing of the roofing system assembly being considered shall be reduced so the ft 2 area of membrane held in place by each fastener does not exceed IA n. F linearly-attached assemblies, the fastener spacing (along the row) shall be the same as was tested. Refer to Commentary A f practical examples of rational analysis f membrane attachment on a mechanically fastened membrane roofing system assemblies (System 3 Example f linearly-attached and System 4 Example f spot-attached). It shall be permissible, as explained in Commentary A, to use the perimeter fastener row spacing in the cner areas provided the perimeter rows are installed in both directions. page 5

6 Cautionary Note: F mechanically fastened membrane roofing system assemblies with linear (row) attachment, only the spacing between fastener rows shall be reduced to meet IA n. This rational analysis method shall not be used to reduce the spacing between fasteners along the row (12 inches to 6 inches [30.5 cm to 15 cm], f example) in place of reducing the spacing between fastener rows. In addition, this rational analysis method shall not be used to rationalize backwards and increase the spacing between fasteners along the row (12 inches to 18 inches [30.5 cm to 46 cm], f example) increase the spacing between fastener rows (8 feet to 10 feet [2.4 m to 3.0 m], f example). page 6

7 Appendix A Fastening Patterns Page 8 Page 9 10 Page 11 Insulation Board Fastening Patterns 4 feet 4 feet Boards (1.2 m 1.2 m) Adhered Membranes Insulation Board Fastening Patterns 4 feet 8 feet Boards (1.2 m 2.4 m) Adhered Membranes Spot-Attached (Grid) Membrane Fastening Patterns 4 feet 8 feet (1.2 m 2.4 m) Insulation Boards page 7

8 Insulation Board Fastening Patterns 4 feet 4 feet Boards (1.2 m 1.2 m) Adhered Membranes page 8

9 Insulation Board Fastening Patterns 4 feet 8 feet Boards (1.2 m 2.4 m) Adhered Membranes page 9

10 Insulation Board Fastening Patterns 4 feet 8 feet Boards (1.2 m 2.4 m) Adhered Membranes (continued) page 10

11 Spot-Attached (Grid) Membrane Fastening Patterns 4 feet 8 feet (1.2 m 2.4 m) Boards page 11

16 L t is the facted tested load capacity, psf (kpa). IA t = fastener row spacing times the fastener spacing along the row IA t = 11.5 ft 1.0 ft = 11.5 ft 2 per fastener IA t = 3.5 m x 0.3 m = 1.1 m 2 per fastener Perimeter Area IA n = (-30 psf 11.5 ft 2 )/-42.9 psf = 8.0 ft 2 maximum per fastener IA n = (-1.4 kpa x 1.1 m 2 )/-2.1 kpa = 0.7 m 2 maximum per fastener Cner Area IA n = (-30 psf 11.5 ft 2 )/-64.6 psf = 5.3 ft 2 maximum per fastener IA n = (-1.4 kpa x 1.1 m 2 )/-3.1 kpa = 0.5 m 2 maximum per fastener The row spacing f the cner and perimeter areas shall be determined by dividing IA n by the tested fastener spacing, as follows: Perimeter Areas Cner Areas 8.0 ft 2 /1.0 ft = 8.0 ft row spacing 0.7 m 2 /0.3 m = 2.4 m row spacing 5.3 ft 2 /1.0 ft = 5.3 ft row spacing 0.5 m 2 /0.3 m = 1.6 m row spacing There are two possible final layouts f this assembly scenario. The first possible layout is to use a maximum fastener row spacing of 11.5 feet (3.5 m) in the field of the roof, maximum 8.0 feet (2.4 m) in the perimeter areas and maximum 5.3 feet (1.6 m) in the cner areas, all with fasteners spaced 12 inches (30.5 cm) on center along the row. The second possible layout is to use a maximum fastener row spacing of 11.5 feet (3.5 m) in the field of the roof and a maximum 8.0 feet (2.4 m) in the perimeter and cner areas. In this second layout however, the perimeter rows must extend into the cners from both directions, creating a cross-hatched fastening pattern. Mechanically Fastened Membrane Assembly #2 An Evaluation Rept listing f this linearly-attached mechanically fastened roofing assembly identifies the Facted Tested Load Capacity (L t ) as being -50 psf. The listing also indicates that testing was conducted on a 12 feet 24 feet (3.7 m 7.3 m) test chamber using a 9.5 feet (2.9 m) fastener row spacing with fasteners spaced 18 inches (46 cm/0.46 m) on center along the row. Verify Roofing System Suitability In der to determine if this mechanically fastened membrane roofing system assembly is suitable f use, compare the Facted Tested Load Capacity (L t ) to the calculated field area wind uplift design load. Since L t (-50 psf) exceeds the design load f the field of the roof (-25.6 psf), the roofing system assembly, as tested, is suitable f use in the field area of the roof. Perimeter & Cner Layout Evaluation L t (-50 psf) exceeds the calculated wind uplift design load f the perimeter (-42.9 psf) area of the roof, but L t is less than the cner area design load (-64.6 psf). Consequently, the as-tested assembly is suitable f use in the perimeter area but not the cner area. To determine if rational analysis is acceptable f defining the layout f the cner area, check the requirements of Section of this document. 1. Tested Wind Uplift Load Capacity determined utilizing a suitably large chamber page 16 Since the Section requirement is met, rational analysis is permissible.

17 Rational Analysis To determine the appropriate cner row spacing, first calculate the influence area per fastener (IA n ) using the equation IA n = (L t IA t )/L d Where: IA n is the maximum area of membrane to be held in place by one fastener to meet the design load, ft 2. IA t is the area of membrane held in place by one fastener f the tested assembly, ft 2. L d is the calculated design load f the perimeter/cner area of the roof, psf. L t is the facted tested load capacity, psf. IA t = fastener row spacing times the fastener spacing along the row IA t = 9.5 ft 1.5 ft = ft 2 per fastener IA t = 2.9 m x 0.46 m = 1.3 m 2 per fastener Cner Area IA n = (-50 psf x ft 2 )/-64.6 psf = 11.0 ft 2 maximum per fastener IA n = (-2.4 kpa x 1.3 m 2 )/-3.1 kpa = 1.0 m 2 maximum per fastener The row spacing f the cner area shall be determined by dividing IA n by the tested fastener spacing, as follows: Cner Area 11.0 ft 2 /1.5 ft = 7.3 ft row spacing 1.0 m 2 /0.46 m = 2.2 m row spacing There are two possible final layouts f this assembly scenario. The first possible design is to use a maximum fastener row spacing of 9.5 feet (2.9 m) in the field and perimeter areas of the roof and maximum 5.5 feet fastener row spacing in the cner areas, all with fasteners spaced 18 inches (46 cm) on center along the row. The second possible layout is to use a maximum fastener row spacing of 9.5 feet (2.9 m) across the entire roof area however, the perimeter rows must extend into the cners from both directions, creating a cross-hatched fastening pattern. System 4 Example Spot-Attached Mechanically Fastened Membrane The labaty testing rept f the spot-attached mechanically fastened roofing assembly being considered f this building was tested on a 12 feet 24 feet (3.7 m 7.3 m) test chamber to a maximum Tested Wind Uplift Load Capacity of -75 psf using a 2 feet 3 feet (0.6 m 0.9 m) grid membrane fastener spacing pattern. This grid pattern results in the use of 6 membrane fasteners per 4 feet 8 feet (1.2 m 2.4 m) insulation board. Determine the Facted Tested Load Capacity (L t ) Apply the 2.0 safety fact to the -75 psf Tested Wind Uplift Load Capacity to determine the Facted Tested Load Capacity (L t ): L t = -75 psf/2.0 = psf L t = -3.6 kpa/2.0 = -1.8 kpa Verify Roofing System Suitability In der to determine if this mechanically fastened membrane roofing system assembly is suitable f use, compare the Facted Tested Load Capacity (L t ) to the calculated field area wind uplift design load. Since L t (-37.5 psf) exceeds the design load f the field of the roof (-25.6 psf), the roofing system assembly, as tested, is suitable f use in the field area of the roof. page 17

18 Perimeter & Cner Layout Evaluation L t (-37.5 psf) is less than both the perimeter (-42.9 psf) and cner (-64.6 psf) area design loads. Consequently, the as-tested assembly is not suitable f use in the perimeter cner areas. To determine if rational analysis is acceptable f defining the layout f these areas, check the requirements of Section of this document. 1. Tested Wind Uplift Load Capacity determined utilizing a suitably large chamber Since the Section requirement is met, rational analysis is permissible. Rational Analysis To determine the number of membrane fasteners (F n ) needed per insulation board f the perimeter and cner areas of the roof, use the equation F n = (F t L d )/L t. Where: F n is the number of fasteners per board needed to meet the calculated design load. F t is the number of fasteners per board used to achieve the tested load capacity. L d is the calculated design wind uplift load f the perimeter/cner area of the roof, psf. L t is the Facted Tested Load Capacity, psf. Perimeter Area Cner Area F n = (6 fasteners psf)/-37.5 psf = 7 fasteners per board F n = (6 fasteners x -2.1 kpa)/-1.8 kpa = 7 fasteners per board F n = (6 fasteners psf)/-37.5 psf = 11 fasteners per board F n = (6 fasteners x -3.1 kpa)/-1.8 kpa = 11 fasteners per board The final layout f this assembly scenario is to use a minimum of 6 membrane fasteners per 4 feet 8 feet (1.2 m 2.4 m) insulation board in the field of the roof, 7 fasteners per board in the perimeter area and 11 fasteners per board in the cner areas. However, consideration should be given to using 8 membrane fasteners in the perimeter area and 12 in the cner areas. The extra fasteners will retain a grid-type pattern which will facilitate locating the fasteners after the membrane is installed, particularly if a membrane welding operation is involved. Retaining a grid-type pattern will also improve the finished appearance of the roof. Grid pattern fastener examples are included in Appendix A of this document. page 18

19 Commentary B General Considerations The following design and installation recommendations should be considered befe starting a roofing project: 1. Consult with an architect engineer to ensure the roof deck is adequately secured to resist the wind uplift fces that will be imposed upon it by the installed roofing system assembly. 2. Conduct fastener pullout tests, where appropriate, to ensure the selected fastener/ deck combination will provide adequate wind uplift resistance to the fces that will be imposed upon it by the installed roofing system assembly. This is particularly imptant f steel roof decks and f recover (covering over an existing roofing system assembly) applications. Pullout testing should be conducted in accdance with the ANSI/SPRI FX-1 Standard. 3. Mechanical fasteners used f insulation membrane securement should penetrate through the top flange of a steel deck whenever possible. 4. Rows of mechanical fasteners, spaced greater than 3 feet (0.9 m) apart, should be installed perpendicular to the steel deck ribs to avoid overloading a single rib. 5. Ensure that all mechanical fasteners have the proper penetration into the roof deck. Typical fastener penetrations include: 3/4 inch (19 mm) f steel, 1 inch (25 mm) f wood and 1-1/4 inch (32 mm) f structural concrete. Consult with the roofing system supplier f verification. 6. Install an edging coping detail, where appropriate, that will meet the requirements of the SPRI/FM 4435/ES-1 Standard. page 19

20 Design Standards Related Reference Documents 1. ASCE 7-10 ( older version when specified in a specific building code), Minimum Design Loads f Buildings and Other Structures (available at 2. ANSI/SPRI GD-1, Structural Design Standard f Gutter Systems Used with Low-Slope Roofs (available at 3. ANSI/SPRI RP-4, Standard f Ballasted Single-Ply Roofing Systems (available at 4. ANSI/SPRI RP-14, Standard f Vegetative Roofing Systems (available at 5. ANSI/SPRI/FM 4435/ES-1, Standard F Edge Systems Used with Low Slope Roofing Systems (available at Testing Standards 1. ANSI/FM 4474, American National Standard f Evaluating the Simulated Wind Uplift Resistance of Roof Assemblies Using Static Positive and/ Negative Differential Pressures (available at 2. ANSI/SPRI FX-1, Standard Field Test Procedure f Determining the Withdrawal Resistance of Roofing Fasteners (available at 3. ANSI/SPRI IA-1, Standard Field Test Procedure f Determining the Mechanical Uplift Resistance of Insulation Adhesives over Various Substrates (available at 4. FM 4450, Approval Standard f Class 1 Insulated Steel Deck Roofs (available at 5. FM 4470, Approval Standard f Class 1 Roof Covers (available at 6. UL 580, Standard f Tests f Uplift Resistance of Roof Assemblies (available at 7. UL 1897, Standard f Uplift Tests f Roof Covering Systems (available at Infmational Data Sheets & Guidelines 1. Application Guidelines f Modified Bitumen, Thermoplastic and Thermoset Roofing Systems (available at 2. Modified Bitumen, Thermoplastic and Thermoset Details (available at 3. FM Global Loss Prevention Data Sheets 1-28, 1-29 and 1-49 (available at page 20

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