1 Journal of Rural Community Psychology Volume E13 (1) Mental Health and Substance Abuse Issues among Native Americans Living on a Remote Reservation: Results from a Community Survey Theodore W. McDonald Department of Community and Environmental Health Boise State University, Boise, ID Mary E. Pritchard Department of Psychology Boise State University ABSTRACT The purpose of the study was to document the perceived and actual mental health and substance abuse issues of residents living on a remote reservation in the Northwestern United States. Surveys were completed by 138 Native Americans, who reported on mental health status and problems, perceptions of personal and community health issues on the reservation, and patterns of substance use and abuse (e.g., how often respondents use alcohol, what drugs present the most serious problems on the reservation). The respondents perceived their own mental health to be quite good. However, they reported that several mental health problems were prevalent in their community including alcohol/drug abuse, mood disorders, and spousal abuse/domestic violence. In addition, although respondents themselves reported little substance abuse, the most serious perceived problems in both their families and the community were related to substance abuse. Respondents not only recognized the problems caused by substance abuse on the reservation; they also had valuable suggestions for how to reduce this problem, including recreational/after school programs, education about substance abuse, cultural activities, and appropriate treatment services, including traditional or faith-based healing methods. INTRODUCTION Although fewer than 25% of Americans live in rural and frontier geographic regions, these regions actually make up 75% of the landmass in the United States. Given the distance between some rural and metropolitan areas, it is perhaps not surprising that many rural residents face unique challenges to obtaining quality physical and mental health care (Brems & Johnson, 2007; McDonald, Harris, & LeMesurier, 2005; Reschovsky & Staiti, 2005). Not only can inadequate access to health care cause significant health risks in and of itself (e.g., lack of preventive care and early detection can lead to more serious illnesses; Brems & Johnson), but also certain kinds of mental health issues (e.g., comorbid mental health disorders, some types of substance abuse,
2 suicide rates) may be more prevalent in rural communities (Borders & Booth, 2007; Falck et al., 2007; Fiske, Garz, & Hannell, 2005; Gfroerer, Larson, & Colliver, 2007; Simmons & Havens, 2006). In fact, it has been suggested that the reason comorbid mental health issues and substance abuse issues are higher in rural areas is a direct result of residents attempting to self-medicate to treat their mental health issues (Simmons & Havens). Although rural residents have the same incidence and prevalence of mental health issues such as depression and anxiety as urban residents (Simmons & Havens, 2006), with a lifetime prevalence rate of 46.4% (Kessler et al., 2005), Native Americans, who often live on isolated reservations in rural areas, are afflicted by mental problems at even higher rates, with estimates as high as 68% (Novins, Beals, Shore, & Manson, 1996). Native Americans appear to be particularly vulnerable to depression (Chester, Mahalish, & Davis, 1999; Curyto, Chapleski, & Lichtenberg, 1999), anxiety (Zvolensky, McNeil, Porter, & Stewart, 2001), posttraumatic stress disorder (Beals et al., 2005; Westermeyer, 2001), and domestic violence (Evans-Campbell, Lindhorst, Huang, & Walters, 2006). In addition, Native Americans have the highest alcohol addiction rate of any demographic group in the United States (Beals et al., 2005; French, 2004; Venner, 2002), with estimates as high as 50% (Denny, Holtzman, & Cobb, 2003; Shore, Manson, & Buchwald, 2002). Alcohol-related mortality rates are much higher among Native Americans than for the general population as well, particularly when stemming from chronic liver disease and unintended accident or injury (Denny et al., 2003; Li, Smith, & Baker, 1994). Perhaps it is not surprising that alcohol abuse is the leading cause of death in Native Americans (Koss et al., 2003), including death from suicide (LeMaster, Beals, Novins, & Manson, 2004). Not only has there been concern about the rapid growth of problems connected to alcoholism in Native Americans, such as fetal alcohol syndrome, fetal alcohol effect, and inhalation abuse, but there has also been concern about the low treatment success rate (French, 2004). Some researchers have suggested that the addiction rates can be attributed to psychocultural marginality (French, 2004; Jones-Saumty, 2002); however other researchers claim that this is not the underlying cause (Johnson, VanGeest, & Cho, 2002). Oetzl et al. (2006) suggest that there is no single reason, but that obstacles to both mental health and substance abuse treatment include self-reliance, privacy issues, quality of care, and communication/trust. Furthermore, 71% of Native Americans report at least one of these obstacles during treatment, and 61% report experiencing two or more of these obstacles (see also Duran et al., 2005). Regardless of the reasons for the increased rates of mental health and substance abuse issues in Native American populations, there is clearly a need for effective treatment programs that focus on prevention and skills needed to stop drinking (Thomason, 2000). In fact, research has suggested that many treatment and prevention programs have been largely ineffective in Native American populations because of a lack of cultural sensitivity of mental health care providers (Gone, 2004; La Fromboise, Trimble, & Mohatt, 1990; Renfrey, 1992; Yurkovich, Clairmont, & Grandbois, 2002; Yurkovich, & Lattergrass, 2008). In sum, rural Americans face substantial obstacles to receiving quality mental health care (Brems & Johnson, 2007; Reschovsky & Staiti, 2005). These obstacles may be further exacerbated in Native American populations living on a small, rural reservation (Duran et al., 2005; Gone,
3 2004; La Fromboise et al., 1990; Oetzl et al., 2006; Renfrey, 1992; Yurkovich et al., 2002). Furthermore, Native Americans may face an increased risk of certain mental health and substance abuse issues (Beals et al., 2005; French, 2004; Novins et al., 1996; Venner, 2002). As Yurkovich et al. (2002) suggest, Native Americans themselves have not been asked what mental health services would be more culturally appropriate and effective. Native Americans have also not been asked what they perceive to be the most prevalent mental health issues on reservations. Thus, although research has identified Native Americans as an at-risk population for substance abuse and other mental health issues (e.g., depression, anxiety), little research has asked Native Americans living on reservations: 1) what they perceive to be the greatest mental health and substance abuse issues and consequences of those issues in their communities, 2) whether the issues cited match the actual mental health and substance abuse problems reported by the residents, and 3) what should be done to reduce the scope and magnitude of these problems. The purpose of this project was to identify the actual and perceived mental health and substance abuse problems on a remote reservation in the Northwest U.S. and what Native Americans believe should be done about these issues. Participants METHOD The participants included 138 adults living on the target reservation who responded to a mail survey. All respondents were asked for basic demographic information, and most of them supplied at least some information on their personal and household characteristics. Responses to the demographic items revealed that the respondents were disproportionately female (65.5% reported themselves to be women), older than the U.S. median age (82.5% reported themselves to be at least 35 years of age), and relatively poor (40.3% reported their household income to be less than $17,500 dollars). Slightly over one-third (33.6%) of the respondents reported that they did not have health insurance. Measure The survey measure was a 53-item questionnaire, with individual items organized into eight conceptual subscales (Background Information; Health Insurance; Physical Health Issues; Mental Health Issues; Exercise; Family and Community Issues; Substance Abuse; and Health Services). Some of the items were ones used by tribal health officials in previous health assessments, some were modeled upon items on public domain health assessment instruments, and some were created to assess specific issues of interest to the researchers and tribal officials. In the context of this article, items on the Mental Health Issues (self-reported mental health; whether respondents had been diagnosed with mental health problems; what mental health problems respondents perceived to be most prevalent in the community), Family and Community Issues (perceived severity of various problems, for example abuse, illegal substance use, teenage pregnancy), and Substance Abuse (how often respondents use alcohol and illegal substances; perceived most prevalent substance abuse problems in the respondents families and in the community) subscales will primarily be discussed.
4 Procedure The researchers, working with tribal officials, conducted a community health needs assessment over a period of several months. As part of this health needs assessment, the researchers and tribal health officials conducted a survey of adults in all 398 households on the reservation (this research project was approved by both the tribal council and the Institutional Review Board at the researchers university). Surveys were sent by mail to each household, inviting an adult to complete the survey, and additional adults in the household (i.e., adults other than the one listed on the mailing address) were invited to complete a survey by collecting one at several prominent locations on the reservation (e.g., the tribal health center, the sole reservation general store). To encourage responding, a two-part raffle ticket was attached to each survey, and respondents were instructed to remove and retain one part of the ticket and leave the other attached to their completed survey when they placed it in one of the drop boxes. The potential respondents were informed that if they completed the survey, they would be eligible to win one of three gift certificates worth up to $300 at the reservation general store. There were 138 completed, usable surveys returned by respondents to one of three secure drop boxes located throughout the reservation. It is impossible to calculate an exact response rate, because reservation residents were allowed to pick up surveys at various locations around the reservation, and how many did so was not documented (therefore, the researchers were unable, for example, to simply divide the number of completed surveys by the number of households that were sent surveys). However, given that only 398 households are listed on the reservation, it seems reasonably conservative to estimate that at least 25% (or approximately 100) of them were represented by the 138 respondents. Statistical analysis Survey variables were entered into the SPSS (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Ill) statistical software package. As this was an exploratory study of reservation residents attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors, we used simple frequency analyses for all questions. Mental Health RESULTS When respondents were asked to rate their current overall mental health on a 7-point scale, (on which the value of 1 indicated very poor and the value of 7 indicated excellent ) the mean reported mental health rating was 5.91 (SD = 1.35). Thus, overall, the respondents reported that their mental health was very good. When asked whether they had ever been diagnosed with a psychological problem, 14.7% reported having been so diagnosed. Those who reported having been diagnosed with a psychological problem were asked to indicate, in their own words, what the psychological problem was. A qualitative content analysis procedure was used to group responses into conceptually consistent themes. Among those who listed at least one diagnosed mental health problem, the most commonly diagnosed problems included depression (reported by 72.2% of those who reported at least one diagnosed problem), PTSD (22.2%), stress (18.2%), and anxiety (18.2%). The respondents were also asked whether they believed they might suffer
5 from a psychological problem that had not been diagnosed, and 9.0% reported believing that they suffered from an undiagnosed psychological problem. These respondents were asked to indicate what type of psychological problem they believed they might suffer from, and 33.3% of those who answered this question reported that they did not know. However, 16.7% each reported believing that they suffered from undiagnosed alcohol/drug addiction, anger, anxiety, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. The respondents were also asked to list up to five mental health problems that they believed presented the most serious challenges to their community. The responses to this item were also evaluated through the use of a content analysis procedure. Three mental health problems emerged as being considered the most prevalent in the community. These were alcohol/drug abuse (reported by 72.0% of those who reported a community mental health problem), mood disorders (45.1%), and spousal abuse/domestic violence (18.3%) (it is noteworthy that two of these three problems namely alcohol/drug abuse and abuse/domestic violence, are often conceptualized more as behavioral health problems than mental health problems in the traditional sense; the conceptual overlap in these two related types of problems was found throughout this study). Substance Use A separate set of items asked the respondents to comment on issues related to substance use and abuse. The first of these items asked the respondents about their own alcohol use. For example, respondents were asked about how many drinks (defined as 12 ounces of beer, four ounces of wine, or one ounce of liquor or spirits) they typically consumed in one sitting. Interestingly, more than two-thirds (68.9%) of the respondents reported consuming no drinks at all. Among the respondents who reported consuming at least one drink in a typical sitting, 12.1% reported 1-2 drinks, 11.4% reported 3-4 drinks, and 7.6% reported five or more drinks. The respondents were then asked how often they consumed alcohol. The most common response, reported by over three-fourths (76.7%) of the respondents, was never or rarely. Among those respondents who reported consuming alcohol with at least some frequency, 13.5% reported drinking 1-2 times a month, 4.5% reported drinking 1-2 times a week, and 5.3% reported drinking 3-4 times a week. The respondents were also asked how often they consumed alcohol to the point of intoxication. More than four-fifths (82.1%) reported never or rarely drinking to intoxication, whereas 12.7% reported doing so 1-2 times a month, 2.2% reported doing so 1-2 times a week, and 3.0% reported doing so 3-4 times a week. Finally, the respondents were asked how often they engaged in binge drinking (defined as consuming five or more drinks in one sitting). Again, over fourfifths of the respondents (81.5%) reported never or rarely drinking this heavily. Of the respondents who acknowledged at least occasionally binge drinking, 14.8% reported doing so 1-2 times a month, 0.7% reported doing so 1-2 times a week, and 3.0% reported doing so 3-4 times a week. One issue of particular importance to the tribal officials who commissioned this study was what issues the residents of the reservation considered to be the most serious problems facing their families and the community. To address this, the respondents were asked to rank from 1 (most serious) to 7 (least serious) nine different issues (spousal abuse, child abuse/neglect, elder abuse/neglect, sexual assaults/rape, teenage pregnancy, substance abuse during pregnancy,
6 alcohol abuse, illegal drug use, and prescription drug abuse) both within their families and within their community. Rankings were then averaged for each issue to determine the seven issues with the lowest average rankings (indicating the most serious problems) for both families and community. As seen in Table 1, the issues perceived to be the most serious in both families and the community were related to substance abuse (although it should be noted that the perceived seriousness of the individual issues were slightly different for families and the community, as evidenced by the different ranked orders of alcohol abuse and illegal drug use). Table 1 Most Serious Perceived Family and Community Problems Rank Most Serious Family Problems Most Serious Community Problems 1 Alcohol abuse Illegal drug use 2 Illegal drug use Alcohol abuse 3 Prescription drug abuse Prescription drug abuse 4 Child abuse/neglect Child abuse/neglect 5 Elder abuse/neglect Spousal abuse 6 Teenage pregnancy Elder abuse/neglect 7 Spousal abuse Teenage pregnancy The respondents were asked to report whether any members of their immediate families or households had a problem caused by alcohol, drugs, or violence and whether any members of their families not living in their household had a problem caused by alcohol, drugs, or violence. As seen in Table 2, the prevalence of these problems, both within the household and among nonhousehold family members, was reported to be quite high. Over 40% of the respondents reported that a household member had experienced a problem with alcohol abuse, as did over 70% of the respondents about a non-household family member. Reported drug abuse rates were lower than alcohol abuse rates, however, at nearly 28% and 65% for household members and non-household family members, respectively, drug abuse also seemed quite prevalent. Reported violence rates were the lowest of the three types of problems, however, violence was reported to have been a problem for more than one-fifth of household members, and for over half of non-household family members. Thus, the aggregate responses indicate that alcohol abuse, drug abuse, and violence have touched the lives of many of the respondents loved ones, both inside and outside their households. Table 2 Perceived Problems Caused by Substance Abuse and/or Violence Problem Person(s) Affected by Problem Experienced Immediate Family/Household Member Family Member Not in Household Alcohol Drugs Violence Note. Percentages are calculated out of all 138 respondents who had an opportunity to complete this item. Because the respondents were allowed to select more than one response category, the total percentage may exceed 100.
7 Next, the respondents were asked to rank the five most serious substance abuse problems for themselves, the members of their family, and their community from a list of psychoactive substances (e.g., alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, methamphetamines), with the ranking of 1 indicating the most serious issue and 5 indicating the fifth-most serious issue. Ranks were then averaged for each issue. As seen in Table 3, alcohol was the psychoactive substance perceived as the greatest problem for the respondents themselves, their families, and the community. Methamphetamines and marijuana were perceived as the second- and third-most common problem in all three response categories, although it is noteworthy that the order of the rankings for these last two substances varied across the three response categories, with marijuana being reported to be a greater problem for the respondents themselves and methamphetamines being reported to be a greater problem for family members and the community. Table 3 Most Serious Perceived Substance Abuse Problems for Respondents, Members of their Families, and the Community Rank Most Serious Problems Most Serious Problems Most Serious Problems for Community for Respondents for Family Members 1 Alcohol Alcohol Alcohol 2 Marijuana Methamphetamines Methamphetamines 3 Methamphetamines Marijuana Marijuana 4 Pain Killers Pain Killers Pain Killers 5 Cocaine Depressants Cocaine Finally, the respondents were asked to rank the five most serious results (e.g., domestic violence, car accidents, death, injuries) of the use of alcohol and drugs in the community, with 1 indicating the most serious result and 5 indicating the fifth-most serious result. Ranks were then averaged for each result. The five most commonly ranked issues reported by the respondents who appropriately ranked at least one serious result were: 1) domestic violence; 2) family problems; 3) child abuse; 4) aggression/physical violence; and 5) death. DISCUSSION Previous research suggests that rural Americans face unique health care challenges that may prevent them from receiving adequate mental health care (Brems & Johnson, 2007; Reschovsky & Staiti, 2005). Native Americans living on isolated rural reservations may face even more of these challenges (Duran et al., 2005; Gone, 2004; La Fromboise et al., 1990; Oetzl et al., 2006; Renfrey, 1992; Yurkovich et al., 2002). As a result, Native Americans have higher prevalence rates of certain mental health and substance abuse issues (Beals et al., 2005; French, 2004; Novins et al., 1996; Venner, 2002). To further compound the issue, Native Americans themselves have not been asked what mental health services would be more culturally appropriate and effective (Yurkovich et al.). The present study attempted to remedy this problem by examining the actual and perceived mental health issues on a remote reservation in the Northwestern United States, as well as what Native Americans believe should be done to combat these issues. Results will be discussed below.
8 Mental Health Rural and urban adult Americans suffer from similar rates of diagnosable mental health problems (Simmons & Havens, 2007). Previous research (e.g., Beals et al., 2005; Chester et al., 1999; Curyto et al., 1999; Novins et al., 1996; Zvolensky et al., 2001) has suggested that mental health problems may be even more prevalent in Native American communities. When the percentage of respondents to this survey that reported having been diagnosed with a mental health problem (14.7%) is combined with the percentage that believed they suffered from an undiagnosed mental health problem (9.0%), the sum is 23.7%. Thus, it seems that the prevalence of mental health problems among the respondents in the present study is similar to, or perhaps somewhat lower than, that among adult Americans nationally (Kessler et al., 2005). Substance Abuse According to a number of scholars (e.g., Robin, Chester, Rasmussen, Jaranson, & Goldman, 1997), much more evaluation and intervention is needed to address rates of alcoholism and substance abuse among Native Americans. Recent studies have shown that Native Americans have the highest alcohol addiction rate of any demographic group in the United States (French, 2004; Venner, 2002), with estimates as high as 50% (Shore et al., 2002), and alcohol abuse is the leading cause of death in this population (Koss et al., 2003). The present survey results reveal something of a paradox in terms of what they portray about alcohol use and abuse on the reservation studied. On one hand, the respondents reports of their own alcohol use particularly as it relates to alcohol consumption suggest that substance abuse levels are relatively low on this reservation. National comparisons suggest the respondents to this survey likely consume alcohol less often than both Native Americans nationally and Americans nationally. However, large percentages of the respondents reported that a family or household member had a problem caused by alcohol, and alcohol abuse was consistently identified as the most serious problem facing individuals, families, and the community, as well as a primary cause of numerous problems, including domestic violence, child abuse, and death. Drug use was also consistently identified as a problem on the reservation, with the drugs presenting the most serious challenges being methamphetamines and marijuana. The paradox seems to lie in the discrepancy in the reported levels of substance use and abuse among the respondents and their perceptions of the pervasiveness of these problems in the community. Although this paradox may seem difficult to understand, we suspect we should take the responses at face value: Although substance use and abuse may not directly be problems of the respondents, they observe the effects of these behaviors and habits in others and in the community, and they recognize and fear the consequences. The respondents seemed not only to recognize the problems caused by substance abuse on the reservation; they also had valuable suggestions for how to reduce this problem. Respondents were allowed to write in suggestions to reduce the problem on the survey. They suggested more recreational/after school programs, education about substance abuse, cultural activities, and appropriate treatment services, including traditional or faith-based healing methods. These suggestions are consistent with Napoli, Marsiglia, and Kulis (2003), who found that when Native Americans have a strong sense of belonging, they are less likely to abuse alcohol. Many of the proposed activities would help increase a sense of belonging among tribal members.
9 Limitations Our study has several limitations. First, only one tribe was represented in this study and previous research has shown that substance use patterns, in particular, can vary widely from tribe to tribe (Nez Henderson, Jacobsen, & Beals, 2005). Second, all data were self-report in nature. The survey data were not validated with hospital chart review or objective testing. Studies have indicated that self-report data, in particular data concerning substance abuse, can be biased toward the perceived socially desirable response (Murray, Connett, Lauger, & Voelker, 1993). CONCLUSION The present study found that respondents perceived and actual mental health and substance abuse issues may not match up entirely. In particular, although respondents viewed substance abuse as the most prevalent problem on the reservation, they themselves reported fairly low use of drugs and alcohol. Future research should consider this when designing and implementing culturally sensitive interventions on reservations. In addition, future research should ask the Native Americans themselves what they believe would be effective treatment and prevention techniques for their particular tribe or on their particular reservation. Efforts such as these may help ensure that problems related to substance abuse and mental health are appropriately measured, prevented, and treated on Native American reservations, and therefore improve the quality of the lives of reservation residents and their communities. REFERENCES Beals, J., Novins, D., Whitesell, N., Spicer, P., Mitchell, C., & Manson, S. (2005). Prevalence of mental disorders and utilization of mental health services in two American Indian reservation populations: Mental health disparities in a national context. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162, Borders, T., & Booth, B. (2007). Research on rural residence and access to drug abuse services: Where are we and where do we go? The Journal of Rural Health: Official Journal of The American Rural Health Association and The National Rural Health Care Association, 23 Suppl, Brems, C., & Johnson, M. (2007). Challenges and uniqueness of rural and frontier services in the United States. Journal of Psychological Practice, 14, Chester, B., Mahalish, P., & Davis, J. (1999). Mental health needs assessment of off-reservation American Indian people in Northern Arizona. American Indian & Alaska Native Mental Health Research, 8, Curyto, K. J., Chapleski, E. E., & Lichtenberg, P. A. (1999). Prediction of the presence and stability of depression in the Great Lakes Native American elderly. Journal of Mental Health & Aging, 5,
10 Denny, C. H., Holtzman, D., & Cobb, D. (2003). Surveillance for health behaviors of American Indians and Alaska Natives. Findings from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 52(7), Duran, B., Oetzel, J., Lucero, J., Jiang, Y., Novins, D., Manson, S., & Beals, J. (2005). Obstacles for rural American Indians seeking alcohol, drug, or mental health treatment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, Evans-Campbell, T., Lindhorst, T., Huang, B., & Walters, K. (2006). Interpersonal violence in the lives of urban American Indian and Alaska Native women: Implications for health, mental health, and helpseeking. American Journal of Public Health, 96, Falck, R., Wang, J., Carlson, R., Krishnan, L., Leukefeld, C., & Booth, B. (2007). Perceived need for substance abuse treatment among illicit stimulant drug users in rural areas of Ohio, Arkansas, and Kentucky. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 91, Fiske, A., Garz, M., & Hannell, E. (2005). Rural suicide rates and availability of health care providers. Journal of Community Psychology, 33, French, L. A. (2004). Alcohol and other drug addictions among Native Americans: The movement toward tribal-centric treatment programs. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 22, Gfroerer, J., Larson, S., & Colliver, J. (2007). Drug use patterns and trends in rural communities. The Journal of Rural Health: Official Journal of The American Rural Health Association and The National Rural Health Care Association, 23 Suppl, Gone, J. (2004). Mental health services for Native Americans in the 21st century United States. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 35, Johnson, T. P., VanGeest, J. B., & Cho, Y. I. (2002). Migration and substance use: Evidence from the U.S. National Health Interview Survey. Substance Use & Misuse, 37, Jones-Saumty, D. (2002). Substance abuse treatment for Native Americans. In G. Xueqin Ma & G. Henderson (Eds.) Ethnicity and substance abuse: Prevention and intervention (pp ). Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publisher. Kessler, R., Berglund, P., Demler, O., Jin, R., Merikangas, K., & Walters, E. (2005). Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, Koss, M. P., Yuan, N. P., Dightman, D., Prince, R. J., Polacca, M., Sanderson, B., & Goldman, D. (2003). Adverse childhood exposures and alcohol dependence among seven Native American tribes. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 25, LaFromboise, T., Trimble, J., & Mohatt, G. (1990). Counseling intervention and American Indian tradition: An integrative approach. Counseling Psychologist, 18,
11 LeMaster, P., Beals, J., Novins, D., & Manson, S. (2004). The prevalence of suicidal behaviors among Northern Plains American Indians. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 34, Li, G., Smith, G. S., & Baker, S. P. (1994). Drinking behaviors in relation to cause of death among U.S. adults. American Journal of Public Health, 84, McDonald, T. W., Harris, S. M., & LeMesurier, E. A. (2005). Mental health care issues in a predominantly rural and frontier state: Results and implications from a comprehensive survey. Journal of Rural Community Psychology, E8. Retrieved September 21, 2008 from Murray, R., Connett, J., Lauger, G., & Voelker, H. (1993). Error in smoking measures: Effects of intervention on relations of Cotinine and Carbon Monoxide to self-reported smoking. American Journal of Public Health, 83, Napoli, M., Marsiglia, F. F., & Kulis, S. (2003). Sense of belonging in school as a protective factor against drug abuse among Native American urban adolescents. Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions, 3, Nez Henderson, P., Jacobsen, C., & Beals, J. (2005). Correlates of cigarette smoking among selected Southwest and Northern plains tribal groups: The AI-SUPERPFP Study. American Journal of Public Health, 95, Novins, D., Beals, J., Shore, J., & Manson, S. (1996). Substance abuse treatment of American Indian adolescents: Comorbid symptomatology, gender differences and treatment patterns. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, Oetzel, J., Duran, B., Lucero, J., Jiang, Y., Novins, D., Manson, S., & Beals, J. (2006). Rural American Indians' perspectives of obstacles in the mental health treatment process in three treatment sectors. Psychological Services, 3, Renfrey, G. (1992). Cognitive-behavior therapy and the Native American client. Behavior Therapy, 23, Reschovsky, J., & Staiti, A. (2005). Access and quality: Does rural America lag behind? Health Affairs (Project Hope), 24, Robin, R. W., Chester, B., Rasmussen, J. K., Jaranson, J. M., & Goldman, D. (1997). Factors influencing utilization of mental health and substance abuse services by American Indian men and women. Psychiatric Services, 48, Shore, J., Manson, S. M., & Buchwald, D. (2002). Screening for alcohol abuse among urban Native Americans in a primary care setting. Psychiatric Services, 53,
12 Simmons, L., & Havens, J. (2007). Comorbid substance and mental disorders among rural Americans: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey. Journal Of Affective Disorders, 99, Thomason, T. C. (2000). Issues in the treatment of Native Americans with alcohol problems. Journal of Multicultural Counseling & Development, 28, Venner, K. L. (2002). Cultural identification as related to drinking practices among Mission Indians. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering, 62, Westermeyer, J. (2001). Alcoholism and co-morbid psychiatric disorders among American Indians. American Indian & Alaska Native Mental Health Research, 10, Yurkovich, E., Clairmont, J., & Grandbois, D. (2002). Mental health care providers' perception of giving culturally responsive care to American Indians. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 38, Yurkovich, E., & Lattergrass, I. (2008). Defining health and unhealthiness: Perceptions held by Native American Indians with persistent mental illness. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 11, Zvolensky, M. J., McNeil, D. W., Porter, C. A., & Stewart, S. H. (2001). Assessment of anxiety sensitivity in young American Indians and Alaska Natives. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 39,
Traumatic Stress and Substance Use Problems The relation between substance use and trauma Research demonstrates a strong link between exposure to traumatic events and substance use problems. Many people
9. pg 166-169: Self-reported alcohol consumption pg 170-171: Childhood experience of living with someone who used drugs pg 172-173: Hospitalizations related to alcohol and substance abuse pg 174-179: Accidental
FAQ FAQ: What are the substance abuse rates among immigrants? Reliable figures regarding substance abuse rates among recent immigrants are difficult to obtain. Since these rates are compiled using self-reported
Karla Ramirez, LCSW Director, Outpatient Services Laurel Ridge Treatment Center 1 in 4 Americans will have an alcohol or drug problems at some point in their lives. The number of alcohol abusers and addicts
Trauma Informed Services Part 1 The Hidden Aspect of Addiction Many individuals struggling with addiction have personal and family histories of trauma including sexual, emotional, and/or physical abuse
Behavioral Health Barometer United States, 2014 Acknowledgments This report was prepared for the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) by RTI International under contract No.
Substance Abuse 214-215 Chapter 1: Substance Abuse 265 214-215 Health of Boston Substance Abuse Substance abuse involves the excessive use of alcohol or illicit substances (e.g., marijuana, cocaine, heroin,
CHAPTER 2: Substance Use, Mental Disorders, and Access to Treatment Services in Household Surveys, 2002 2005 2.1 Introduction Drug misuse and abuse, and mental health disorders are major health and social
Cultural Competency -Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drugs on HBCU College Campuses Presented by Alyssa C. Ryan, 2011 graduate of the University of the Virgin Islands Former Student Peer Educator and 2011-2013
UTAH Adolescent Behavioral Health In Brief A Short Report from the Office of Applied Studies Adolescence (12 to 17 years) is a critical and vulnerable stage of human development, during which males and
18 HEALTH STATUS HEALTH BEHAVIORS WOMEN S HEALTH USA 13 Adequate Physical Activity* Among Women Aged 18 and Older, by Educational Attainment and Activity Type, 09 11 Source II.1: Centers for Disease Control
MICHIGAN Adolescent Behavioral Health In Brief A Short Report from the Office of Applied Studies Adolescence (12 to 17 years) is a critical and vulnerable stage of human development, during which males
Course Description SEMESTER I Fundamental Concepts of Substance Abuse MODULE OBJECTIVES At the end of this course participants will be able to: Define and distinguish between substance use, abuse and dependence
Maternal and Child Health Issue Brief Substance Abuse among Women of Reproductive Age in Colorado September 14 9 Why is substance abuse an issue among women of reproductive age? Substance abuse poses significant
Underage Drinking Underage drinking is a serious public health problem in the United States. Alcohol is the most widely used substance of abuse among America s youth, and drinking by young people poses
Identifying High and Low Risk Practice Areas and Drugs of Choice of Chemically Dependent Nurses Jessica Furstenberg, Kawa Cheong, Ashley Brill, Angela M. McNelis, PhD, RN, Sara Horton-Deutsch, PhD, RN,
Journal of Rural Community Psychology Vol E12 No 2 Assessing the Perceptions and Usage of Substance Abuse among Teenagers in a Rural Setting Regina Fults McMurtery Jackson State University Department of
1 Statistical facts associated with addiction and substance abuse are concerning, but many men and women choose to ignore the dangers. By understanding the main causes of addiction to drugs, it is possible
Telephone Survey of Missourians Regarding Attitudes toward People with Mental Illness, Substance Use and Developmental Disabilities Prepared for: Missouri Mental Health Foundation June 2013 Prepared by:
http://nurse practitioners and physician assistants.advanceweb.com/features/articles/alcohol Abuse.aspx Alcohol Abuse By Neva K.Gulsby, PA-C, and Bonnie A. Dadig, EdD, PA-C Posted on: April 18, 2013 Excessive
Alcohol Awareness: An Orientation Alcohol Facts The most commonly used addictive substance in the United States o 17.6 million people (1 in 12 adults) suffer from alcohol abuse or dependence o Millions
What Health Professionals Know and Do About Alcohol and Other Drug Use During Pregnancy Trecia Wouldes, PhD Department of Psychological Medicine A Research Report in Collaboration with Executive Summary
TEEN MARIJUANA USE WORSENS DEPRESSION An Analysis of Recent Data Shows Self-Medicating Could Actually Make Things Worse Millions of American teens* report experiencing weeks of hopelessness and loss of
Prepared by the Department of Health and Human Resources Bureau for Behavioral Health and Health Facilities OHIO COUNTY February 14 Behavioral Health Epidemiological County Profile Demographic Data Ohio
Behavioral Health Barometer United States, 2013 Acknowledgments This report was prepared for the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) by RTI International under contract No.
nn Mental Illness Facts and Statistics This section contains a brief overview of facts and statistics about mental illness in Australia as well as information that may be useful in countering common myths.
C o n s u m e r Q & A 1 California Society of Addiction Medicine (CSAM) Consumer Q&As Q: Is addiction a disease? A: Addiction is a chronic disorder, like heart disease or diabetes. A chronic disorder is
An Integrated Substance Abuse Treatment Needs Assessment for Alaska EXECUTIVE SUMMARY FROM FINAL REPORT Prepared by William McAuliffe, Ph.D. Ryan P. Dunn, B. A. Caroline Zhang, M.A. North Charles Research
0145-6008/03/2708-1368$03.00/0 ALCOHOLISM: CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH Vol. 27, No. 8 August 2003 Ethnicity and Psychiatric Comorbidity Among Alcohol- Dependent Persons Who Receive Inpatient Treatment:
Co Occurring Disorders and the on Children: Effectively Working with Families Affected by Substance Abuse and Mental Illness Definition (Co-Occurring also called Dual Dx) A professional diagnosis of addictive/substance
Florida December 2012 POLICY ACADEMY STATE PROFILE Florida Population FLORIDA POPULATION (IN 1,000S) AGE GROUP Florida is home to more than 19 million people. Of these, more than 6.9 (36.9 percent) are
WEST VIRGINIA SCHOOL OF OSTEOPATHIC MEDICINE DRUG AWARENESS AND PREVENTION PROGRAM PURPOSE The West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine recognizes the importance of a safe, healthy and efficient work
Maternal and Child Health Issue Brief Why is substance abuse an issue among youth? December 14 8 Substance Abuse among Youth in Colorado Substance abuse among youth is defined as using alcohol, tobacco,
Mental Health America of Franklin County 2323 W Fifth Ave Suite 160, Columbus, OH 43204 Telephone: (614) 221-1441 Fax: (614) 221-1491 info@mhafcorg wwwmhafcorg General Mental Health Issues: Mental Health
Behavioral Health Barometer United States, 2014 Acknowledgments This report was prepared for the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) by RTI International under contract No.
Table of Contents Visit www.healthreferenceseries.com to view A Contents Guide to the Health Reference Series, a listing of more than 16,000 topics and the volumes in which they are covered. Preface...xv
Overview of the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study Robert F. Anda, MD, MS Co-Principal Investigator www.robertandamd.com Death Early Death Disease, Disability and Social Problems Adoption of Health-risk
OAHP Key Adolescent Health Issue Area 1 Behavioral Health (Mental Health & Substance Abuse) Introduction In Ohio, the promotion of positive mental health and the prevention of substance abuse and mental
YOUNG ADULTS IN DUAL DIAGNOSIS TREATMENT: COMPARISON TO OLDER ADULTS AT INTAKE AND POST-TREATMENT Siobhan A. Morse, MHSA, CRC, CAI, MAC Director of Fidelity and Research Foundations Recovery Network YOUNG
ALCOHOLISM, ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE AND THE EFFECTS ON YOUR HEALTH. Alcoholism also known as alcohol dependence is a disabling ADDICTIVE DISORDER. It is characterized by compulsive and uncontrolled consumption
Focus Area : Mental Health and Mental Disorders Alcohol Abuse Substance Abuse Autism Spectrum Disorders Exposure to Trauma 119 WORK GROUP ON MENTAL HEALTH, ALCOHOL, AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE Co-Chairs Barbara
Substance-Exposed Newborns State of Oklahoma 2013 Substance-Exposed Newborns State of Oklahoma 2013 Legal Background Federal guidelines in the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) require states
Provider Training Behavioral Health Screening, Referral, and Coding Requirements Training Outline I. Behavioral Health Screening Requirements and Referrals II. Healthy Behaviors Substance and Alcohol Abuse
Massachusetts October 2012 POLICY ACADEMY STATE PROFILE Massachusetts Population MASSACHUSETTS POPULATION (IN 1,000S) AGE GROUP Massachusetts is home to more than 6.5 million people. Of these, more than
New Jersey October 2012 POLICY ACADEMY STATE PROFILE New Jersey Population NEW JERSEY POPULATION (IN 1,000S) AGE GROUP New Jersey is home to nearly9 million people. Of these, more than 2.9 million (33.1
Behavioral Health Barometer Virginia, 2014 Acknowledgments This report was prepared for the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) by RTI International under contract No. 283
Behavioral Health Barometer Oklahoma, 2014 Acknowledgments This report was prepared for the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) by RTI International under contract No. 283
Behavioral Health Barometer Mississippi, 2014 Acknowledgments This report was prepared for the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) by RTI International under contract No.
Minnesota Organization on Fetal Alcohol Understanding Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in the Treatment Setting Sierra Asamoa-Tutu Program Coordinator and Trainer firstname.lastname@example.org MINNESOTA ORGANIZATION
Executive Summary The issue of ascertaining the temporal relationship between problem gambling and cooccurring disorders is an important one. By understanding the connection between problem gambling and
- UNDERSTANDING - Dual Diagnosis TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction 3 The Link Between Mental Illness and Substance Abuse 4 Characteristics of an Effective Dual Diagnosis Treatment Plan 6 Dual Diagnosis Treatment
IOSR Journal of Nursing and Health Science (IOSR-JNHS) e-issn: 2320 1959.p- ISSN: 2320 1940 Volume 3, Issue 5 Ver. I (Sep.-Oct. 2014), PP 35-39 Effectiveness of group therapy on psychological wellbeing
][ Strength ening our community through education and awaren ess ][ Report from the Mercyhurst College Civic Institute Vol.1 Issue 1 Summer 2009 Additional Reports Erie County Truancy Assessment Erie County
MARKET RESEARCH PROJECT BRIEF: MEN S HELP SEEKING BEHAVIOUR beyondblue: the national depression and anxiety initiative 1. Purpose beyondblue is seeking proposals from market research agencies to undertake
Workforce Development Online Workshop Descriptions Behavioral Health Service Delivery Workshops: The Effects of Violence Exposure on Children (1.5 hours) Regretfully, violence against children and youth
Transforming Health Care: American Attitudes On Shared Stewardship An Aspen Institute- Survey Submitted by zogby international may 2008 2008 Report Overview A new Aspen Institute/Zogby interactive survey
Too Good for Drugs Curriculum Correlations Correlated with Arkansas Health Curriculum Framework Grade 7 Lesson One: Introducing You and Your Dreams Develop personal goals. List steps for reaching a goal.
FRN Research Report: July 2013 DDCAT Top Rating Shows Ongoing Commitment to Superior Services Background Foundations Recovery Network, headquartered in Nashville, Tenn., operates nine addiction treatment
Alcohol Disorders in Older Adults: Common but Unrecognised Amanda Quealy Chief Executive Officer The Hobart Clinic Association The Hobart Clinic Association Not-for-profit private Mental Health Service
Tobacco and Alcohol Consumption of Pregnant Women in Canada CENTRE OF EXCELLENCE FOR EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT OMNIBUS RESEARCH REPORT Canadians Perceptions and Opinions Regarding Tobacco and Alcohol
UNM Pain Center: Addressing New Mexico s Public Health Crises of Pain, Addiction, and Unintentional Opioid Overdose Deaths Joanna G Katzman, M.D., M.S.P.H Director, UNM Pain Center Associate Professor,
Prescription drugs are the 3 rd most commonly abused drugs amongst teens in Nebraska, and the same statistic holds true on a national level. The rise in prescription drug abuse is becoming increasingly
ARTICLE #1 PLEASE RETURN AT THE END OF THE HOUR Alcoholism By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/alcoholism/ds00340 Definition Alcoholism is a chronic and often progressive
4 4 5 5 6 7 8 10 11 12 3 DRUG REHAB FOR TEENAGERS Discovering that a teen is taking drugs or alcohol is worrisome. Parents not only worry about the impact on a child s health, but also the possible impact
Chapter 23 Women and Addiction The following points for consideration on the portrayal of women and addiction were developed as a resource for entertainment development and production. They are not meant
Tracy Arwood, MS Clemson University Sangeeta Panicker, PhD American Psychological Association Assessing Risk in Social and Behavioral Sciences Assessing Risk in Social and Behavioral Sciences Content Authors
SOCIAL WORK RESEARCH ON INTERVENTIONS FOR ADOLESCENT SUBSTANCE MISUSE: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE By: Christine Kim Cal State University, Long Beach May 2014 INTRODUCTION Substance use among
Domestic Violence and abuse Introduction Domestic violence is defined as, any incident or pattern of incidents of controlling, coercive or threatening behaviour, violence or abuse between those aged 16
The Effects of Domestic Violence on Children: Picking Up The Pieces Kristy Nelson & Andrea Link Legacy House Overview of the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study PowerPoint & Research Adapted from
UNLV Center for Democratic Culture Edited by Dmitri N. Shalin The Social Health of Leading Indicators and Quality of Life in the Silver State Addiction and Substance Abuse among Youths An-Pyng Sun, School
African American Women and Substance Abuse: Current Findings Based on the work of Amelia Roberts, Ph.D. Assistant Professor, UNC School of Social Work and Iris Carleton-LeNay, Ph.D. Professor, UNC School
Screening Patients for Substance Use in Your Practice Setting Learning Objectives By the end of this session, participants will Understand the rationale for universal screening. Identify potential health
Alcohol, drugs and older people This leaflet is for older people (defined as those aged 55 or over) who are worried about their use of alcohol, illegal drugs and/or prescribed/over-the-counter medications.
Depression A treatable disease PROPORTION OF PATIENTS WHO ARE DEPRESSED, BY CHRONIC CONDITION Diabetes 33% Parkinson s Disease % Recent Stroke % Hospitalized with Cancer 42% Recent Heart Attack 45% SOURCE:
The Partnership Attitude Tracking Study (PATS) Teens 7 Report Released August 4, 8 Partnership for a Drug-Free America Partnership Attitude Tracking Study Table of Contents Page Mission..........................................3
VENTURA COUNTY ALCOHOL & DRUG PROGRAMS women s services Helping women recover (805) 981-9200 1911 Williams Drive, Oxnard, CA 93036 www.venturacountylimits.org recovery VCBH ALCOHOL & DRUG PROGRAMS WOMEN
Name of Program/Strategy: Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS) Report Contents 1. Overview and description 2. Implementation considerations (if available) 3. Descriptive
Economic Assessment of Providing Mental Health Services in Rural Health Clinics Fred C. Eilrich Assistant State Extension Specialist Email: email@example.com Cheryl F. St. Clair Associate State Extension
ADDICTIONS BEHAVIOURAL Internet Shopping Work Sex Gambling Food SUBSTANCE - RELATED Alcohol Drugs Medicine Tobacco Addiction is a chronic, relapsing disease affecting the brains's reward, motivation and
Alcohol Units A brief guide 1 2 Alcohol Units A brief guide Units of alcohol explained As typical glass sizes have grown and popular drinks have increased in strength over the years, the old rule of thumb
Adolescent Substance Use: America s #1 Public Health Problem June 29, 2011 A Report by The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University 9 in 10 People Who Are Addicted* Begin
Adverse Childhood Exposures and Alcohol Dependence Among Seven Native American Tribes Mary P. Koss, PhD, Nicole P. Yuan, PhD, Douglas Dightman, MPH, Ronald J. Prince, MS, Mona Polacca, MSW, Byron Sanderson,
Module 2: Understanding Addiction, Recovery, and Recovery Oriented Systems of Care This module reviews the processes involved in addiction and what is involved in recovering an addiction free lifestyle.
2013 to 2002 States: United the in Use Heroin in Trends National Survey on Drug Use and Health Short Report April 23, 2015 TRENDS IN HEROIN USE IN THE UNITED STATES: 2002 TO 2013 AUTHORS Rachel N. Lipari,
CHAPTER 6 Diagnosing and Identifying the Need for Trauma Treatment This chapter offers mental health professionals: information on diagnosing and identifying the need for trauma treatment guidance in determining