# Uncertainty quantification for the family-wise error rate in multivariate copula models

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1 Uncertainty quantification for the family-wise error rate in multivariate copula models Thorsten Dickhaus (joint work with Taras Bodnar, Jakob Gierl and Jens Stange) University of Bremen Institute for Statistics Adaptive Designs and Multiple Testing Procedures Workshop 2015 University of Cologne,

2 Outline Simultaneous test procedures in terms of p-value copulae Asymptotic behavior of empirically calibrated multiple tests Estimation of an unknown copula Application: Exchange rate risks References: Dickhaus, T., Gierl, J. (2013): Stange, J., Bodnar, T., Dickhaus, T. (2014): Simultaneous test procedures in Uncertainty quantification for the family-wise terms of p-value copulae. error rate in multivariate copula models. CMCGS 2013 Proceedings, AStA Adv. Stat. Anal., online first.

3 Notational setup Given: Statistical model (Ω, F, (P ϑ ) ϑ Θ ) H m = (H i ) i=1,...,m (Ω, F, (P ϑ ) ϑ Θ, H m ) ϕ = (ϕ i : i = 1,..., m) Family of null hypotheses with H i Θ and alternatives K i = Θ \ H i multiple test problem multiple test for H m Test decision Hypotheses 0 1 true U m V m m 0 false T m S m m 1 W m R m m

4 Local significance level (Strong) control of the Family-Wise Error Rate (FWER): ϑ Θ : FWER ϑ (ϕ) = P ϑ (V m > 0)! α Bonferroni correction: Carry out each individual test ϕ i at local level α loc. := α/m. Let I 0 (ϑ) denote the index set of true hypotheses in H m under ϑ. FWER ϑ (ϕ) = P ϑ {ϕ i = 1} i I 0 (ϑ) i I 0 (ϑ) P ϑ ({ϕ i = 1}) m 0 α loc. mα loc. = α.

5 Simultaneous test procedures K. R. Gabriel (1969), Hothorn et al. (2008) Definition: Define the (global) intersection hypothesis by H 0 = m i=1 H i. Consider the extended problem (Ω, F, (P ϑ ) ϑ Θ, H m+1 ) with H m+1 = {H i, i I := {0, 1,..., m}}. Assume real-valued test statistics T i, i I, which tend to larger values under alternatives. Then we call (a) (H m+1, T ) with T = {T i, i I } a testing family. (b) ϕ = (ϕ i, i I ) a simultaneous test procedure (STP), if { 1, if T i > c α, 0 i m : ϕ i = such that 0, if T i c α, ϑ H 0 : P ϑ ({ϕ 0 = 1}) = P ϑ ({T 0 > c α }) α.

6 FWER control with STPs Assumptions (for the moment): 1. There exists a ϑ H 0 which is a least favorable parameter configuration (LFC) for the FWER of the STP ϕ based on T 1,..., T m i m : H i : {θ i (ϑ) = θi }, where θ : Θ Θ 3. L(T i ) is continuous under H i with known cdf. F i. Exemplary model classes: ANOVA1: all pairs comparisons (Tukey contrasts), multiple comparisons with a control group (Dunnett contrasts) Assumptions are fulfilled (θ: difference operator) Multiple association tests in contingency tables, genetic association studies Assumptions are fulfilled, at least asymptotically (for large sample sizes)

7 FWER control with STPs Assumptions (for the moment): 1. There exists a ϑ H 0 which is a least favorable parameter configuration (LFC) for the FWER of the STP ϕ based on T 1,..., T m i m : H i : {θ i (ϑ) = θi }, where θ : Θ Θ 3. L(T i ) is continuous under H i with known cdf. F i. Exemplary model classes: ANOVA1: all pairs comparisons (Tukey contrasts), multiple comparisons with a control group (Dunnett contrasts) Assumptions are fulfilled (θ: difference operator) Multiple association tests in contingency tables, genetic association studies Assumptions are fulfilled, at least asymptotically (for large sample sizes)

8 Copulae Theorem: (Sklar (1959, 1996)) Let X = (X 1,..., X m ) a random vector with values in R m and with joint cdf F X and marginal cdfs F X1,..., F Xm. Then there exists a function C : [0, 1] m [0, 1] such that x = (x 1,..., x m ) R m : F X (x) = C(F X1 (x 1 ),..., F Xm (x m )). If all m marginal cdfs are continuous, the copula C is unique. Obviously, it holds: If all X i, 1 i m, are marginally distributed as UNI[0, 1], then F X = C!

9 p-values, distributional transforms Under our general assumptions , appropriate p-values corresponding to the T i are given by 1 i m : p i = 1 F i (T i ). Properties of p i under assumptions : T i > c α p i < 1 F i (c α ), if F i is strictly isotone. We may think of α (i) loc. := 1 F i (c α ) as a multiplicity-adjusted local significance level. 1 p i is equal to Rüschendorf s distributional transform. Under H i, we have p i UNI[0, 1] and 1 p i UNI[0, 1].

10 A simple calculation Let us construct an STP ϕ in terms of p-values. Due to the above, we only have to consider multiple tests of the form ϕ = (ϕ i : 1 i m) with ϕ i = 1 (i) [0,α )(p i). loc. For arbitrary ϑ Θ and ϑ H 0, we get: FWER ϑ (ϕ) = P ϑ ( m ) {p i < α loc.} (i) P ϑ {p i < α loc.} (i) = 1 P ϑ i I 0 (ϑ) ( m i=1 {1 p i 1 α (i) loc.} = 1 C ϑ (1 α (1) loc.,..., 1 α (m) loc. ), with C ϑ denoting the copula of (1 p i : 1 i m) under ϑ. i=1 )

11 Projection method, Hothorn et al. (2008) Assume that an (asymptotically) jointly normal vector of test statistics T = (T 1,..., T m ) is at hand. For control of the FWER by an STP based on T, determine the equicoordinate (two-sided) (1 α)-quantile of the joint normal distribution of T and project onto the axes. R: vcov() + mvtnorm

12 FWER control at level α = 0.3 via contour lines of the copula C ϑ

13 FWER control at level α = 0.3 via contour lines of the copula C ϑ

14 FWER control at level α = 0.3 via contour lines of the copula C ϑ

15 FWER control at level α = 0.3 via contour lines of the copula C ϑ

16 FWER control at level α = 0.3 via contour lines of the copula C ϑ We obtain α loc Cross-check: Φ 1 (1 α loc./2) is equal to the tabulated normal quantile for the chosen parameters. The structural information provided by C ϑ increases power! If one hypothesis is more important than the other, just change the slope of the blue straight line.

17 Unknown copula C ϑ In the case that we are willing to assume , but do not know the copula C ϑ, we propose: Parametric copula estimation (e. g., via Spearman s ρ and/or Kendall s τ and/or Hoeffding s lemma) Nonparametric copula estimation (e. g., with Bernstein copulae) Modeling with structured (hierarchical) copulae (e. g., for block dependencies) Approximating contour lines by resampling or statistical learning techniques These are research topics within our Research Unit FOR 1735 Structural Inference in Statistics: Adaptation and Efficiency.

18 Extended model setup with copula parameter Extended model for the family of probability measures: P = (P ϑ,η : ϑ Θ, η Ξ) ϑ Θ η Ξ Parameter of interest (H j Θ, 1 j m), Nuisance (copula) parameter representing the dependency structure Fundamental assumption: η does not depend on ϑ. FWER control in the extended model: sup FWER ϑ,η (ϕ)! α. ϑ Θ,η Ξ LFC ϑ H 0 : Put P η = P ϑ,η and FWER η(ϕ) = FWER ϑ,η(ϕ).

19 Empirical calibration of critical values We recall for a multiple test ϕ with test statistics T 1,..., T m and critical values c 1,..., c m under our general assumptions : m FWER ϑ,η (ϕ) FWER η(ϕ) = P η {T j > c j } Empirical calibration of ϕ: j=1 = 1 C η (F 1 (c 1 ),..., F m (c m )). Assume that the dependence structure of T is determined by the copula function C η0, η 0 Ξ. Utilization of an estimate ˆη for η 0 leads to the empirically calibrated critical values ĉ = c(ˆη) and the calibrated test ˆϕ. Calibrated local significance levels: Take u(ˆη) from the set (1 α) and put α(j) loc. = 1 u j (ˆη), 1 j m. C 1 ˆη

20 Empirical calibration of critical values We recall for a multiple test ϕ with test statistics T 1,..., T m and critical values c 1,..., c m under our general assumptions : m FWER ϑ,η (ϕ) FWER η(ϕ) = P η {T j > c j } Empirical calibration of ϕ: j=1 = 1 C η (F 1 (c 1 ),..., F m (c m )). Assume that the dependence structure of T is determined by the copula function C η0, η 0 Ξ. Utilization of an estimate ˆη for η 0 leads to the empirically calibrated critical values ĉ = c(ˆη) and the calibrated test ˆϕ. Calibrated local significance levels: Take u(ˆη) from the set (1 α) and put α(j) loc. = 1 u j (ˆη), 1 j m. C 1 ˆη

21 Regard FWER η 0 (ϕ) as a derived parameter of the copula model for T. Theorem: Assume that C η0 {C η η Ξ R p }, p N. Suppose an estimator ˆη n : Ω Ξ of η 0 fulfilling n(ˆηn η 0 ) d N p (0, Σ 0 ) as n. Then, under standard regularity assumptions, it holds: a) Asymptotic Normality (Delta method) n ( FWER η0 ( ˆϕ) α ) d N (0, σ 2 η0 ). b) Asymptotic Confidence Region (ˆσ 2 n consistent for σ 2 η 0 ) ( n FWER ) lim n P η 0 ( ˆϕ) α η 0 z 1 δ = 1 δ. ˆσ n

22 Three inversion formulas Lemma: X and Y real-valued random variables with marginal cdfs F X and F Y and bivariate copula C η, depending on a copula parameter η. σ X,Y : Covariance of X and Y ρ X,Y : Spearman s rank correlation coefficient (population version) τ X,Y : Kendall s tau (population version) Then it holds: σ X,Y = f 1 (η) = [C η {F X (x), F Y (y)} R 2 F X (x)f Y (y)] dx dy, ρ X,Y = f 2 (η) = 12 C η (u, v) du dv 3, [0,1] 2 τ X,Y = f 3 (η) = 4 C η (u, v) dc η (u, v) 1. [0,1] 2

23 Example: Gumbel-Hougaard copulae (One-parametric Archimedean copula) 1/η m C η (u 1,..., u m ) = exp ( ln(u j )) η, η 1. Taking m = 2, we obtain and, consequently, j=1 τ η = η 1 η η = (1 τ) 1. (1) Thus, η can easily be calibrated by a method of moments (plug-in of an augmented sample version of τ into (1)).

24 Gumbel-Hougaard copulae and max-stability Proposition: (max-stability of Gumbel-Hougaard copulae) For all η 1 and (u 1,..., u m ) [0, 1] m, it holds: 1. C η is a max-stable copula, i. e., n N : C η (u 1,..., u m ) n = C η (u n 1,..., un m). 2. It exists a family of copulas such that for any member C, it holds ( C(u 1/n n 1,..., u 1/n m )) = Cη (u 1,..., u m ). lim n = Applications of Gumbel-Hougaard copulae in multivariate extreme value statistics

25 Example: Multiple support tests X 1,..., X n : sample of iid. random vectors with values in [0, ) m, each of which distributed as X = (X 1,..., X m ) with 1 j m : X j d = ϑj Z j, ϑ j > 0, where Z j has cdf. F j : [0, 1] [0, 1]. Parameter of interest: ϑ = (ϑ 1,..., ϑ m ) Θ = (0, ) m. Multiple test problem (ϑ j : 1 j m given constants): H j : {ϑ j ϑ j } versus K j : {ϑ j > ϑ j }, j = 1,..., m Test statistics: T j = max 1 i n X i,j/ϑ j, 1 j m If the copula of X is in the domain of attraction of some C η, our theory applies, at least asymptotically.

26 An application to exchange rate risks Consider daily exchange rates: EUR/CNY, EUR/HKD, EUR/MXN, and EUR/USD. Data from 01/07/2010 to 30/06/2014 (http://sdw.ecb.europa.eu) were transformed into log-returns. Entire sample was split into two sub-samples, where the first sub-sample consists of the data for the first three years. Research question: For which of the four time series does the tail behavior of the returns remain stable during the fourth year of analysis?

27 Stochastic model for extreme returns It is common practice to model excesses over large thresholds u by generalized Pareto distributions (GPDs) with cdf { 1 (1 + ξx/ϑ) G ξ,ϑ (x) = 1/ξ, ξ 0, 1 exp( x/ϑ), ξ = 0, where x 0 for ξ 0 and 0 x ϑ/ξ if ξ < 0. Table: Maximum likelihood estimates of the GPD parameters based on data from 01/07/2010 until 30/06/2013 Parameter EUR/CNY EUR/HKD EUR/MXN EUR/USD ξ ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ϑ ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) x 0 = u ϑ/ξ

28 Results of the data analysis on second sub-sample Table: Lower confidence limits for ϑ j and x 0,j, 1 j 4, for the second time period from 01/07/2013 until 30/06/2014 ϑ j EUR/CNY EUR/HKD EUR/MXN EUR/USD Bonferroni Šidák Gumbel Gˆη x 0,j EUR/CNY EUR/HKD EUR/MXN EUR/USD Bonferroni Šidák Gumbel Gˆη

29 References Gabriel, K. R. (1969). Simultaneous test procedures - some theory of multiple comparisons. Ann. Math. Stat., Vol. 40, Hothorn, T., Bretz, F., Westfall, P. (2008). Simultaneous Inference in General Parametric Models. Biometrical Journal, Vol. 50, No. 3, Rüschendorf, L. (2009). On the distributional transform, Sklar s theorem, and the empirical copula process. J. Stat. Plann. Inference, Vol. 139, No. 11, Sklar, A. (1996). Random variables, distribution functions, and copulas - a personal look backward and forward. In: Distributions with Fixed Marginals and Related Topics. Institute of Mathematical Statistics, Hayward, CA, 1-14.

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