Firewall log Analyser: Statistic on related attacks and indicative rule generation

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1 Firewall log Analyser: Statistic on related attacks and indicative rule generation A Thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Technology in Computer Technology Department of Computer Science and Engineering Jadavpur University, Kolkata By Mousima Chatterjee Examination Roll: M6TCT13-27 University Registration No of Under the guidance of Prof. Chandan Mazumdar Department of Computer Science and Engineering Faculty of Engineering and Technology Jadavpur University, Kolkata May, 2013

2 TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN This is to certify that the work in this thesis entitled Firewall log Analyser: Statistic on related attacks and indicative rule generation has been satisfactorily completed by Mousima Chatterjee. It is a bona-fide piece of work carried out under my supervision at Jadavpur University, Kolkata, for partial fulfillment of the requirements for awarding of the Master of Technology in Computer Technology (MTCT) degree of the Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Jadavpur University during the academic year Prof. Chandan Mazumdar Project Supervisor Professor Department of Computer Science and Engineering Jadavpur University Forwarded by: Prof. Sivaji Bandyopadhyay Head of the Department Department of Computer Science and Engineering Jadavpur University

3 Department of Computer Science and Engineering Faculty of Engineering and Technology Jadavpur University, Kolkata Certificate of Approval This is to certify that the thesis entitled Firewall log Analyser: Statistic on related attacks and indicative rule generation is a bona-fide record of work carried out by Mousima Chatterjee in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Master of Technology in Computer Technology (MTCT) in the Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Jadavpur university during the period June 2012 to May It is understood that by this approval the undersigned do not necessarily endorse or approve any statement made, opinion expressed or conclusion drawn therein but approve the thesis only for the purpose for which it has been submitted. Examiners: (Signature of the Examiner) (Signature of the Supervisor)

4 Declaration of Originality and Compliance of Academic Ethics I hereby declare that this thesis contains literature survey and original research work by the undersigned candidate, as part of her Mater of Technology in Computer Technology studies. All information in this document have been obtained and present in accordance with academic rules and ethical conduct. I also declare that, as required by these rules and conduct, I have fully cited and referenced all material and results that are not original to this work. Name : Mousima Chatterjee Roll Number : M6TCT13-27 Thesis Title : Firewall log Analyser: Statistic on related attacks and indicative rule generation Signature with Date :

5 Acknowledgements The work presented in this thesis has been carried out at the department of Computer Science and Engineering at Jadavpur University, Kolkata. The main setting for this research work has been at the Center for Distributed Computing, Jadavpur University. In my attempted analysis of firewall logs and indicative rule generation, I thank all who have helped along the way and influenced the formation of understanding and representation of firewall rule and logs presented in this thesis. In particular, I wish to express my gratitude to my supervisor, Professor Chandan Mazumdar, Head of the Dept. Computer Science and Engineering at Jadavpur University, Kolkata for his continued encouragement and support, all his contribution of time, ideas, and invaluable suggestions during this work. A special thanks to Mr. Kamal Kumar Poddar, State Informatics Officer National Informatics, West Bengal,who encouraged me immensely throughout the project. Mrs. Anna Majumdar Scientist F,iNOC incharge,national Informatics Centre West Bengal and Mr. Devashish Chandra,Scientist E,Network Administrator,National Informatics Centre West Bengal has helped immensely by providing real time firewall log data for case study. I would like thank Mr. Atanu Das,Scientist E National Informatics Centre West Bengal,who gave generously his time and expertise for review this research. I am also grateful to all faculty members of the Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Jadavpur University for their support. Finally I want to thank my family my parents and my siblings for being a constant source of support and encouragement. Mousima Chatterjee Jadavpur University May, 2013

6 5 Firewall log Analyser: Statistic on related attacks and indicative rule generation Table of Contents Chapter 1 : Introduction Motivation Contribution Organization of the Thesis Chapter 2 : Related Work Working Principle of Firewall Definition Firewall working principle Firewall Architectures Demerits Different firewalls and their logging technique brief discussion Check Point Firewall PIX Existing firewall log analyzing tools Firewall Analyzer LOGalyze Cisco PIX Device Manager...25 Chapter 3 : Firewall Log Analyser Architecture Implementation Working Principles Algorithms Supported Features : User Authentication and access control : Alert Event generation Support Automatic/Manual log import Firewall Indicative Rule generation Firewall Change Management Report Generation Performance Metrics... 45

7 6 Firewall log Analyser: Statistic on related attacks and indicative rule generation Data Import Performance Metric Rule Generation Performance Metrics : Comparison with other Product : Chapter 4 : Case Study Organisation A and importance of its network backbone Actual Scenario Network diagram: Some finding of Firewall Log Analyser related to Organisation A Regarding indicative rule generation from firewall log : Regarding hour wise per day Usage pattern from firewall log Regarding hour wise per day Usage pattern from firewall log :...56 Chapter 5 : Enhancement Features Enhancement: Performance Enhancement: Chapter 6 : Conclusion... 60

8 7 Firewall log Analyser: Statistic on related attacks and indicative rule generation List of Figures Figure 1.1 : Security Incidents metric for OCT, Figure 2.1 : Different types of Firewall Figure 2.2 : Two Layer Firewall Architecture Figure 3.1 : Firewall Log Analyser System Architecture Figure 3.2 : Firewall Log Analyser Use Case Diagram Figure 3.3 : Firewall Log Analyser E R Diagram Figure 3.4 : Firewall Log Analyser User Creation Page Screen Shot Figure 3.5 : Firewall Log Analyser Manual Log Import Page Screen Shot Figure 3.6 : Firewall Log Analyser Rule generation Page Screen Shot Figure 3.7 : Firewall Log Analyser Firewall Change Report Generation Page Screen Shot Figure 3.8 : Firewall Log Analyser Report Generation Page Screen Shot Figure 3.9 : Firewall Log Analyser Usage Report Denied Packets/Connections Screen Shot Figure 3.10 : Firewall Log Analyser Usage Report Allowed Packets/Connections Screen Shot Figure 3.11 : Firewall Log Analyser Intrusion Report Figure 3.12 : Firewall Log Analyser Log Import Performance Metric Figure 3.13 : Firewall Log Analyser Rule Generation Performance Metric Figure 4.1 : Network diagram of Organization A Figure 4.2 : Firewall Log Analyser Allowed Traffic graph of 09/03/ Figure 4.3 : Firewall Log Analyser Allowed Traffic graph of 10/03/ Figure 4.4 : Firewall Log Analyser Allowed Traffic graph of 12/03/ Figure 4.5 : Firewall Log Analyser Allowed Traffic graph of 13/03/ Figure 4.6 : Firewall Log Analyser Denied Traffic graph of 09/03/ Figure 4.7 : Firewall Log Analyser Denied Traffic graph of 10/03/ Figure 4.8 : Firewall Log Analyser Denied Traffic graph of 12/03/ Figure 4.9 : Firewall Log Analyser Denied Traffic graph of 13/03/

9 8 Firewall log Analyser: Statistic on related attacks and indicative rule generation List of Tables Table 2.1 : Check Point Firewall log message fields summary Table 2.2 : PIX Firewall log message severity level Table 3.1 : Feature Comparison with other products Table 4.1 : Comparative study of volume wise generated Rule Structure... 51

10 9 Firewall log Analyser: Statistic on related attacks and indicative rule generation Chapter 1 : Introduction Today computer network has been thoroughly integrated into everyday objects and activities. The Internet, being an insecure channel for exchanging information leads high risk of intrusion or fraud to all potential computer network users. In the month of October 2029 security incidents were reported to CERT In from various National/International agencies. As shown in Figure 1.1, 5% incidents related to Phishing were reported in this month. Other reported incidents include 1% Virus/Malicious Code, 1% unauthorized scanning, 91% Spam and 2% incidents related to technical help under the Others category. [1] Figure 1.1 : Security Incidents metric for OCT, 2012 In this scenario a firewall is used to builds a secure bridge, based on certain rules between an internal network that is assumed to be secure and trusted, and another network, usually an external (inter)network, such as the Internet, that is not assumed to be secure and trusted. As the primary perimeter defence for most networks/computers, firewalls can often be an important intrusion detection and computer forensic tool, thus in information security aspect, understanding firewall logs is extremely valuable. The Firewall Log Analyser gives an easy user interface to provide Statistics on application of Rules & related Attacks. 1.1 Motivation Firewalls block and allow packets depending on rules. Firewall works at network layer to application layer. A firewall looks outwardly for intrusions in order to stop them from happening. Firewalls limit access between networks to prevent intrusion and do not signal an attack from inside the network.

11 10 Firewall log Analyser: Statistic on related attacks and indicative rule generation An IDS evaluates a suspected intrusion once it has taken place and signals an alarm. An IDS also watches for attacks that originate from within a system. This is traditionally achieved by examining network communications, identifying heuristics and patterns (often known as signatures) of common computer attacks, and taking action to alert operators. Firewall, being the base level of network security can produce detailed events that can be quite effective at highlighting security incidents, device misconfiguration, or malfunctions. For example, before virus engine signatures were released for both Code Red and Nimda, firewalls were telling the story of these new worms. Firewalls were backed up with connections from newly infected hosts. Conscientious security administrators listened to their firewalls and, investigating these hosts, were among first to identify the malicious code. The same goes for the OPASERV worm. Firewall logs were filling with alerts of denied connections, or in some cases simply too many allowed connections. Of course, investigating some of the top talkers in the firewall logs revealed the problem. Heavily utilized firewall can generate thousands and millions, of log events each day in formatted text file format. It becomes very difficult and tedious to review those data for highlighting the potential attacks. CISCO PDM [2] and some priced firewall log management software have GUI based log monitoring facilities, but all comes with price. CISCO PDM has maximum firewall log retention period of 5 days. CISCO Correlation Engine helps to identify threats, vulnerabilities, based on IDS definition and Nessus tool. In today s scenario most of the potential attacks are builds over a long period of time. Hence to detect such attacks log data is required to be analyzed for long period, which is not addressed by most of these tools. Generation of Firewall rules from log data and rule usage report is not addressed in these tools, which may help network administrator to discard unused rules effectively. This research is intend to successfully and rapidly review enormous amounts of firewall log data for security incidents and by generating indicative firewall rules from log data which can help to analyse firewall rules usage which in turn helps to clean up their firewall rule effectively. 1.2 Contribution In this thesis, we study the Cisco PIX firewall logs, and threat and data analysis in the context of network usage and security. This thesis put forward mainly two contributions.

12 11 Firewall log Analyser: Statistic on related attacks and indicative rule generation In the first part of the thesis, we generate an algorithm to import CISCO PIX 515 firewall log data in offline and on line mode into PostgreSQL database. Python code has been used here to minimize resource usage. In the second part of the thesis, we design an algorithm to generate indicative rules from imported log data and refine the result using firewall log data from different time window. In the last part, data analysis has been done upon the log data, to indicate network usage (high traffic, w.r.t date time), susceptive threats and attacks. 1.3 Organization of the Thesis This thesis is organized as follows: Chapter 2 discuss firewall working principles and categories of firewall systems along with different popular hardware enterprise firewall System and their logging technique and popular firewall log analysing tools. Chapter 3 reviews Firewall Log Analyser tool, its architecture E R diagram, Algorithms used, working principles and performance/features with respect to other similar products. Chapter 4 studies/tests the real industry data and lights upon certain findings. Chapter 5 discusses future enhancement possibilities.

13 12 Firewall log Analyser: Statistic on related attacks and indicative rule generation Chapter 2 : Related Work Log analysis (or system and network log analysis) is an emerging art and science seeking to make sense out of computer generated records. Generally firewall log analysis has been done to compliance with security policies, compliance with audit or regulation, System troubleshooting, Forensics, and Security incident response. CISCO PDM [2] and some priced firewall log management software have GUI based log monitoring facilities, but all comes with price. CISCO PDM has maximum firewall log retention period of 5 days. CISCO Correlation Engine helps to identify threats, vulnerabilities, based on IDS definition and Nessus tool. 2.1 Working Principle of Firewall Definition A firewall can either be software based or hardware based and is used to help keep a network secure. It s primary objective is to control the incoming and outgoing network traffic by analyzing the data packets and determining whether it should be allowed through or not, based on a predetermined rule set. A network's firewall builds a bridge between an internal network that is assumed to be secure and trusted, and another network, usually an external (inter)network, such as the Internet, that is not assumed to be secure and trusted Firewall working principle Network Firewalls operate at different layers of the OSI and TCP/IP network models. The lowest layer at which a firewall can operate is the third level which is the network layer for the OSI model and the Internet Protocol layer for TCP/IP. At this layer a firewall can determine if a packet is from a trusted source but cannot grant or deny access based on what it contains. Firewalls that operate at the highest layer, which is the application layer, know a large amount of information including the source and the packet contents. Therefore, they can be much more selective in granting access.

14 13 Firewall log Analyser: Statistic on related attacks and indicative rule generation Firewalls fall into four broad categories: packet filters, circuit level gateways, application level gateways and stateful multilayer inspection firewalls. 1. Packet filtering firewalls operate at the network level of the OSI model or the IP layer of TCP/IP. In a packet filtering firewall, each packet is compared to a set of rules before it is forwarded. The firewall can drop the packet, forward it, or send a message to the source. 2. Circuit level gateways operate at the session layer of the OSI model, or the TCP layer of TCP/IP. Circuit level gateways examine each connection setup to ensure that it follows legitimate TCP handshaking. 3. Application level gateways or proxies operate at the application layer. Packets received or leaving cannot access services for which there is no proxy. 4. Stateful multilayer inspection firewalls combine aspects of the other three types of firewalls. They filter packets at the network layer, determine whether packets are valid at the session layer, and assess the contents of packets at the application layer. Packet Filtering Circuit Level Gateway

15 14 Firewall log Analyser: Statistic on related attacks and indicative rule generation Application Level Gateway Multi Layer Inspection Figure 2.1 : Different types of Firewall Firewall Architectures After deciding the security requirements for the network the first step in designing a firewall is deciding on a basic architecture. There are two classes of firewall architectures, single layer and multiple layer. In a single layer architecture, one host is allocated all firewall functions. This method is usually chosen when either cost is a key factor or if there are only two networks to connect. The advantage to this architecture is any changes to the firewall need only to be done at a single host. The biggest disadvantage of the single layer approach it provides single entry point. If this entry point is breached, the entire network becomes vulnerable to an intruder. In a multiple layer architecture the firewall functions are distributed among two or more hosts normally connected in series. This method is more difficult to design and manage, it is also more costly, but can provide significantly greater security by diversifying the firewall defense. A common design approach for this type of architecture using two firewall hosts with a demilitarized network (DMZ) between them separating the Internet and the internal network.

16 15 Firewall log Analyser: Statistic on related attacks and indicative rule generation Figure 2.2 : Two Layer Firewall Architecture Demerits Firewall can only narrow down who can talk to who via which tcp/udp service port. Basically, it uses stateful inspection and ACL to permit/deny the access (source/destination IP/ports), plus other feature like anti spoofing and control max connection and embryonic sessions to servers/resources/clients. The firewalls have no clever way of telling whether that traffic is legit and normal. This is where the IPS and IDS systems come into play. So where firewalls block and allow traffic through, IDS/IPS detect and look at that traffic in close detail to see if it is an attack. IDS/IPS systems are made up of sensors, analyzers and GUI s in order to do their specialized job. With the current network security trend, having firewall alone will not secure the network entirely. Layered security control i.e. firewall along with IDS/IPS is recommended in many cases. CISCO PIX Family, Check Points etc. are some of the popular hardware firewall systems. 2.2 Different firewalls and their logging technique brief discussion Check Point Firewall The first issue Check Point is that the logs are not in a human readable format. They are viewable only through the Check Point GUI, by issuing the "fw log" command, or via an API called OPSEC LEA.

17 16 Firewall log Analyser: Statistic on related attacks and indicative rule generation The logs are usually in /log under the product installation directory $FWDIR, if this environment variable is set. Another thing to note is that the logs are on the management console, which may or may not be the actual firewall (or enforcement point, as Check Point refers to it) Traffic Logs The most useful log entries for intrusion detection are the "accepts" and "denies" found in the main log. These entries are especially useful for seeing port scans, host sweeps, and general probing. Check Point gives you deny or drop alerts when traffic is not allowed and accept alerts when it is. This action is configurable. Drop means to drop the packet (read bit bucket), whereas deny means to send a TCP reset or ICMP port/protocol unreachable message. These alerts also contain the rule that applied, which is very useful for troubleshooting. The format is typically as follows, however there are slight variations from version to version: Table 2.1 : Check Point Firewall log message fields summary Time Local time on the management station Action accept, deny, or drop. accept=accept or pass the packet. deny=send TCP reset or ICMP port unreachable message. drop=drop packet with no error to sender Firewall IP address or hostname of the enforcement point Interface Firewall interface on which the packet was seen Product Firewall software running on the system that generated the message Source Source IP address of packet sender Destination Destination IP address of packet Service Destination port or service of packet

18 17 Firewall log Analyser: Statistic on related attacks and indicative rule generation Protocol Usually layer 4 protocol of packet TCP, UDP, etc. Translation If address translation is taking place, this field shows the new source or destination address. This only shows if NAT is occurring. Rule Rule number from the GUI rule base that caught this packet, and caused the log entry. This should be the last field, regardless of presence or absence of other fields except for resource messages Example Nimda with Security Server Logging This is a log entry that illustrates how using Check Point's security server (read proxy) for HTTP traffic allows for more in depth IDS and forensic analysis. Check Point security servers, also referred to as resources, are much like application proxies, and generally log more application specific information. 14:55:20 accept abc.def.com > eth1 product VPN 1 & Firewall 1 src xxx.xxx.5.1 s_port 4523 dst xxx.xxx.10.2 service http proto tcp xlatesrc xxx.xxx rule 15 resource=http://xxx.xxx.10.2/scripts/..%%35c../winnt/system32/cmd.exe?/c+dir Audit Logs There are a couple of logs that are exceptions to the Check Point specific logging format. Probably the most important is the cpmi_audit.txt (cpmgmt.aud in pre NG versions). This log tracks all changes made via the GUI. Each entry shows the user who logged in, the machine they came from, the component they used (log viewer, policy editor, etc), the authentication method, and the change made. These are very useful for general auditing and for forensics regarding a compromised firewall host, especially since in distributed environments the logs are not actually on the firewall itself Example Change an Object Changing an object's IP address results in the following type of log entry. The similar entries for all object additions, deletions, or modifications may be seen as follows:

19 18 Firewall log Analyser: Statistic on related attacks and indicative rule generation OperationTime=Thu Dec 13 15:00: , ObjectName=Sanitized Router, ObjectType=host_plain, ObjectTable=network_objects, Operation=Update, Administrator=fwadmin, Machine=cp mgmtstation, ClientType=Policy Editor SessionId=Modification Info: ipaddr: changed from 'xxx.xxx.5.3' to 'xxx.xxx.5.7'; Example Change a Rule Adding, removing, or modifying a rule, also known as a policy change, results in the following type of log entry: OperationTime=Thu Jun 13 13:29: , ObjectName=Standard, ObjectType=firewall_policy, ObjectTable=fw_policies, Operation=Update, Administrator=fwadmin, Machine=cp mgmt station, ClientType=Policy Editor, SessionId=Modification Info: rule 1 track: added 'Log'; rule 1 track: removed 'None'; rule 3 track: added 'Log'; rule 3 track: removed 'None'; rule 4 track: added 'Log'; rule 4 track: removed 'None'; Example Log In/Log Out Logging in and out of the GUI, and of the Log viewer, look like the following: OperationTime=Thu Jun 13 09:09: , Operation=Logged in, Administrator=fwadmin, Machine=cp mgmt station, ClientType=Policy Editor, Info=connected with user password OperationTime=Thu Jun 13 09:09: , Operation=Logged in, Administrator=fwadmin, Machine=cp mgmt station, ClientType=Log Viewer, Info=connected with user password Check Point Specific Logging Issues and Challenges As stated earlier, the normal logs are not clear text, and the GUI log viewer is not especially useful for real time remote log analysis. It is not useful for batch analysis either, as you cannot manipulate the information in familiar ways, as we would with text files or logs stored in a database. It has limited to the filters and sorting programmed into the client.

20 19 Firewall log Analyser: Statistic on related attacks and indicative rule generation There are a few ways to get Check Point logs into familiar formats and transmit them to an analyst's workstation or into some central log aggregation facility OPSEC LEA Programming to this API is beyond the scope of this article, but is desirable for real time analysis because it enables authentication and encryption of Check Point log data traversing a network. Interestingly, instead of pushing logs from the host to a remote syslog server, LEA is a pull mechanism by which a client retrieves the logs from the Check Point management station Log As mentioned earlier, Check Point logs may be viewed from the command line with 'fw log'. More specifically, to view logs in real time y the command 'fw log ftn' may be issued. Many analysts use this command in conjunction with other tools to more securely send these logs in real time over the network. Most involve piping this command to the UNIX logger utility so that the Check Point logs are transferred into UNIX syslog. For instance: fw log ftn logger & PIX Cisco PIX has some of the most exhaustively documented logs in the firewall arena. The public Cisco site has good explanations of the different log categories, where applicable, and of individual log messages. [Ref: Appendix A] They also have severities, which are equivalent to standard syslog severities.

21 20 Firewall log Analyser: Statistic on related attacks and indicative rule generation Standard Severity Levels Table 2.2 : PIX Firewall log message severity level 0 Emergency System is unusable 1 Alert Action must be taken immediately 2 Critical Critical conditions 3 Error Error conditions 4 Warning Warning conditions 5 Notification Normal but significant conditions 6 Informational Informational conditions 7 Debugging Debugging level messages The individual messages are each tagged with "message codes." These message codes are loosely organized into categories. For instance, message codes through are for Cisco Secure Intrusion Detection System signature messages. Not all messages are grouped so well, generally clusters of similar message types is found. PIX logs are viewable in two ways the PIX Device Manager (PDM) and UNIX style syslog. Most PIX administrators probably use syslog, The same is going to be used for the example. The format is generally as follows, but the message portion varies widely: Date Time IP/Hostname Message Code Message

22 21 Firewall log Analyser: Statistic on related attacks and indicative rule generation Access List and URL Messages The out of the box configuration for PIX firewalls is built around security zones. The zone model essentially allows all traffic from higher security zones to lower security zones and not the other way around. This is very easy to set up, but is not the most secure approach. Among the many dangers is the possibility of traffic from backdoor programs and other malicious code to pass outbound unchecked. The format is: %PIX : Deny protocol src [inbound interface]:[src_address/src_port] dst outboundinterface: dst_address/dst_port [type {type}, code {code}] by access group access list name Example Just as with the Check Point Example, permitted traffic can often be important information. Permitted HTTP traffic logs the requested URL, which can be useful in detecting in protocol attacks like the Nimda alert seen below. Different URL related messaged are found in the message codes between and the most common being Feb 5 07:38: %PIX : Accessed URL /c Configuration Changes and Login Messages Just as with Check Point's audit logging, PIX has many messages regarding configuration changes. Most are found between message codes and Example The following message indicates that the current configuration is being written to memory. The console could be an IP address if the user was logged in remotely, and memory could be terminal, flash, standby, or floppy. This is bad, of course, if no authorized individuals are logged in the firewall.

23 22 Firewall log Analyser: Statistic on related attacks and indicative rule generation %PIX : Begin configuration: console writing to memory Normally the user log in before this type of activity, so it is useful to look for authentication messages, which are between message codes and Existing firewall log analyzing tools Firewall Analyzer Firewall Analyser is an agent less Log Analytics and Configuration Management Software for network security devices. This firewall log analysis product is used for end point security monitoring & analysis, change management, employee internet monitoring, bandwidth monitoring, capacity planning, policy enforcement, security & compliance audit reporting. Firewall Analyser is vendoragnostic and supports almost all open source and commercial network firewalls (Check Point, Cisco, Juniper, Fortinet, Snort, Squid Project, SonicWALL, Palo Alto, etc ), IDS/IPS, VPNs, Proxies and related security devices. Targeted at network security administrators & MSSPs who would like to centrally collect, archive, analyse security device logs, and generate forensic reports. [12] Supported Features Meet Security Audit and Compliance Requirements Security Audit validates the Firewall security. The device security audit is carried out with the configuration analysis of the device. Meet compliance requirements, with dedicated Compliance section, Firewall administrator activities monitoring, and log archiving. [12] Firewall Configuration Change Management Gives notification on 'who' made 'what' changes, 'when' and 'why' to firewall configuration. Get a complete trail of all the changes done to firewall configuration with Change Management reports. [12] Corporate Users Internet Activity Monitoring

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