# Access The Mathematics of Internet Search Engines

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1 Lesson1 Access The Mathematics of Internet Search Engines You are living in the midst of an ongoing revolution in information processing and telecommunications. Telephones, televisions, and computers are merging. You may listen to digital music, watch digital movies, and use an ATM machine to do digital banking. More and more transactions are taking place on the Internet. How is all this digital information transmitted and received in an accurate and secure manner? To help answer this question, you will study the mathematics of information processing, called informatics. You will consider three fundamental issues of informatics access, security, and accuracy. Each issue will be the focus of a lesson in this unit. One of the most important applications of informatics is the Internet. 578 UNIT 9 INFORMATICS

2 Think About This Situation The Internet has become an integral part of modern life for many of us. It s reshaping how companies do business and how people communicate and shop. a b c d Examine the Yahoo! Web page on the previous page. How might issues of access, security, and accuracy be involved in the use of this Web site? What do you know about making effective searches for information on the Internet? How do you think an Internet search engine accesses the information you are looking for among millions of Web pages? Suppose you buy a book from an Internet bookstore using a credit card. Explain how issues of access, security, and accuracy are important in this transaction. INVESTIGATION 1 Set Theory and the Internet usinesses, libraries, schools, and governments collect masses of data, words, pictures, and sounds, and the Internet makes much of that information available around the world at any hour of the day or night. An important branch of mathematics that is used to help efficiently store and retrieve information is set theory. Roughly speaking, a set is a collection of objects. There are many English words used to describe collections of things. We talk about families of people, flocks of birds, forests of trees, bands of musicians, and fleets of ships. To facilitate clear communication, mathematicians generally agree to use the single word set to talk about any well-defined collection of objects. While a precise treatment of sets requires setting up a system of axioms (assumptions), this informal definition of a set is sufficient for now. The individual members of a set are called its elements. It doesn t matter in which order the elements of a set are listed. 1. Sets are represented by listing or describing the elements of a set within braces (curly brackets). The elements can be any objects. For example, all of the following are sets: N = {2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13} P = {5, exponent, cube, dog} S = {triangle, square, point, prism, icosahedron} W = {illuminations.nctm.org, mathforum.org} If an element x is in a set A, write x A, which is read as x is an element of the set A or x is in A. To indicate that x is not an element of the set, the notation x is used. Two sets are said to be equal sets if and only if they have the same elements. a. How many elements are in each of sets N, P, S, and W above? LESSON 1 ACCESS THE MATHEMATICS OF INTERNET SEARCH ENGINES 579

3 b. Is {2, 3, 4} = {3, 4, 2}? Explain. c. Give an example of a set A that has the following properties: 5 A, 10 A, and A has five elements. 2. The elements in a set often share a common property. In such cases, you can define a set in terms of that property. There is specific notation, called setbuilder notation, that is used to do this. For example, A = {x x is an odd integer greater than 2 and less than 10} is read: A equals the set containing all elements x such that x is an odd integer greater than 2 and less than 10. Thus, A = {3, 5, 7, 9}. a. List the elements in each of the sets below. S = {x x is an integer and 2 x 5} P = {x x = 2 n, where n = 0, 1, 2, or 3} M = {x x is the name of a month that has exactly 30 days} b. Write each of the following sets using set-builder notation. S = {1, 4, 9, 16, 25} E = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10, } P = {triangle, quadrilateral, pentagon, hexagon} Set theory can be used to narrow an Internet search to a manageable number of sites. For example, a Web search in July, 2002 on the topic Music reported about 71,700,000 possible sites with relevant information. In making a Web search, you are defining a set the collection of those Web sites that have some common feature in which you are interested. There are three logical operators, AND, OR, and AND NOT, that help in focusing your search on the sites that might be most useful for a particular project. 3. What kinds of information would you expect to find from searches that look for Web sites meeting these combinations of conditions: a. music AND history b. music OR history c. music AND NOT videos d. rap OR rock AND music e. rap AND classical AND music 580 UNIT 9 INFORMATICS

4 4. Episodes I, II, and III of the Star Wars saga have been perhaps the most eagerly anticipated movies in recent years. There are many Web sites that have information about the Star Wars saga and its characters. a. What search conditions could you use to find information about the actors who played Star Wars fans await the premier of Episode II. Anakin in the Star Wars saga? b. How could you design a search to find information about box office receipts from the various Star Wars movies. c. How could you design a search to get information comparing Star Wars and Star Trek movies? When you use the words AND, OR, and AND NOT to define searches on the World Wide Web, what you are really doing is defining new sets of information that are combinations of existing sets. Information about Star Wars or any other topic is found on the Web by searching through lists of Web pages. There are two ways that these lists are created by people or by automated search engines. For a Web directory like Yahoo!, or About.com, people create at least some of the listings. You can submit a short description of a Web site that you would like listed, but not every Web site submitted will be listed. That is a decision made by the editors. The editors also include descriptions for selected sites that they review. When a user searches a Web directory, the search only looks for matches in the descriptions listed. Another way that lists of Web pages are created is by automated search engines. An automated search engine, like those used by AltaVista or Google has three basic components. A spider, or crawler, visits many Web pages, reads them, and returns on a regular basis to look for changes. Information gathered from the spider s visits goes into the search engine s index, which is like a giant book that contains a summary of every page that the spider finds. The third part of a search engine is the searching software that sifts through the millions of pages recorded in the index to find matches for your search. The searching software almost instantaneously finds Web pages relevant to what you are looking for, and ranks them in order of relevance. Of course, search engines don t always get it right, but their speed and accuracy is pretty amazing. There are sophisticated and proprietary methods that each individual search engine software uses, but they are all based on the same fundamental mathematics. Consider the following information, found on an AltaVista Help page in July, Note the first three logical or oolean operators at the top of the following Web page. LESSON 1 ACCESS THE MATHEMATICS OF INTERNET SEARCH ENGINES 581

5 5. According to the special search terms table above, if you search for peanut AND butter you will find documents that contain both the word peanut and the word butter. This corresponds to the set operation called intersection. The intersection of sets A and is the set containing all elements that are in both A and. This is denoted A and is read A intersect. Thus, A = {x x A and x }. Using sets and set intersection you can represent the search for peanut AND butter as follows: P = {x x is a document containing the word peanut } = {x x is a document containing the word butter } P = {x x is a document containing both the words peanut and butter } Venn diagrams (named for the nineteenth-century ritish mathematician John Venn) are a useful pictorial way to represent sets and intersections. The shaded region in the Venn diagram at the right represents P. a. Why does it make sense that P corresponds to the shaded region? P P 582 UNIT 9 INFORMATICS

6 b. Suppose that you wanted to do an Internet search for colleges in Minnesota. Represent this search using set notation and using a Venn diagram. c. Suppose that C = {1, 3, 4, 6, 8} and D = {2, 3, 4, 8, 10, 12}. Find C D. Draw a Venn diagram that illustrates this situation. 6. According to the special search terms table on page 582, if you search for peanut OR butter you will find documents containing either peanut or butter. The found documents could contain both words, but that is not required. This corresponds to the set operation called union. The union of sets A and is the set containing all elements that are in either A or (or both). This is denoted A and is read A union. Thus, A = {x x A or x }. Venn diagrams can also be used to represent the union of sets. The shaded region in the Venn diagram at the right represents A. a. Why does this representation make sense? A b. Represent the search for peanut OR butter A using set notation and using a Venn diagram. c. Suppose that C = {1, 3, 4, 6, 8} and D = {2, 3, 4, 8, 10, 12}. Find C D. Draw a Venn diagram that illustrates this situation. d. Suppose that you are shopping for a used sports car or convertible. You have entered a used-car-shopping Web site that has a built-in search engine. Describe the search you would do to find the types of cars in which you are interested. Describe the search in three ways: using a logical (oolean) expression, using the union of sets, and using a Venn vehicles dealer services motorsports events Vehicle Information Details: year 1998 \$18,625 31,525 miles White exterior Red interior Convertible Manual transmission 6-cyl, 2.5L engine 2 doors VIN J02AC52L8 Metro Sports Car 555 Main Drive Northfork, US (222) phone (222) fax Click here to make an inquiry. e. Suppose that a family is considering purchasing an SUV (sport-utility vehicle) or a minivan. They decide to research both types of vehicles. Draw a Venn diagram that illustrates a search in this situation. LESSON 1 ACCESS THE MATHEMATICS OF INTERNET SEARCH ENGINES 583

7 7. You can form unions and intersections of any number of sets. Consider the search example below. 1. Type your oolean expression here. Search Advanced Search Images MP3/Audio Video oolean query: (chinese OR japanese) AND cooking Search Sort by: Language: Advanced Search Cheat Sheet noodles peanuts carrots any language Show one result per Web site From: To: (e.g. 31/12/99) 2. Order your results by the words you type. 1. Type (chinese OR japanese) AND cooking in the oolean query box. This oolean expression will find all the documents containing Chinese cooking or Japanese cooking. 2. Type noodles peanuts carrots in the Sort by box. This step orders the cooking documents so that noodles peanuts and carrots appear at the top of your results. 3. Press the Search button. a. There are three steps listed in this search example. Represent the situation in Step 1 using union and intersection. Draw a Venn diagram that illustrates this situation. b. After completing the search shown, suppose you now want to find documents that include all three of these ingredients: noodles, peanuts, and carrots. Represent such a search using a oolean expression. Also represent this search with sets and illustrate the situation with a Venn diagram. 8. According to the special search terms table on page 582, if you search for peanut AND NOT butter you will find documents that contain the word peanut but do not contain the word butter. This corresponds to the set operation called set difference. The set difference of sets A and is the set containing all elements that are in A and are not in. This is denoted A and is read the difference of A and. a. Suppose that X = {1, 3, 4, 6, 8} and Y = {2, 3, 4, 8, 10, 12}. Find X Y. b. Write the definition of A using set-builder notation by completing the statement below. A = {x } c. Draw a Venn diagram that illustrates A. d. Use sets and the set difference operation to represent the search for peanut AND NOT butter. Draw a Venn diagram that illustrates this situation. e. Use sets and the set difference operation to represent the search for butter AND NOT peanut. Draw a Venn diagram that illustrates this situation. 584 UNIT 9 INFORMATICS

8 9. Joaquin s favorite types of music are Rock and lues. He is planning an Internet search to find information about these two types of music. a. Use three sets to represent a search that will find information about these types of music. Draw a Venn diagram that illustrates this situation. b. Joaquin is particularly interested in crossover artists who play both Rock and lues. Draw a Venn diagram that represents this situation. c. Joaquin s friend Tionne is a lues purist. She prefers lues artists who do not incorporate Rock. She does a search for such artists. Represent this search using sets and the appropriate set operation. Draw a Venn diagram that represents this situation. d. If you were actually doing an Internet search for these types of music, what search results might arise unrelated to your request? How could you modify your Internet search to reduce unwanted results? Checkpoint In this investigation, you learned about union and intersection of sets and set difference, and how these ideas are helpful in Internet searches. a b c What are the two common notational methods for defining a set? Logical operators like AND, AND NOT, and OR are used in many Internet search engines. Describe the relationship between each of these operators and set operations. For each of the three operators, describe an Internet search that would involve the operator. Shade regions on copies of this Venn diagram to represent each of the following sets: A C A C A ( C) A C e prepared to share your descriptions and Venn diagrams with the entire class. LESSON 1 ACCESS THE MATHEMATICS OF INTERNET SEARCH ENGINES 585

9 On Your Own The operations union, intersection, and difference combine two sets to give another set. a. Describe Internet searches that have not already been discussed that would involve the intersection of three sets; the difference of two sets. b. Consider the following sets. A = {2, 4, 6, 8, 3, 17, π} = {1, 3, 5, 7, 2, 8} Find A, A, A, and A. Draw Venn diagrams that illustrate these four set operations. Let E = {x x is an even number}. Find A E and A E. How are A E and A E related? There are some other relations involving sets that are not reflected in the special search terms table, but that are nevertheless important in many situations. You will investigate some of these ideas about sets in the following activities. 10. Another common set operation is set complement. The complement of a set is everything in the universe that is not in the set. The universe is defined by the universal set, which is the set of all objects that are under consideration. That is, the universal set defines the overall context. The complement of a set A is denoted as A and is read A complement or the complement of A. a. Let the universal set be U = {5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35}. Suppose A = {10, 20, 30} and = {5, 10, 15, 20}. Find A and (A ). b. Consider the universal set Z = {x x is an integer}. Find the complement of the set E = {x x is an even integer}. c. You can illustrate the universal set in a Venn diagram by drawing a large rectangle around the circles that represent the sets on which you are operating. Draw Venn diagrams that illustrate the situations in Parts a and b. 11. Use set operations to describe the set indicated by each Venn diagram. a. b. c. A A A C C C 12. A set A is a subset of set, denoted A, if and only if every element of A is also an element of. Consider the set N = {2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 11}. a. Is {5, 2} a subset of N? Why or why not? b. Is {4, 6, 8, 10} N? Why or why not? 586 UNIT 9 INFORMATICS

10 c. Write two other subsets of N. d. Is {2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 11} a subset of N? Justify your answer by using the definition of subset. e. In a search for used Chevrolet trucks on the Internet, think about three possible searching sets: T = {x x is a document containing the word truck } U = {x x is a document containing the phrase used truck } C = {x x is a document containing the word Chevrolet } Which of these sets is a subset of another set? Draw a Venn diagram that shows the relationships among these three sets. 13. A subset of a set that does not equal the set is called a proper subset. To indicate that a set A is a proper subset of a set, write A. a. Identify those subset relationships in Activity 12 that are proper subset relationships. b. Now consider A and A, where A and are any two sets. Is either A or A always a subset of the other? As you answer this question, consider the following questions and draw Venn diagrams to illustrate your claims. Is one a proper subset of the other? What happens if A =? What happens if A is a subset of? c. Next consider the sets A and A, where A and are any two sets. Is A or A always a subset of the other? As in Part b, consider subsets and proper subsets and draw Venn diagrams to illustrate your claims. 14. The set with no elements is called the empty set or null set, denoted by. Thus, = { }. a. Describe an Internet search whose result would probably be the empty set. b. In Unit 4, Counting Models, the empty set was considered a subset of every set. This may seem a bit strange, but it follows from the definition of a subset given in Activity 12. Prove that the empty set is a subset of every set. (Hint: One way to prove this is to think about how you would show that a set A is not a subset of a set.) 15. Two sets that do not share any elements are said to be disjoint. That is, sets A and are disjoint if and only if A =. State and explain whether the sets in each of the following pairs are disjoint. If the sets are not disjoint, draw a Venn diagram and describe the elements that are in the intersection. a. {1, 2, 4, 7, 9, 13, 55, 607} and { 3, 5, 0, 7} b. {x x is an even number} and {x x is an odd number} LESSON 1 ACCESS THE MATHEMATICS OF INTERNET SEARCH ENGINES 587

11 c. {x x is a Web page containing the word mathematics } and {x x is a Web page containing the word poetry } d. A and A Checkpoint In this lesson, you learned about sets, set operations, and relationships between sets. a b c d Suppose X = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}. Which of the following statements are true? Explain. 3 X {3} X 3 X {3} X If P, Q, R, and S are all subsets of a universal set U, what do each of the following expressions tell about the relationships among the sets? P R = P Q R = R S P S R = S Using the ideas of subset and disjoint, describe the relationships among A, A, and A. Draw Venn diagrams to illustrate the relationships. The main theme of informatics that you considered in this lesson is access. Explain why this issue is important in informatics. Explain what the topics you learned about in this lesson have to do with access. e prepared to share your thinking and Venn diagrams with the entire class. On Your Own Check your understanding of set operations and relationships by completing the following tasks. a. Use Venn diagrams similar to the one at the right to shade regions representing each of the following sets. A A A b. Let A = {3, 5, 10}. List all subsets of A. Which of the subsets that you listed are proper subsets? From the subsets that you listed, find two subsets that are disjoint. A U 588 UNIT 9 INFORMATICS

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