2 Tanulmányok T. Dobosi Viola tiszteletére Papers in honour of Viola T. Dobosi Szerkeszt!k: T. Biró Katalin & Markó András Edited by Katalin T. Biró & András Markó Gergely Katalin és Gyuriss Dániel közrem"ködésével with the contribution by Katalin Gergely and Dániel Gyuriss CD-változat elektronikus szerkesztés: Telcs Gábor CD version by Gábor Telcs Megjelent 2011-ben 1 db személyes nyomtatott példányban és CD kiadványként Kiadó: Magyar Nemzeti Múzeum, H-1088 Budapest, Múzeum krt Felel!s kiadó Dr. Csorba László f!igazgató Copyrights with the authors Editors K.T. Biró, A. Markó Hungarian National Museum Címlap: Katalin Nagy ISBN
3 TARTALOMJEGYZÉK Kovács Tibor: Paolo Biagi - Elisabetta Starnini: Mester Zsolt: Szolyák, Péter - Mester, Zsolt: Zandler Krisztián - Béres Sándor Markó András: Négy és fél évtizede a Magyar Nemzeti Múzeumban, közel és távol egymástól / Four and a half decades close and far in the spell of prehistory Neanderthals at the south-easternmost edge: the spread of Levalloisian Mousterian in the Indian Subcontinent A magyarországi középs! és fels! paleolitikum bifaciális levéleszközeinek technológiája / Technologie des pièces foliacées bifaces du Paléolithique moyen et supérieur de la Hongrie Középs! paleolitikus kaparó a miskolci Avas-hegyr!l (Görgey Artúr u. 4.) / Middle Palaeolithic side scraper from the Avas Hill, Miskolc (4 Görgey A. Street) Három nyíltszíni paleolit lel!hely revíziója: Bükkmogyorósd, Csokvaomány, Nekézseny / Revision of three open-air palaeolithic sites in the Bükk mountains, NE-Hungary Új szempontok a tarcali fels!-paleolitikus lel!hely értékeléséhez / Recent studies on the Upper Palaeolithic assemblage of Tarcal Citrom quarry Lengyel György: Béres Sándor: Kertész Róbert - Demeter Orsolya: Cs. Balogh Éva: Bácskay Erzsébet: The pebble, the block and the tabular. Lithic raw material use at Ságvár Lyukas-domb Upper Palaeolithic site / A kavics, a blokk és pad. K!-nyersanyag felhasználás Ságvár Lyukas-domb fels! paleolit telepen Néhány adalék Dömös!sk!korához: Piroska-d"l! és Pattantyús / New data on the palaeolithic of Dömös environs: Piroska-d"l! and Pattantyús Adatok a dunántúli kora mezolitikum k!iparának nyersanyagvizsgálatához: Szekszárd-Palánk / Contributions to raw material studies of the Transdanubian Early Mesolithic lithic industry: Szekszárd-Palánk Adatok a középs!-rézkori bodrogrkeresztúri kultúra pattintott k!eszközközeinek értékeléséhez / Data on the evaluation of the lithic implements of the Middle Copper Age Bodrogrkeresztúr Culture Mikroszkópikus használati nyomok vizsgálata!skori pattintott k!eszközökön, magyarországi lel!helyekr!l: Eddigi eredmények, lehet!ségek, feladatok / Study of microwear on Prehistoric chipped stone tools from Hungarian sites. Results, possibilities, perspectives Garam Éva: A t"z csiholója / Striker of fire
4 Sümegi Pál: Hiroyuki Sato: Modeling the relationship of the Upper Paleolithic communities and the environment of the Carpathian Basin during the Upper Würmian / A fels! paleolit közösségek és környezetük modellezése a Kárpát-medencében a fels! Würm idején Did the Japanese obsidian reach the Continental Russian Far East in the Upper Paleolithic? / Elérte-e a japán obszidián az orosz távolkeleti területeket a fels!-paleolitikumban? T. Biró Katalin: Comparative raw material collections in support of petroarchaeological studies: an overview / Összehasonlító nyersanyaggy"jtemények a petroarcheológiai vizsgálatok szolgálatában: áttekintés Johanna Trbska: Provenancing of red ferruginous artefacts and raw materials in Palaeolithic societies / Vastartarmú vörös ásványok és k!zetek eredetmeghatározása a paleolit közösségekben Bartosiewicz László: Ide nekem az oroszlánt is El!zetes jelentés az Ikrény Szilágyi tanya (Gy!r-Moson-Sopron megye) közelében talált pleisztocén oroszlánleletr!l / "Let me play the lion too". Preliminary report on the Pleistocene lion skull found near Ikrény Szilágyi tanya (Gy!r-Sopron-Moson County, Hungary) Bárány Annamária: #skori csonteszközök Vörs, Máriaasszony-szigetr!l / Prehistoric bone tools from Vörs, Máriaasszony-sziget Homola István: Ásóval az!sk!kori szerszámkészít!k nyomában Horváth Krisztina: Mogyorósbányától Acsáig Last minute: Gerhard Trnka The neolithic radiolarite mining site of Wien - Mauer- Antonshöhe (Austria) / Újk!kori radiolarit kitermel!hely Wien - Mauer-Antonshöhe (Ausztria)
5 NEANDERTHALS AT THE SOUTH-EASTERNMOST EDGE: THE SPREAD OF LEVALLOISIAN MOUSTERIAN IN THE INDIAN SUBCONTINENT PAOLO BIAGI AND ELISABETTA STARNINI Keywords: Levalloisian, Mousterian, Middle Palaeolithic, Homo neanderthalensis dispersal, Sindh, Indian Subcontinent Preface Several main intriguing questions are of major interest studying the prehistory of the early humans. After the spread of Homo erectus from Africa northwards into Europe, and eastwards into Asia, the next challenging enigma regards the dispersion of Neanderthals from Europe to the east. Despite the fact that skeletal remains of Homo neanderthalensis are rare in the Middle East, the Levalloisian Mousterian lithic technology that characterises the Neanderthal chipped stone industries is known indeed, starting from the Iberian Peninsula, to Central Asia. Anatomical distinctiveness and relative early divergence from other Homo sp., supported by mtdna evidence, suggest that Neanderthal lineage probably began its evolution as far back as 600 ky ago 1, although classical Neanderthals are considered only those living during the last Ice Age in Europe, from roughly 100 ky to 35 ky ago, or more broadly in Eurasia from some 200 ky, before mysteriously disappearing some 28,000 years ago 2. According to recent climatic reconstruction 3, during the Pre-Hengelo cold/dry events of the OIS 3, southern Europe was covered with a grass steppe. This means that two main routes were possibly utilised by human groups to reach the easternmost Eurasian regions and, from there, the Indian Subcontinent: the land bridge connecting the Balkans to Anatolia, and/or the corridor along the northern Black Sea shore, although also a southern route, across Arabia 4, should be taken into consideration, given the increasing evidence of Palaeolithic discoveries along the Yemen-Oman coastal belt 5, which suggest that the Middle Palaeolithic human dispersal was much more complicated than previously expected 6. However, a question mark constantly recurs on the maps depicting our current knowledge of the Indian Subcontinent 7 in relationship to the spread of Homo sp. The present paper is an attempt to discuss the current evidence of human occupation in Lower Sindh (Pakistan) during the Middle Pleistocene, which is demonstrated by the recovery of chipped stone assemblages with evident Levallois characteristics. Middle Pleistocene lithic technology in the Indian Subcontinent The research carried out during the last decade in the Indian Subcontinent and Arabian Peninsula has greatly contributed to achieving a better 1 KRINGS et al ZILHÃO 2010a. 3 DAVIES et al ROSE 2007; ARMITAGE et al ROSE 2004; AMIRKHANOV PETRAGLIA HENKE 2006, Abb. 4
6 6 BIAGI AND STARNINI knowledge of the Middle Palaeolithic in the study region, and answering a few questions as to the origin, and suggested provenance, of the Middle Palaeolithic assemblages 8, their chronology 9, variable structural composition and cultural affiliation 10. Following a traditional view, in the Indian Subcontinent the Acheulian slowly evolved into the Middle Palaeolithic by shedding some of the tool types and by incorporating new forms and new techniques 11. Given its characteristics, some authors do not include it in the Mousterian complexes 12, while others attribute the Middle Palaeolithic assemblages of peninsular India to the Nevasian 13. Nevertheless, where long sequences are known, the Middle Palaeolithic layers are stratified between Early Palaeolithic (Acheulian) and Late (Upper) Palaeolithic (so-called microlithic) complexes 14, following a sequential terminology proposed more than 50 years ago 15. They have been recently subdivided into three main developmental phases 16, from most of which the typical Levalloisian reduction technique is almost absent. According to the few absolute dates so far available, Middle Palaeolithic complexes are represented in the region since roughly 150 ky, while the Late (Upper) Palaeolithic ones make their appearance at least just after 40 ky from the present 17, although the dispersal of modern individuals, following a coastal route, is suggested to have taken place some 10 ky before 18. The problem related to the makers of the Middle Palaeolithic tools is still debated 19, mainly because of the absence of fossil human remains of this period in the entire Subcontinent 20. One of the most important issues consists of the south-easternmost spread of the Neanderthal Levalloisian assemblages that is so far badly defined. Although typical Levalloisian Mousterian 8 PETRAGLIA ALSHAREKH 2003; ROSE MISRA PETRAGLIA et al MISRA 2001, ALLCHIN et al. 1978, KHATRI 1962; ALLCHIN ALLCHIN 1997, HANNAH PETRAGLIA 2005; PETRAGLIA et al SUBBARAO 1956; ALLCHIN PAL 2002, MISHRA FIELD et al HASLAM et al STOCK et al industries are known from south-eastern Arabia 21, Iran 22, Afghanistan 23, and former Soviet Central Asia 24, characteristic Levalloisian assemblages are almost unknown in the Indian Subcontinent, except for a few surface sites in Lower Sindh and the Indus Valley, which have been discussed in a recent paper 25. Furthermore the more recent studies seem to support the impression that the early Middle Palaeolithic (or Middle Stone Age) of India and Nepal probably developed indigenously 26, which suggests the existence of a distinctive boundary between the west and the east marked by the axis of Indus river valley. The Levalloisian finds from Lower Sindh Levalloisian assemblages are known from a few localities of Lower Sindh (Fig. 1.), the most important of which is Ongar (otherwise known in the literature as Milestone ), discovered by W.A. Fairservis Jr. 28, and later published by B. Allchin. Fig. 1.: Distribution map of the Levalloisian sites, or single tools, so far discovered in Lower Sindh. Ongar (1), Mulri Hills, Karachi (2), Deh Konkar (3), Landhi (4), Arzi Got (5). 21 CREMASCHI NEGRINO PIPERNO DUPREE et al. 1970; DAVIS RANOV GUPTA BIAGI DENNELL 2009, ALLCHIN 1976, FAIRSERVIS 1975,77.
7 THE SPREAD OF LEVALLOISIAN MOUSTERIAN IN THE INDIAN SUBCONTINENT 7 Fig. 2.: Ongar: Levallois cores from R. Khan s collection (from BIAGI 2006, fig. 2). On its limestone terraces she discovered Palaeolithic assemblages and workshops of different periods, among which are Middle Palaeolithic ones 29. The area was revisited by A.R. Khan in the early 1970s, when the sites were being destroyed due to the opening of limestone quarries 29 ALLCHIN 1976.
8 8 BIAGI AND STARNINI Fig. 3.: Ongar: Levallois artefacts from R. Khan s collection (from BIAGI, 2006, fig. 4). for industrial exploitation. During his rescue visits Professor A.R. Khan collected an impressive quantity of Palaeolithic tools, among which are typical Levalloisian cores, (retouched) points, blades, flakes and different types of scrapers (Figs. 2. and 3.). The above author was the first to signal the presence of the Levalloisian industry in the area beyond any doubt 30 in Sindh. 30 KHAN 1979b, 80.
9 THE SPREAD OF LEVALLOISIAN MOUSTERIAN IN THE INDIAN SUBCONTINENT 9 Fig. 4.: Ongar: the area that yielded Levallois artefacts (re)discovered in 2006 (photograph by P. Biagi). Fig. 5.: Ongar: Levallois flakes and blades from the 2006 (re)discovered area (photograph by P. Biagi). After studying some of the finds collected by A.R. Khan in the Museum of Prehistory and Palaeogeography, Karachi University, one of the authors (PB) systematically surveyed the Ongar region between 2005 and Although it was impossible to define the precise locations from which A.R. Khan collected Levalloisian implements, identical assemblages, characterised by a thick, white patina, were recovered from the upper profile of the terraces of a seasonal stream that flows eastwards, from the limestone mesas down to the village and the national road (Fig. 4). These latter finds, which are represented exclusively by Levallois flakes and blades, are also covered with a thick white patina, although they show a few concassage detachments due to a certain shifting from their original deposition (Fig. 5). Other typical, small Levalloisian assemblages, or isolated finds, come from the region immediately to the east of Karachi: among them are the Mulri Hills, Landhi, Deh Konkar 32 and the Laki Range 33. One more characteristic Levallois flake was found on the surface of a limestone terrace, close to the Baloch village of Arzi along the national road, north of Hyderabad 34. All the Levallois assemblages so far recovered from Lower Sindh come from the region west of the 31 BIAGI 2005; BIAGI FRANCO KHAN 1979a, BIAGI BIAGI course of the Indus. Although other Palaeolithic sites are known from this province, the richest of which are the Rohri Hills 35, it is important to point out that none of the Palaeolithic industries from these latter sites ever yield any typical Levallois tool. Discussion Recent research carried out on the skeletal fossil remains of Europe strongly supports the designation of Neanderthals as a separate species, i.e. Homo neanderthalensis, which gave no contribution to the evolution of modern Europeans 36. Also from the point of view of the lithic techno-typology and the use of raw materials, an abrupt change can be noticed in Eurasia at the onset of the Aurignacian, which has no connections with the Levalloisian-Mousterian techno-typology, supporting the theory of the replacement of Neanderthals with anatomically modern humans. Although the situation is still far from being clear and is rather controversial 37, if we move to the east, the picture is even more complicated, due to the absence of human fossil remains and limited fieldwork. The archaeological evidence gathered in the last years by the Italian expedition in Sindh has contributed to fill the gap, and shed some light on 35 ALLCHIN 1976; NEGRINO KAZI HARVATI et al ZILHÃO 2010b.
10 10 BIAGI AND STARNINI the south-easternmost spread of the Neanderthal Levalloisian. The Levalloisian assemblages discovered in Sindh, which display very characteristic features, among which are facetted and chapeau de gendarme butts, can be attributed to Middle Palaeolithic human activity in the area, most probably related with the south-easternmost spread of Homo neanderthalensis. This species might have reached the Indian Subcontinent either from the Anatolia-Caucasus-Mesopotamia corridor, or across the southern regions of the Arabia Peninsula, where Levalloisian, Middle Palaeolithic sites are known to date 38. The reason why their spread most probably did not go beyond the Indus delta might derive from a geographical barrier, as it has already been suggested for the dispersal of modern humans along the western coastline of the Indian Subcontinent 39. Acknowledgements The authors are very grateful to Mir Atta Mohammad Talpur, Mir Ghulam Rasool Talpur, Mir Ahmed Farooq Talpur, Mir Abdul Rehman Talpur and Mir Akhtar Talpur, for their patronage and all their efforts to make the Ongar surveys possible. Many thanks are also due to the former Vicechancellor of Sindh University, Prof. Mazharul Haq Siddiqui, and the former Director of the Institute of Sindhology, Mr. Shoukat Shoro, who provided accommodation and every sort of facilities at Sindh University Campus, Jamshoro. Thanks are also due to Dr. C. Franco (Ca Foscari University, Venice - I), who took part in the 2007 fieldwork season, and Prof. A.R. Khan and B. Talat (Department of Geography, Karachi University - PK), who allowed the study of the Palaeolithic assemblages stored in the collections of the Museum of Prehistory and Palaeogeography of the same University, and provided accommodation at Karachi University Campus in Special thanks to the Prehistoric Society (London - UK), Prof. G. Traversari and the CeVeSCO (Venice - I), and the Ligabue Foundation (Venice - I) that sponsored and financed the archaeological fieldwork seasons at Ongar. Last but not least we are grateful to our friend Barbara A. Voytek who kindly improved the English version of the text. 38 PETRAGLIA-ALSHAREKH STOCK et al. 2007, figure 1.
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