1 Susan Littrell, LICSW, LADC, Certified Co-Occurring Disorders Professional Diplomate Hennepin County Community Outreach for Psychiatric Emergencies (COPE)
2 Discuss the prevalence of co-occurring disorders Contrast co-occurring treatment with traditional addiction treatment Give a rationale for integrated treatment Describe the principles of integrated treatment for co-occurring disorders
3 The term Co-Occurring Disorders refers to substance use (abuse or dependence) and mental disorders occurring together in one person. Clients said to have co-occurring disorders have 1. one or more disorders relating to the use of alcohol and/or drugs of abuse and 2. one or more mental disorders. At least one disorder of each type must be established independently of the other and is not simply a cluster of symptoms resulting from one disorder (or one type of disorder).
5 Addiction is a primary, chronic disease of brain reward, motivation, memory and related circuitry. Dysfunction in these circuits leads to characteristic biological, psychological, social and spiritual manifestations. This is reflected in an individual pathologically pursuing reward and/or relief by substance use and other behaviors. Addiction is characterized by inability to consistently abstain, impairment in behavioral control, craving, diminished recognition of significant problems with one s behaviors and interpersonal relationships, and a dysfunctional emotional response. Like other chronic diseases, addiction often involves cycles of relapse and remission. Without treatment or engagement in recovery activities, addiction is progressive and can result in disability or premature death.
6 Studies in substance abuse settings have found that from 50 to 75 percent of clients have some type of mental disorder. Studies in mental health settings have found that between 25 and 50 percent of their clients have or had a co-occurring substance use disorder. Experts in this field assert that co-occurring disorders should be the expectation, not the exception in any behavioral health setting. (Source: SAMHSA s TIP 42)
7 50% of homeless adults with serious mental illnesses have a co-occurring substance abuse disorder 16% of jail and prison inmates are estimated to have COD Among detainees with mental disorders, 72% have a co-occurring SUD NAMI 2011
8 Drug abuse can cause a mental illness Mental illness can lead to drug abuse Drug abuse and mental disorders are caused by other common risk factors
9 Overlapping genetic vulnerabilities Overlapping environmental triggers Involvement of similar brain regions Drug abuse and mental illness are developmental disorders
10 Childhood risk factors such as poverty, family discord, and pre and postnatal complications appear to be implicated in both mental illness and substance use. Between 51 and 97 percent of women with serious mental illness have been physically or sexually abused. 41 to 71 percent of women treated for alcohol or drug use report being sexually abused.
11 More relapses, re-hospitalization, depression, suicides, violence, housing instability and homelessness, treatment noncompliance, HIV, family burden, increased service utilization and certainly difficulty and/or inability to acquire and maintain gainful employment. Clients with co-occurring disorders tend to develop even worse and more expensive problems.
13 Four general approaches have been tried: 1. Not at all referred out to treatment for the other problem or refused care entirely. 2. Sequential Treatment one type of disorder treated at a time, in separate settings. 3. Concurrent or Parallel Treatment treatment for both types of disorder offered at the same time but in separate settings and by separate providers. 4. Integrated Treatment both types of disorder assessed and treated together in specialized settings by providers possessing competency in the treatment of both types of disorder and integrated treatment.
14 Mental Health Leadership Doctors Staffing psychologists, clinical social workers Role of medications Impact of behavior therapy Knowledge of SUD & their treatment is minimal Role of self-help-minimal Substance Use Recovery persons Paraprofessionals Role of medications & behavioral therapy-minimal Knowledge of psychiatric disorders minimal Role of self-help--substantial
15 1. Addiction System vs. Mental Health System 2. Integrated Treatment vs. Parallel or Sequential Treatment 3. Care vs. Confrontation 4. Abstinence-oriented vs. Abstinencemandated 5. Deinstitutionalization vs. Recovery and Rehabilitation
16 MH Professionals need to remember 3 D s Deadly disease Denial Detachment SUD Counselors need to remember 3 P s Psychiatric Disorders Psychopharmacology Process David Mee-Lee ICRC 10/2012
17 Co-occurring mental health disorders are often placed on a continuum of severity. Non-severe: early in the continuum and can include mood disorders, anxiety disorders, adjustment disorders and personality disorders. Severe: include schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, schizoaffective disorder and major depressive disorder.
18 High severity Less severe mental disorder/ more severe substance abuse disorder More severe mental disorder/ more severe substance abuse disorder A 4-quadrant framework to guide systems integration and resource allocation (NASMHPD, NASADAD, 1998; Ries, 1993; SAMHSA Report to Congress, 2002) Low severity Less severe mental disorder/ less severe substance abuse disorder More severe mental disorder/ less severe substance abuse disorder High severity Not intended to be used to classify individuals (SAMHSA, 2002), but... 18
19 An approach to treating co-occurring disorders that utilizes one competent treatment team at the same facility to recognize and address all mental health and substance use disorders at the same time.
20 The integrated model of treatment can best be defined by the following seven components: 1) Integration
21 The integrated model of treatment can best be defined by the following seven components: 1) Integration 2) Comprehensiveness
22 The integrated model of treatment can best be defined by the following seven components: 1) Integration 2) Comprehensiveness 3) Assertiveness
23 The integrated model of treatment can best be defined by the following seven components: 1) Integration 2) Comprehensiveness 3) Assertiveness 4) Reduction of negative consequences
24 The integrated model of treatment can best be defined by the following seven components: 1) Integration 2) Comprehensiveness 3) Assertiveness 4) Reduction of negative consequences 5) Long-term perspective
25 The integrated model of treatment can best be defined by the following seven components: 1) Integration 2) Comprehensiveness 3) Assertiveness 4) Reduction of negative consequences 5) Long-term perspective 6) Motivation-based treatment
26 The integrated model of treatment can best be defined by the following seven components: 1) Integration 2) Comprehensiveness 3) Assertiveness 4) Reduction of negative consequences 5) Long-term perspective 6) Motivation-based treatment 7) Multiple psychotherapeutic modalities
27 Reduced need for coordination Reduced frustration for clients Shared decision-making responsibilities Families and significant others are included Transparent practices help everyone involved share responsibility Clients are empowered to treat their own illness and manage their own recover The client and his/her family has more choice in treatment, more ability for selfmanagement, and a higher satisfaction with care
28 One disorder does not necessarily present as primary. There isn t necessarily a causal relationship between co-occurring disorders. These are co-occurring brain diseases that need to be treated simultaneously.
29 Case Example 1: María, in treatment for addiction but also with unrecognized cooccurring major depressive disorder, is labeled resistant and unmotivated by staff. Case Example 2: Sam, in treatment for addiction but also with co-occurring paranoid schizophrenia, has difficulty tolerating group sessions, bonding with other members of his group, and fitting in at AA meetings.
30 Everyone entering systems of care is screened for both mental illness and substance use
31 CAGE CAGE-AID GAIN-SS K6
32 SA problems in people with serious mental conditions often present very differently than in people without MH disorders MH clients often are unable to use as much alcohol or drugs as a person without such problems. For instance it is fairly common for addicts to drink a case of beer, a fifth of whisky, or use two grams of coke in one binge. Yet people with serious mental conditions may use substances at a much lesser level and then go unnoticed in a typical screening (Mueser et al., 2003)
33 Case Example 1: José presents with restless-ness, agitation, anxiety, and tremulousness. Mental health providers may tend to suspect an anxiety disorder or a manic episode. Substance abuse providers may tend to suspect amphetamine intoxication or sedative withdrawal. Integrated care providers suspect and investigate all of these possibilities and are sensitive to the additional issues that clients with co-occurring disorders may face.
34 Case Example 2: Ellen presents with depressed mood, tearfulness, and psychomotor retardation. Mental health providers may tend to suspect a mood disorder major depressive episode or dysthymic disorder. Substance abuse providers may tend to suspect amphetamine withdrawal or alcohol or sedative intoxication. Integrated care providers suspect and investigate all of these possibilities and are sensitive to the additional issues that clients with co-occurring disorders may face.
35 Case Example 3: George presents with hallucinations and paranoid ideation. Mental health providers may tend to suspect a psychotic disorder i.e., paranoid schizophrenia. Substance abuse providers may tend to suspect amphetamine psychosis or hallucinogen intoxication. Integrated care providers suspect and investigate all of these possibilities and are sensitive to the additional issues that clients with co-occurring disorders may face.
36 Case Example 4: Bob presents with grandiosity, excess energy, and serious legal and debt problems. Mental health providers may tend to suspect bipolar disorder (manic phase). Substance abuse providers may tend to suspect amphetamine intoxication and dependence. Integrated care providers suspect and investigate all of these possibilities and are sensitive to the additional issues that clients with co-occurring disorders may face.
37 1. Engage the client 2. Identify and Contact Collaterals 3. Screen for and Detect Co-occurring Disorders 4. Determine Quadrant and Locus of Responsibility 5. Determine Level of Care 6. Determine Diagnosis 7. Determine Disability and Functional Impairment
38 8. Identify Strengths and Supports 9. Identify Cultural and Linguistic Needs and Supports 10. Identify Problem Domains 11. Determine Stage of Change 12. Plan treatment
39 Trauma related disorders: Clients with SMI and Substance disorders= Men: 50% Women: 85%
40 1. Understand as much as you can about co-occurring disorders and effective treatment options 2. DO NOT JUDGE people that you are serving. Most MH clients are living in poverty, with severe symptoms and medication side effects, and they have little to enjoy. It is no wonder then that many turn to using alcohol or drugs to find some enjoyment/relief or to help them to cope
41 3. Listen, ask questions, provide hope for a better life, link life consequences with substance use if appropriate, encourage abstinence 4. Some programs have an integrated model..some do not. If not, you may advocate to the administration on behalf of the individuals you serve. Perhaps most importantly, get clients linked with community self-help
42 Meet the recipients where they re at Acknowledge and allow them to have emotional, cognitive, behavioral and intellectual limitations Develop action plans according to where they are and not where you think they should be Set the client up to succeed not fail
43 Desire and willingness to work with people who have COD Appreciation of the complexity of COD Openness to new information Awareness of personal reactions and feelings Recognition of the limitations of one s own personal knowledge and expertise Recognition of the value of client input in to treatment goals and receptivity to client feedback.
44 Patience, perseverance, and therapeutic optimism Ability to employ diverse theories, concepts, models, and methods Flexibility of approach Cultural competence Belief that all individuals have strengths and are capable of growth and development Recognition of the rights of clients with COD, including the right and need to understand assessment results and the treatment plan
45 Stages of Change/Motivational Interviewing. Harm Reduction. Mutual Self-Help Programs. Consumer-Delivered Services. Specialty Courts (Drug Court, Mental Health Court, Co-occurring Disorders Court). Specialized Services for Homeless Populations. Group Treatment. Family Treatment.
46 Common dual-recovery group models generally use a step-wise recovery framework that is similar but different from the AA model These are four organizations you may come across: Double Trouble in Recovery (DTR) Dual Disorders Anonymous Dual Recovery Anonymous Dual Diagnosis Anonymous They are all fellowship style, self support organizations led by members (CSAT, 2005)
47 Avoiding Blame of Clients 1. Can interfere with clinicians continuing efforts to help 2. Can pollute working alliance 3. Client internalizes blame
48 Clients with persistent co-occurring disorders have numerous other handicaps such as: Cognitive deficits Lack of social supports Trauma history Poverty Poor motivation
49 Acknowledging That Clients Are Doing the Best They Can Taking a Long-Term Perspective
50 Substance Abuse Treatment For Persons With Co-Occurring Disorders TIP 42 SAMSHSA website (free) BKD515 Integrated Treatment for Dual Disorders by Mueser, Noordsy, Drake, and Fox Guilford Press Seeking Safety: A Treatment Manual for PTSD and Substance Abuse by Lisa Najavits Guilford Press Dual Diagnosis: Counseling the Mentally Ill Substance Abuser by Evans and Sullivan Guilford Press
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