GILGIT CITY. Report by: Architect Marium Karrar Architect Affan Iqbal. Page 1

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1 2011 GILGIT CITY Report by: Architect Marium Karrar Architect Affan Iqbal Page 1

2 Report on Gilgit City (OCT 2011) Research Supervisor Prof. Dr. Noman Ahmed And Architect Asiya Polack Research Partner An assignment undertaken by the U.N-Habitat & Department of Architecture and Planning, NED University of Engineering and Technology (DAP-NED- UET), Karachi Research Team Members Architect Mariam Karrar, Architect Affan Iqbal, Architect Aisha Rasheed DAP-NED-UET Report Writing & Compilation Architect Mariam Karrar, Architect Affan Iqbal, Architect Sarosh Mubarak DAP-NED-UET Address: Urban Research & Design Cell (URDC), Department of Architecture and Planning, City Campus NED University of Engineering and Technology, Maulana Din Mohammed Wafai Road, Behind DJ. Science College, Karachi Contact numbers: , (fax) E mail: Page 2

3 TABLE OF CONTENTS Executive summary Describing the context Governance Environment Climate Air Quality Mountains Water shed areas Scenic sites Natural resources Water resources Minerals Precious and semi precious stones Vegetation/Forest cover Natural disasters Seismology Floods Land sliding River and stream bank erosion Avalanches 1.3 Economy Water- hydro power Agriculture Tourism Labor force Land utilization Production output 1.4 Culture and heritage Links to ancient civilizations Tourism Heritage Skills 2. Describing the city Geographical context Landuse zones Residential Commercial Amenities Page 3

4 2.2.4 Agriculture 2.3 Transport Evolution of city Categorization of housing Social mapping Religion Languages spoken 3. Introduction to the case studies Objectives Research Methodology Cases selection About the Cases within region Major findings 4. Intervention areas a) Mechanism/ Responsibility b) Implementing Agency Land and housing i. Present situation ii. Present Support iii. Intervention 2. Water supply and sanitation Water supply i. Present situation 2.2. Sewerage system i. Present situation ii. Present Support for Water and Sanitation iii. Intervention 2.3.Municipal solid waste i. Present situation ii. Intervention 2.4. Drainage system i. Present situation ii. Intervention 3. Energy i. Present situation ii. Present Support Page 4

5 iii. Intervention 4. Traffic and transport i. Present situation ii. Intervention 5. Urban horticulture i. Present situation ii. Present Support iii. Intervention 5. Impact Analysis Land and housing 2. Water supply and sanitation 3. Municipal solid waste (SWM) 4. Drainage system 5. Energy 6. Traffic and transport 7. Urban horticulture Socio-economic analysis Appendices Appendix 01: Cases of housing Case study no 01: Inner city- City center Case study no 02: City- Mujahid Colony Case study no 03: Periphery Daniyor Appendix 02: Matrices Matrix 1: Environmental Conditions Matrix 2: Housing Conditions Appendix 03: Indicators Matrices Appendix 04: Bibliography Appendix 05: Presentation thumbnails 28 th July Appendix 06: Design intervention proposal Appendix 07: Socio-economic data Appendix 08: Socio-economic data graphs Page 5

6 LIST OF FIGURES: S.NO TITLE PG.NO 1 Map showing the mountains of Asia 12 2 Map showing situation of Gilgit City within the context of Pakistan 14 3 Gilgit-Baltistan Assembly 15 4 Map showing districts of Gilgit-Baltistan 16 5 Views showing environment of the Gilgit city 20 6 Mountains of the northern areas 21 7 Gilgit Bridge 22 8 Daniyor suspension bridge 23 9 Gilgit River Views of vegetation in the city Map showing potential hazard area of Gilgit District Landslide in 2010 caused damage to a home in Naikoie Condition after land sliding Map showing potential landslide areas of Gilgit District Map showing hazard types, risks and class in the union council of Nomal- Nalter Level of risk from natural disasters to critical facilities in the Gilgit district Level of risk from natural disasters to livelihood sources in the Gilgit district Pie-chart showing economic division of sectors in the city Road map to Gilgit showing important destinations Karakoram, Hindukush and Himalayan Mountains View of Nanga Parbat Mountain Views of Baltit Fort, Hunza Passing through a road in Gilgit city 48 Page 6

7 24 Map showing Mountain ranges of Gilgit Baltistan Map showing primary roads of Gilgit city Views of Gilgit River Views of Gilgit River Map showing connection between different areas of city Views of Residential areas of the city Views of main commercial area of the city Aga Khan School for boys, Gilgit View of Polo Ground Views of different recreational spaces View of Agricultural lands View of a major road Different modes of transport Views of various bridges in the city BACIP low cost construction method for a house View of a garbage dump inside a housing colony Condition of drainage line along the road View of a Hydropower plant Map showing projects in operation in Northern Areas View of a road Map showing bigger loop- Public transport Map Showing Smaller Loop Public Transport View of agricultural land Map showing major roads of Gilgit city and the case study area # Picture showing entrance of NLI (Northern Light Infantry Regiment) Market Picture showing Ghari Chowk 114 Page 7

8 50 Picture showing NLI road Picture showing G+4 Commercial building View of NLI market View of condition of Nagaral colony Construction of a new RCC bridge to link to the north bank Map showing Landuse of the Case study area Map showing Amenities of the Case study area Map showing road networks of the Case study area View of Mujahid colony Map showing major roads and location of case study area no Morphology of the area View of a street Map showing landuse of the Case study area Map showing amenities of the Case study area View of garbage dump along the street Map showing road networks of the Case study area View of open spaces inside the area View of a house of the area Map showing major roads and location of the case study area no View of Daniyor Pul and suspension bridge View of Gilgit River View of internal streets of the area Map showing road networks of the Case study area Map showing landuse and amenities of the Case study area Map showing major roads of the Case study area View of a house of the area 156 Page 8

9 LIST OF MAPS: S.NO TITLE PG.NO 1 Tehsil and city boundary 19 2 Topography 49 3 Landuse Zones 52 4 Landuse 59 5 Transport 64 6 Planned- unplanned 68 7 Sectarian division 70 8 Open- built map 82 9 Water supply system Drainage system 89 Page 9

10 LIST OF TABLES: S.NO TITLE PG.NO 1 Showing districts of Gilgit Baltistan 16 2 Showing population statistics of Gilgit districts 17 3 Showing rural-urban distribution of Gilgit district 17 4 Showing population comparison of Gilgit district in 1981, 1998 and Showing projected population of Gilgit city 18 6 Showing sect wise population of Gilgit Baltistan and Gilgit city 18 7 Temperature variations throughout the year 20 8 Estimated air pollutants by sector 21 9 Forest cover area in Northern areas Gilgit district forest cover area, type and significance Forest Nurseries in Northern Areas, Forest Under Government Jurisdiction, 1997 Northern Areas Types of disasters and their related statistics Types of disasters and their frequency in Gilgit Earthquake dates and statistics Stream Flow Measurements in the Upper Indus River Information about hydropower plants Information about hydropower plants Status of Agriculture in Northern Area (2001) Statistics for hotel industry in Gilgit Percentage of Migrants from other Province / Within Northern Areas by Rural / 40 Urban, Land use in Agricultural Sector Land Utilization Statistics Tourism related statistics of year 2008 and Peaks of northern areas and their altitudes Glaciers of Northern areas Information on archaeological heritage of northern areas Showing health facilities in Gilgit city Showing cholera cases and deaths reported in Gilgit city 55 Page 10

11 30 Showing educational facilities in Gilgit city Showing educational facilities in Gilgit city Showing number of farms and cultivated land area Showing number of cultivated land area for different vegetables Shows Numbers and Types of Vehicles in Northern Areas, Showing number of vehicles in Gilgit city from year Land price of 1 kanal plot in inner city, main city and periphery Gilgit city population and projected water demands Gilgit villages sanitation related statistics Major government and non-government water supply schemes in Northern Areas and 85 Chitral by 2001 a summary 40 Gilgit city population and power consumption /person/day Gilgit city existing and proposed population and power consumption /person/day Gilgit city current demand for electricity and its production statistics Gilgit district farmlands area Gilgit district farmlands and livestock land utilization 98 Page 11

12 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This report is part of the Eight Secondary Cities of Pakistan, supported by the UN Habitat project and the NED University Department of Architecture and Planning. The aim of this study is to develop a comprehensive data on the significance of these cities as urban centres within their respective provinces. The following report is the case of Gilgit City, the administrative and commercial capital of the province Gilgit-Baltistan. The unique feature about this city and its surroundings is the backdrop of one of the most ecological sensitive, scenic, ancient inland trade routes. Gilgit-Baltistan is situated within the Karakorum Range, consisting of the three largest glaciers outside the Polar Regions, and highest mountain systems of the world that include the Karakorum, Himalayas, Pamir s, and the Hindukush. This high altitude region is also a politically strategic region with borders sharing with Afghanistan, China's, India. (See map below) Figure 1: Map showing the mountains of Asia Page 12

13 Geologically the Karakorum is also considered as the highest desert in the world. However, the water ways and the glacial add greenery to the valley before joining up with the Indus River. It is this mighty Indus that runs down stream all the way to the Arabian Sea that acts as the water source and life line for the entire country. Therefore anything that impacts the delicate ecological balance of the environment has its bigger impact on the entire country and the region. Within this contrasting geographical setting situated along the ancient Silk Route is the Gilgit City. Gilgit City is the biggest commercial hub, trading centre from pre British times, and beyond which there is no big town or city within a distance of about 450 Kilometers in any direction. This aspect adds to the strategic economic, political and social hub of the Gilgit- Baltistan. The last 30 years has seen a revolutionary development in the area by the construction of the Karakorum Highway and the development initiatives by the Aga Khan Development Network. This has been coupled with the patronage of recent provincial status and autonomy in 2009 and Gilgit City became the provincial capital of Gilgit Baltistan. With the growing political, economic status, Gilgit is facing the pull of population and growth pressure. The following report is an attempt at compiling data on the urbanization process of Gilgit and tapping in the natural potentials of one of the most resourceful and scenic regions of Pakistan. Page 13

14 1. DESCRIBING THE CONTEXT Gilgit-Baltistan 1.1. GOVERNANCE: Gilgit-Baltistan formerly known as the Northern Areas is the northern most political entity within Pakistan. It is situated between north latitudes and to east longitudes. Gilgit Baltistan is now considerd as a separate province. Till 2009, the region was ruled under the NWFP/FATA government. 1 The announcement of the Gilgit-Baltistan empowerment and selfgovernance order by the government in 2009 enabled this region into Pakistan s political mainstream National Asembley / Provincial assembly Figure 2: Map showing situation of Gilgit City within the context of Pakistan Under the current dispensation a newly elected assembly has elected a chief minister and a governor that is appointed by the federal government. The Governor, who is the constitutional head of provincial government, assisted by an executive Chief Minister and its council of ministers. It is for the first time that the region enjoys its own setup with an empowered legislature under the Gilgit-Baltistan Legislative Assembly (GBLA). The local government system is based on a Legislative Council (Provincial Assembly), elected by people in all six districts through voting, headed by a speaker. The Chief Secretary is administrative head of all departments, controlling all the affairs on behalf of chief minister Government of Pakistan. The main judicial structure in Gilgit-Baltistan comprises a High Court, composed of three judges selected by the government, supported by the Supreme Appellate Court. Inspector General of Police, currently, heads the police department, with deputy superintendents in all seven districts. 1 AyNXTz9jE0NfQwNLE_2CbEdFACM6vXU!/?WCM_PORTLET=PC_7_UFJPCGC20OUQE02ET9FMPJ30O0_WCM&WCM _GLOBAL_CONTEXT=/wps/wcm/connect/CabDivCL/division/aboutdivision/pphi Page 14

15 Figure 3: Gilgit-Baltistan Assembly Jurisdictions The province of Gilgit-Baltistan is divided into 7 districts. The names of the districts are as follows: 1. Ghanche 2. Skardu 3. Gilgit 4. Diamir 5. Ghizar 6. Astore 7. Hunza- Nagar Page 15

16 Table 1: Showing districts of Gilgit Baltistan Figure 4: Map showing districts of Gilgit-Baltistan Page 16

17 Meanwhile, the adminstration at the district level is being headed by the local government system is based on a Legislative Council (Provincial Assembly), elected by people in all six districts through voting, headed by a speaker. From 2009 onwards the district adminstration was elected, and headed by the District Nazim and the Naib Nazim. Gilgit District is one of the districts of the federal territory of Gilgit-Baltistan in northern Pakistan. It was formed in 1970 when Gilgit-Baltistan was federally administered as the "Northern Areas". The Gilgit District includes 3 sub divisions of Gilgit, Hunza and Nagar. It also includes many small villages like Minapin, Hope and Hispar etc. Gilgit-City is administrated by the elected Town Nazim and the Naib Nazim. However the administration of the city is under the Town Municipal Authority, headed by the Town Municipal Officer. The various responsibilities of the TMO include solid waste management, water supply, sanitation, civic law enforcement, maintenance of roads and infrastructure Demographics According to the 1998 census report the overall population of Northern Areas (Gilgit-Baltistan) is 8, 84,000 with an average growth rate of 2.56% per annum. Out of this total, 85.7% (757200) reside in the rural areas while only 14.3% (126600) reside in the urban centers. The average annual growth rate of urban and rural population during is 5.88 and 2.16 percent respectively. The overall literacy rate of Gilgit-Baltistan is 37.85%. The population density for the province of Gilgit-Baltistan is 24.8 persons per sq km. According to which the total population of Gilgit District is approximately, 0.2 million and 85% of the total population lives in rural areas, with literacy ratio up to 53%. It is one of the most densely populated districts with 28% of the Gilgit Baltistan population residing in this District with an annual growth rate of Gilgit District being 2.74%. Average household size is approximately eight people. The population density for Gilgit District is 6.4 persons per sq km. District No of Households Male Female Total Avg. Annual Growth rate Area (Sq.km) Population Density (Person per sq.km) Gilgit 31, , , , , (Population Census Organization, 1998) Table 2: Showing population statistics of Gilgit districts Elevation (ft) District Household Population Household Size Rural Urban Rural Urban Rural Urban Gilgit 23, ,623 56, (Population Census Organization, 1998) Table 3: Showing rural-urban distribution of Gilgit district Page 17

18 District Population in 1981 Population in 1998 Projected Population in 2011 Gilgit 228, , ,289 (Azam, July, 2009) Table 4: Showing population comparison of Gilgit district in 1981, 1998 and 2001 Urban Area 1998 Population after 10 years Population after 20 Years Gilgit city 56,701 72,350 92,365 (Population Census Organization, 1998) Table 5: Showing projected population of Gilgit city The following table gives a brief overview of the sectarian division of population residing in Gilgit District. The city of Gilgit is the epicenter of sectarian clashes resulting in one of the major shortcoming in the progress of the area. Sect wise Population percentage District G.B Gilgit Shia Sunni Ismaili Noor Bukhsi 16 Table 6: Showing sect wise population of Gilgit Baltistan and Gilgit city Page 18

19 Page 19

20 1.2. ENVIRONMENT: The environment in its broader sense, covers all natural, physical, chemical and human resources. The human environment is usually defined by ecologists as the conditions and processes affecting the life and the development of human beings Climate Weather conditions for Gilgit are dominated by its geographical location, a valley in a mountainous area, southwest of Karakoram Range. The prevalent season of Gilgit is winter, occupying the valley eight to nine months a year. Figure 5: Views showing environment of the Gilgit city Gilgit lacks significant rainfall, averaging in 120 to 240 millimeters (4.7 to 9.4 in) annually, as monsoon breaks against the southern range of Himalayas. Irrigation for land cultivation is obtained from the rivers, abundant with melting snow water from higher altitudes. The summer season is brief and hot. The piercing sunrays may raise the temperature up to 40 C (104 F), yet it is always cool in the shade. As a result of this extremity in the weather, landslides and avalanches are frequent in the area. Site Yrs Max/ Min Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Extreme Daily Variatio n Gilgit 1490m 30 Min. Max Table 7: Temperature variations throughout the year Page 20

21 Air quality: An air quality survey carried out by IUCNP and SUPARCO revealed that current air quality of urban settlements in Gilgit is good as compared to the big town and urban settlements of Pakistan. However, Gilgit is faced with massive air pollution partly due to road building and other construction. (Quantity/Reference) There are deposits of CO, CO2 and SO2 in the atmosphere due to wood burning and traffic pollution. Table 8: Estimated air pollutants by sector Homes in the Hindu Kush and Karakoram mountains are cold and smoky in the harsh winters, when large amounts of wood are used for heating and cooking. Deforestation is serious: locally it leads to increased damage from flooding, and nationally it reduces water supply because the region is the watershed for much of the country Mountains The bulk of the area in the region is occupied by a series of three mountain ranges, Himalayas, Karakoram, and Hindu Kush. Most elevations in the region are minimum 1,500m above sea level with more than half the area above the 4,500m level (World Bank, 1987). The region contains many of the highest peaks in the world including K-2, Nanga Parbat, and Rakaposhi. Towering above Gilgit is Mount Rakaposhi at 7,788 meters (25,551 ft.). The highest peak in the district of Gilgit is Distaghil Sar (7,885m) which is the seventh highest peak in Pakistan and 19th 2 Ashden Awards case study AKPBS, Pakistan Summary 3 Gilgit info Figure 6: Mountains of the northern areas Page 21

22 highest on earth Water Shed areas The forests in Northern Areas are important watersheds of valleys below where agriculture is practiced and settlements exist, and Indus River and some of its tributaries. This water is the main stay for agriculture and hydropower for the flood plains in Pakistan. Many species of wild animals and plants depend on these forests. Thus these forests are important for the rich biodiversity in Northern Areas. Some of the species and habitats have national and global significance. Their role as carbon sink like any other long-living trees needs no emphasis. Almost entire Northern Areas fall in the watershed of Tarbela Dam with the exception o f Minimerg Tehsil, which drains, into Neelam River. The mountains in the areas are very fragile. The soil is susceptible to rapid erosion if the vegetative cover is denuded. The forests have vital importance for their watershed value at local and national levels. Their environmental role including watershed is far greater than their wood production role. Besides enhancing the life span of Tarbela Dam, they prevent local floods, maintain local water supplies and conserve soils Scenic sites Gilgit city is one of the two major hubs for all mountaineering expeditions in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. There are several tourist attractions and scenic sites relatively close to Gilgit. They are as follows: i. Gilgit Bridge: The bridge over the fast flowing Gilgit River, at the end of its traditional bazaar, is the largest suspension bridge in Asia (182 metres long and 2 metres wide) permitting enough room for one jeep at a time to cross. Figure 9: Gilgit Bridge Page 22

23 ii. Kargah Buddha: Karagah Nala is one of the ancient Nala that runs clear all the year. It is the larger valley just 10 km west of Gilgit. At the mouth of valley, carved into a cliff face is the Karagah Buddha. This is a famous attraction of the Gilgit area. No one is sure how it was carved into the cliff side, but the deep holes in the rock around the carving may have been used to support scaffolding. The Buddha was probably carved about 7 th century A.D. when Buddhism was the chief religion of the area. 3 iii. British Cemetery The British Cemetery is a very interesting glimpse into the history of Gilgit and the Northern Areas. The British pioneers and soldiers, who are buried there, played a huge part in the development of Gilgit s history and culture. With its big shade trees and greenery, the cemetery is very nice place to visit in the summer. iv. Jutial Nala Jutial Nala is the narrow valley behind the Serena Hotel. Jutial Nala provides much of Gilgit drinking and irrigation water. At the mouth of the valley one can find a trail that follows the stream for about an hour, then crosses and continues up a hill to a small forest. This is a great place for a picnic lunch. Beyond the forest up the hill another half hour is a small meadow with green grass and a small stream running through it. This is also an excellent lunch spot. Along the way one will have amazing views of Rakaposhi (7700m) across the Gilgit valley. v. Kashmiri Bazaar and Bridge (Old Town) Kashmiri Bazaar as the name implies is filled with shops owned mostly by Kashmir natives and is a great place to take pictures and meet locals. One will find mostly small items such as jewelry, trinkets, and junk in this bazaar and some great snacks from roadside vendors. Just before the bridge are the hat shops, filled with every color and style of traditional hat. This is the best and cheapest place to buy them and they make great souvenirs. The bridge connects Gilgit with the town of Kon-e-das on the opposite side of the Gilgit River and is always a very busy route. Below the bridge on the Gilgit side you can see a goat market, where trading is always happening. vi. Danyore Suspension Bridge and Tunnel Danyore is the large village across the river from Gilgit. It is a plain fertile plateau to the east of River Hunza and the north of River Gilgit. The name of this area is kept after the Daniyor Nalla a source of water supply for agriculture and potable water for areas on either side of the Nalla. It is predominantly rich agricultural land with plots sizes demarcated according to the sizes of personal holdings. Figure 10: Danyore suspension bridge 3 Gilgit info Page 23

24 Along the back route into Danyore is a swinging suspension bridge that allows vehicles to cross the Hunza River. This is a very unique experience and can be a little bit frightening. It is made of wood and seems ready to break at any moment. Across the bridge, the road immediately enters a very narrow, dark tunnel. There is only enough room for one vehicle and sometimes even one vehicle seems like too much. vii. Jutial Water Channel This large water channel follows the mountainside parallel to the main road in Gilgit. It was built some time ago, but most of it remains unused. This makes it a great route for a scenic stroll above Gilgit. You can reach the water channel from Upper Jutial, near the Serena Hotel. It is a casual 2 to 3 hour walk along the channel to its end near the Kargah Buddha. viii. Monument of Taj Mughal: A victory monument of Taj Mughal, built 700 years ago, is 30 km. jeep drive from Gilgit town. ix. Sher Qilla It is 38 km. from Gilgit - Trekking route links with Naltar valley. Trout fishing can be enjoyed in Sher Qilla Nullah and a small lake. Some other sites are: Naltar Valley with Naltar Peak Hunza Valley Ferry Meadows in Raikot Shigar town Skardu city Haramosh Peak in Karakoram Range Bagrot-Haramosh Valley Deosai National Park Astore Valley Rama Lake Juglot town Phunder village Yasin Valley Kargah Valley Page 24

25 Natural Resources Gilgit-Baltistan is blessed with diverse kinds of resources including precious gems, gold, uranium, copper, molybdenum, mica, forests, glaciers, lakes and rivers Water Resources Glaciers and seasonal snow deposits are the principal sources of all flowing water in the Gilgit. The melted water enters streams called nullahs, which subsequently ingress in rivers. The main rivers in the District are: Figure 7: Gilgit River Khunjerab River - flows south along the Karakoram Highway from the Khunjerab Valley, known as Hunza River in the south of Sust Hunza River - flows further south and falls into Gilgit River just in the northeast of Gilgit town Gilgit River - enters Gilgit District from west in the south of Bichhar Pass (Naltar Valley) and flows west through the Gilgit town. Indus River - enters Gilgit District from Skardu District about six kilometers north of Jaglot where Gilgit River falls into Indus River and the Indus flows south along the Karakoram Highway. Astor River There are many tributaries of the above main rivers, some of which are Ghujerab River, Shimshal River, Hispar River, Naltar River and Yaheen River. A large number of small ravines emerge from various glaciers, springs and lakes that eventually mix in these rivers. Seasonal variations create significant effect on the discharge of primary rivers resulting in significant decrease in the discharge flow in peak winter seasons. The flow is greatest from July to September, when snow melts in the mountains, while southwest as well as northern monsoon brings torrential rain resulting in land sliding, high flood levels and increase in the turbidity of water Nallas Page 25

26 Almost every village and town in the Northern Areas and Chitral has a network of water channels, feed by streams locally called as nullahs. These channels are 2-4 feet wide and of similar depth. These channels are a symbol of the region s ancient history; indigenous art and collective effort, since many of these were built centuries ago, cutting through rocks and difficult terrain. In Gilgit Town there are five drinking water supply complex are situated in the south of Gilgit, charged by two water channels built around 30 years ago. The main Nallas around the Gilgit city are Jutial Nala, Kanudas Nala, Kargah Nala and Daniyor Nala Minerals Following minerals, precious and semi precious stones are found in the province of Gilgit Baltistan. - Gold - Platinum - Palladium - Copper - Lead - Zinc - Cobalt - Nickel - Bismuth - Molybdinum - Arsenic - Iron Ore Precious and Semi Precious Stones - Ruby - Emerald - Sapphire - Spinal - Aquamarine - Topaz - Tourmaline - Epidote - Moonstone Page 26

27 - Pargasite - Garnet - Amethyst - Marganite Vegetation/ Forest Cover The forests in Northern Areas are mostly limited to southwestern parts of NA in the distric ts of Diamir, Baltistan, Gilgit and Ghizar. The wide variety of climatic conditions in the Northern Areas, coupled with the extreme variations in altitude and aspect, has lead to an equally wide array of vegetation and ecological zones. Figure 8: Views of vegetation in the city Five distinct zones can be identified. These Ecological zones include Alpine Meadows and Alpine scrubs, Sub Alpine Scrub, Dry Temperate Coniferous Forest and Dry Temperate Evergreen oak scrub. Forest Area Sq. miles sq. km ha Chilas, Darel and 848 2, ,088 Tangir Astore Sub Division ,720 Gilgit, Punial and ,576 Nagar Baltistan ,216 Total forest area 1,100 2, ,600 Table 9: Forest cover area in Northern areas Page 27

28 Area under protected forests (conifers) in Northern Areas is 64,512 ha. Total (scrub) forests are 381,200 ha but further classification into private or protected forests is not reported. District Area Forest mile2 km2 ha Type Gilgit Montane (Gilgit Dry and Temperate Nagar) and sub alpine Significance Subsistence timber, firewood, grazing and other NTFP; biodiversity, Watershed, ecotourism, forest PA and logging for civil works Table 10: Gilgit district forest cover area, type and significance Rights 1. Free grant of timber and fuel wood in Nagar area to the local right holders as per notification of In Gilgit, the timber is supplied on concessional rates to the locals but firewood from dead and dying trees is free. Area Nursery Development Afforestation Program No. of nurseries (ha) Area covered No (Millions) Area (ha) Gilgit 71 19, Table 11: Forest Nurseries in Northern Areas, 1997 District Government Area (ha) Government Area (ha) (Nurseries) Plantation (No.) Gilgit Table 12: Forest under Government Jurisdiction, 1997 Northern Areas Natural Disasters Northern Areas on account of physical location and geo-physical nature of the terrain could easily be counted as the most hazardous region in Pakistan. NA's are exposed to both natural and manmade hazards. Coupled with peculiar hazardous environment, the risks are further accentuated on account of vulnerabilities in terms of political structure, institutional mandate and capacities and the particular socio-economic context. A disaster Inventory has been compiled based on information available with the NA Home Department and is given below in the table: S. No. Disasters Date / Years Location Damages & Losses (Human Losses, cattles, crop, land etc) Estimates of Financial Impact of Disaster (In Rs) Page 28

29 1 Floods and Landslide 2 Civil Conflicts 3 Civil Conflicts Oct to Dec Floods June to Aug /11/2005 Gilgit, Skardu, Diamer, Ghizer, Ghanche, Astore June 2004 Gilgit, Skardu to mid Oct 2005 Deaths= 08, House= 3250, Cattle Head=113 Deaths= 17, Injured= 22, Property Damage million 7.3 million, million paid & million to be Paid. Gilgit, Skardu Deaths= 56, Injured= million Gilgit, Skardu, Diamer, Ghizer, Ghanche, Astore Table 13: Types of disasters and their related statistics Deaths= 26, House Damage= 563, Crops Affected (Acres)= million Type of Disasters Earthquake Landslide / Rock fall / Mudflow Glacial Movement / Avalanches Flash Floods/Riverine Floods Glacial Lake Outburst Floods Snow Storm Wind Storms Lightening Drought Yes / No No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Gilgit Frequency High Medium Low Epidemics Cross border firing Road Accidents Yes Yes Yes Wild Fires No Ethnic & Sectarian Violence Yes Table 14: Types of disasters and their frequency in Gilgit Page 29

30 Page 30 Figure 11: Map showing potential hazard area of Gilgit District Source: "Report on Hazard Vulnerability and Risk Assessment of Gilgit District by WWF-UNDP

31 Seismology The seismic map of the region prepared by Pakistan Meteorological Department, Geophysical Centre, Quetta, indicates that Gilgit lies in a very active seismic zone and the seismic factor in this zone has been evaluated as Zone of noticeable seismic danger with acceleration values of 0.05 to 0.15 g. and to the immediate north and north-west lies the Zone of significant seismic danger with acceleration value of 0.15 to 0.2g. Two devastating earthquakes occurred in the Northern Areas in near past on 28th December 1974 and 12th September, 1981 near the villages of Pattan and Sazine with magnitudes 6.1 and 5.7. Considerable Loss to the building was experienced in Gilgit as well during the Sazine earthquake (1981). There is no observatory in the seismically active belt of Gilgit. This region is sparsely populated and very little attention has been given to their development in the past and as such the need for a seismic hazard data was hardly realized. Now when major development schemes involving sizeable engineering works are being planned and are underway, an accurate knowledge of seismicity is essential especially in the wake of recent earthquake. Table 15: Earthquake dates and statistics Floods The hazard identification and assessment process shows that flood is the major hazard in the district of Gilgit and is of various kinds; the cloud burst flood, flash floods, glacial lake outburst floods and the River Floods. Page 31

32 According to the hazard map, the tidal settlement area is Sq km out of which sq. km is under flood. Amongst the twelve union councils, the major floor area are Sq. Km lies between Jutial and Jaglot but most vulnerable are Sakarkoie, Konadas, Nalter, Jutial and Jaglote Goroo. The flood nullahs are very near to settlements and average speed on set is just 27 minutes, gives the community very little time to evacuate themselves. As compare to above mentioned union councils, Haramosh, Sai Aglote, Charkorcot and Damot have been gone through floods but the average speed on set is one and half hour, thus causing less harm to the communities. The frequency of floods is usually 2 to 3 times a year and usually from end of June to mid-august. There are 110 flood points in the whole district including Nullahs, rivers and channels, amongst them 21 are in Sharote Shakyot over an extended area, 16 in Municipal and 15 are in Nomal, which covered less area and this cause more damage to the settlements. According to the community and history profile; severe floods over the last few decades occurred in the district in 1980, 1994, 1996 and Land sliding Land sliding is the second major hydro metrological hazard in the district and triggered as a secondary hazard of heavy rainfall in summer and intense snow fall in winter. According to the community observations, the average frequency of landsliding is 5-6 times a year and usually stays for 1 hour. In this duration in usually cause harm to homes especially in Sakarkoie and even to human lives in Kargah and Nalter valleys (shams-ur- Rehman). Social forestry, agricultural Figure 12: Landslide in 2010 caused damage to a home in Naikoie land and cattle sheds are under threat of landslides in all most all the union councils. The hazard map shows 23 potential landslides points in the whole district with 4 in Sharote-Shakyot and Haramosh and 3 in each of municipal area, Bagrot and Charkorcot. The average speed on set for landslide is every short i.e minutes. The landslide point is Naiko Gilgit is highly threatnin as the speed on set is just 02 minutes and average duration is 1 hour and as a result of 2010 rain it caused damage to 07 houses (Mohammad Ismail from Naikoi). The landslides in Nalter and Jutial Nullah are also very potential and even can enter the homes in Nalter but in case of Jutial the speed on set are 30 minutes and the plantation on its Figure 13: Condition after land sliding Page 32

33 Figure 14: Map showing potential landslide areas of Gilgit District Source: "Report on Hazard Vulnerability and Risk Assessment of Gilgit District by WWF-UNDP way gets damaged but serves as barriers to reduce the harm to homes, cattle sheds and human lives (Sher Nadeer from Jutial) Page 33

34 River and stream bank erosion River bank erosion is again triggered as a secondary hazard of floods and increase in temperature in summer. The erosion rate depends on volume of water and is usually very high from June- September. An Average of 2216 kanal is ruined every year as a result of erosion especially along the banks of Shrot, shakyot, Bargo, Thingee, Hanzal, Baseen, Sakarkoie and Konadas by the Ghizer river. Erosion to the agricultural land is very high in Sakwar and Nalter as result of flow of nallah water in high volume and speed Avalanches Avalanche is again a major identified hydro metrological hazard in the district. It usually occurs in winter when there is heavy snow fall and frequency could be 5-7 times such as in Nomal-Nalter. The speed on set is just few seconds to few minutes (Akber Husain Nalter). According to the hazard map there are 10 avalanche points in the district with 01 in Sharote, 01 in the Haramosh, 02 in Bagrot and 06 in Nalter, covering an area of sq. km. The potential avalanches usually cause a huge damage to the natural forest and cultivable land in Nalter. Figure 15: Map showing hazard types, risks and class in the union council of Nomal-Nalter Source: "Report on Hazard Vulnerability and Risk Assessment of Gilgit District by WWF-UNDP Page 34

35 Figure 16: Level of risk from natural disasters to critical facilities in the Gilgit district Even though the prosperity and rapid development resulted by the KKH, however environmental problems certainly increase since no attentions was given to address the basic needs of water, Figure 17: Level of risk from natural disasters to livelihood sources in the Gilgit district Page 35

36 sanitation, solid waste and proper sewerage systems. Similarly, rapid depletion of natural resources could be observed in the area due to easy accessibility. Natural forests are one of the significant areas affected by construction of roads to remote valleys. (IUCN Raza, 2003) Page 36

37 1.3. ECONOMY The economy of a region can be considered to be the backbone in terms of development of a region. The economic activities in a region refer to the evolution of production and consumption processes in this region. These are also reflected on the movements of people and goods inside, to/from the region. Two sets of activities are identifiable: a) those carried out for subsistence or local consumption and; b) those intended to be exported from the region for national or international consumption. An economy consists of the economic system of a country or other area; the labor, capital and land resources; and the manufacturing, trade, distribution, and consumption of goods and services of that area. An economy may also be described as a spatially limited and social network where goods and services are exchanged according to demand and supply between participants by barter or a medium of exchange with a credit or debit value accepted within the network. Major sources of economy in Gilgit are as follows: Water Hydro Power Water is the main potential and source of economy in overall Gilgit-Baltistan and Gilgit. Water is not only used for cultivation but the advantage of waterfalls is tapped through hydro-electric power generation. In the vicinity of Gilgit, 27of hydro power projects that generate18.03 MW amount of electricity. Total Hydro power projects in Northern Areas in operation are 98 that generate 133 MW amount of Electricity. 4 The various power plants are along, the Konodas Nalla, Naltar,, SherQila, Haramosh, Daniyor, Nomal, Pari, Jaglot Sai, Jalalabad, Ja glot, and number of projects along the Kargah nala. Various projects are installed in areas Chilas, and Skardu, Ghizer and Hunza. River Station Area (km2) Mean Annual Flows of the Upper Indus River (m3/sec) (mm) (billion m3) Gilgit Gilgit 12, Table 16: Stream Flow Measurements in the Upper Indus River Province/ Territory Projects in Operation (MW) Projects Under Implementation Public Sector (MW) Private Sector (MW) Province Federal Level Level Gilgit Baltistan Table 17: Information about hydropower plants Solicited Sites (Projects with Feasibility Study Completed) (MW) Projects with Raw Sites (MW) Total Hydropo wer Resource s (MW) Hydro Power Resources of Pakistan Feb 2011 by Private Power and Infrastructue Board 5 Northern Areas: State of Environment and Development, 2003 Government of Pakistan, Northern AreasAdministration and IUCN The World ConservationUnion. Page 37

38 The power supply drastically fluctuates between the summer and winter seasons. The difference between the two seasons is a short fall of MW. 6 Area No. of Operation Stations. Installed Capacity (MW) Power Demand Energy Available Hydal Thermal Shortfall Gilgit Table 18: Information about hydropower plants According to the estimates of Aga Khan Rural Support Program, with the help of small hydro power plants and turbines Gilgit Baltistan can supply 22,000 MW as a whole Agriculture The other source of economy of Gilgit is Agriculture. Only two per cent of the region is believed to be cultivable. Of this area, just over one per cent is already in use for the production of grain crops, fruit and vegetables. Approximately nine per cent of the Northern Areas is occupied by natural forests and scrub, and 22 per cent by rangelands (primarily alpine pasture). Agriculture sector is based on traditional methods which lead to low level outputs and yields. The crop and livestock resources are limited. However, recent efforts are being made for producing high-yield variety of potato with an output of tonnes. 7 The principal food crops are wheat, maize, barley, potatoes, vegetables and fruits. Livestock are an integral component of the agricultural system; in 1996, the total livestock population of the Northern Areas was estimated to exceed two million animals. 8 The various fruits and dry fruits that are abundantly found in this part of the region are: - Apricot - Apple - Grapes - Pears - Peaches - Pomegranate - Cherry - Mulberry - Walnut - Almond 6 ibid 7 AGRICULTURE SECTORINVESTMENT POTENTIALS IN GILGIT-BALTISTAN, 8 ibid Page 38

39 However, due to lack of investment, marketing and proper packaging a lot of fruits get perished without reaching the market. For example out of MT of MT of apricots get wasted. 9 District Area under Cereals (ha) Area under Fruits (ha) Area under Vegetables (ha) Area under Fodders (ha) Gilgit 10,194 4,602 3,232 18,741 Table 19: Status of Agriculture in Northern Area (2001) Tourism Tourism is one of the major sectors of the Gilgit s economy, providing employment and income to a large segment of the population.. Family income gets additional support from tourism and allied professions as Gilgit is known for its tourist potential for local and foreign tourists especially interested in serious mountaineering Labor force Majority of the people are being involved directly or indirectly with border trade as well as hoteling and transport. Only in Gilgit town there are more than 22 hotels and around same number of restaurants, working round the year. C i t y / Town Number of Hotels Number of Rooms Gilgit Table 20: Statistics for hotel industry in Gilgit The other sources of income include labor, services in government or non-government organizations. (IUCN Raza, 2003) According to census report of 1988, following are the basis of employment in Gilgit. - Services % - Agriculture, Forestry, Hunting and Fishing % - Finance, Insurance, Real Estate and Business Services + Construction % - Whole-sale Trade, Restaurants and Hotels and Transport, 17% 15% 23% Economy 45% Com. Social Services Agri, Forest etc Finance, Real Estate Wholesale Trade Figure 18: Pie-chart showing economic division of sectors in the city 9 AGRICULTURE SECTORINVESTMENT POTENTIALS INGILGIT-BALTISTAN,http://www.gilgitbaltistan.gov.pk/images/stories/buspot_pdf/Agriculture.pdf 10 Northern Areas : State of Environment and Development, 2003 Government of Pakistan, Northern Areas Administration and IUCN The World Conservation Union. Page 39

40 Storage and Communication % Generally in Gilgit migration from rural areas to urban area is not as high as it is found in lower Pakistan, but still the figure is quite high considering the existing facilities in urban area. Better education, health facilities, and broader job opportunities both for skilled and unskilled labors, are the main encouraging factors for rural population to migrate in Gilgit urban town, headquarter of urban district. As far as the educated people are concerned those prefer to stay in their respective villages or regions as most of them are employed either with health or education department. Another reason of migration is business opportunities. Majority of non-local business community have migrated from villages of NWFP and Punjab. 11 Place of Previous Residence All Areas Rural Urban All Areas Within Northern Areas Azad Jammu Kashmir NWFP FATA Punjab Sindh Baluchistan Islamabad Other Countries Not Reported Table 21: Percentage of Migrants from other Province / Within Northern Areas by Rural / Urban, Land Utilization Agricultural Sector: The Northern Areas of Pakistan are located between N and E. The majority of the area is mountainous and covers over 72,496 square kilometers with a population of one million in 831 villages scattered all over the area. Human settlements are on alluvial fans and terraces from 4000 ft. to ft. elevation on either side of the Indus and its tributaries where water is available for agriculture. Density is of 14 persons / km2. Roughly 0.86 per cent area is under agriculture, double of this is arable, 4.0 per cent under forest and the rest is covered by range lands, glaciers and mountains. Small land holdings (1-2 kanals or to ha/capita) and existence of 75 per cent agricultural land in single cropped area and 25 per cent in double cropped area in the arid mountains confine the production below subsistence level. Agriculture is irrigated owing to scanty precipitation and 11 Northern Areas: State of Environment and Development, 2003 Government of Pakistan, Northern Areas Administration and IUCN The World Conservation Union. Page 40

41 subsequent aridity all over the mountain region. Land holdings in the northern areas are small, reported to be below one hectare (on the average ha to ha). 12 District No. of Farm Farm Area uncultivated (ha) Farm Area (ha) Cultivated Cultivable Forests Total Land (ha) Waste Gilgit Table 22: Land use in Agricultural Sector District Cultivated Cultivable Cropped Area under other (hectares) Crops. Area Area Cereal Potato Other Fodders Fruits Total Veg. Gilgit 11,900 18,073 10, ,679 1,399 17,107 Table 23: Land Utilization Statistics Production output The per capita per annum income of Gilgit-Baltistan is one fourth of Pakistan s national average and more than half of the region s population lives below poverty line. Several studies show that families spend more than one third of their annual income on purchasing firewood during the freezing winters. There is no industry in the region and private sector is very small to provide jobs to tens of thousands of jobless youth. Few flour mills owned by Pakistanis do exist but often remain shut due to lack of grain-supply. Many youngsters also join Pakistani military, non-profit organizations or become porters for the tourists to earn subsistence income CULTURE AND HERITAGE CULTURE: Culture is a term that has many different related meanings. It can be described as: An integrated pattern of human knowledge, belief, and behavior that depends upon the capacity for symbolic thought and social learning or The set of shared attitudes, values, goals, and practices that characterizes an institution, organization, or group. HERITAGE: Heritage refers to something inherited from the past and then it comes to a genie. The word has several different senses, including: Natural heritage, an inheritance of fauna and flora, geology, landscape and landforms, and other natural resources 12 Northern Areas Strategy for Sustainable Development Second Draft June 2002 Background Paper on Agriculture and Food Security By IUCN Page 41

42 Cultural heritage, the legacy of physical artifacts and intangible attributes of a group or society: Industrial heritage, monuments from industrial culture Tradition, customs and practices inherited from ancestors The Northern Areas are one of Pakistan s most important international tourism destinations. The region is renowned for its natural beauty, including its rugged valleys, high mountain peaks and massive glaciers; these features attract a significant number of trekking and mountaineering expeditions every year. Other tourism assets include the region s diverse flora and fauna, its rich architectural heritage and its ancient archaeological sites LINKS TO ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS The Karakorum and Hindukush have always been rather porous barriers, offering shorter, seasonal routes between South and Central Asia. Traders, conquerors, religion and ideas have been passing through this route over 4000 years. Evidence of human activity can be traced in this region in the form of world s largest collection of rock carvings dated from 7 th century. 13 However, the main attraction of ruling this area was the control of the trade routes. Flow of Silk from China and spices from India flowed west, and the great overland trade routes known as the Silk Routes blossomed. Throughout the ages we see struggle over the control of trade routes between the neighboring Central Asian states, the kingdoms of Northern Area and the Chinese Empire. It is through this link that this region became the eastern most extent of the Greek Empire in 327 BC. This was followed by the Great Asoka Empire along with the Buddhist leanings in BC. Consequently, we see the development of the great Gandharan civilizations as a result of fusion between Greek and Buddhist ideas TOURISM Tourism is one of the major sectors of the Gilgit s economy, providing employment and income to a large segment of the population. However, without careful planning and regulation, tourism can have negative impacts on both the natural and cultural environment. The challenge faced by policy makers and planners is to develop tourism in such a way that it ensures conservation of the very assets upon which the industry is based. 13 Pakistan & the Karakoram Highway By Sarina Singh, Lindsay Brown, Paul Clammer, Rodney Cocks, John Mock Figure 19: Road map to Gilgit showing important destinations Page 42

43 Gilgit city is one of the two major hubs for all mountaineering expeditions in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. Almost all tourists headed for treks in Karakoram or Himalaya Ranges arrive at Gilgit first. Many tourists choose to travel to Gilgit by air, since the road travel between Islamabad and Gilgit, by the Karakoram Highway, takes nearly 24 hours, whereas the air travel takes a mere minutes. The tourism department of Gilgit is making efforts to promote domestic tourism. Before the incident of September 11, 2001 (World Trade Center), it was an open campaign site for Tourists. Gilgit has larger number of Mineral forests. It is the largest province of rock art in the world. The Province also has International Peace Park in Tashpur. The tourism department is revising the set of policies. It has now become the part of Provincial Government. By 2014, it is expected that there will be direct International flight operate from Gilgit. Rituals of Gilgit like Rafting and Paragliding are renowned in all over the world. Inspire all of this; the officials face Financial and Security problems in promoting Tourism. In terms of security, one solution is to promote the Community Based Tourism. 14 During 2008 During 2009 Trend Area Number of Tourist Visited Area Number of Tourist Visited Increase/ Decrease Gilgit 34,921 Gilgit 36, (Increased) Table 24: Tourism related statistics of year 2008 and 2009 Tourism Assets in the Northern Areas: The Northern Areas possess some of the most dramatic mountain scenery on earth. Three of the world s greatest mountain ranges the Karakoram, the Himalaya and the Hindu Kush meet in the Northern Areas. Of the world s 14 summits above 8,000 meters, five are located in the Northern Areas, including K-2, the second highest mountain in the world. 15 Figure 20: Karakoram, Hindukush and Himalayan Mountains 14 Interview from the Touris m Directorate, Yasir April Page 43

44 S. Peak Altitude Range World Ranking No. (metres) 1. K-2 (Chogori) 8,611 Karakoram 2 2. Nanga Parbat 8,125 Himalaya 9 3. Gasherbrum I 8,068 Karakoram Broad Peak 8,047 Karakoram Gasherbrum II 8,035 Karakoram Gasherbrum III 7,952 Karakoram Gasherbrum IV 7,925 Karakoram Distaghil Sar 7,885 Karakoram Kunyang Chhish 7,852 Karakoram Masherbrum NE 7,821 Karakoram Rakaposhi 7,788 Karakoram Batura 7,785 Karakoram 28 Table 25: Peaks of northern areas and their altitudes In addition to the region s mountain landscapes, the Northern Areas are endowed with some of the largest glaciers outside the Polar Regions, sweeping valleys, and other natural features such as forests, rivers, lakes and meadows. The Northern Areas also support a rich array of biodiversity, including several species of flora and fauna which are considered to be globally endangered. Four national parks and three wildlife sanctuaries have now been established to protect this biological heritage. Figure 21: View of Nanga Parbat Mountain S. Name Area (km2) Length (km) No. 1. S i a c h e n B a l t o r o B i a f o H i s p a r P a n m a h Chongo Lungma B a t u r a Khurdopin and Yukshin Gardan B r a l d u B a r p u Ya q g h i l Vi r j e r a b Page 44

45 13. M o h m i l G a s h e r b r u m M a l a n g u t t i Table 26: Glaciers of Northern areas Source: MoI, HERITAGE The Northern areas contain various heritage sites as it had been ruled by different civilizations dated from 7 th century including Greek Empire, Asoka Empire, Buddhists and Gandharan civilizations, Mughal Empire and Sikh empire. Evidence of human activity can be traced in this region in the form of world s largest collection of rock carvings. Cultural Heritage The Northern Areas have been influenced by a variety of cultures and civilizations during their turbulent history. The main trading route between India, China and Central Asia, known as the Silk Route, passed through the Northern Areas, making the region a meeting place for traders, pilgrims and explorers. Emperors and conquerors from Central Asia and Persia were attracted to the region, and Buddhist monks from India used the Silk Route to travel to China to spread their teaching. Today, the Karakoram Highway links Pakistan and China, and follows that segment of the Silk Route which once passed through the Northern Areas. As a result of this varied history, the Northern Areas possess a particularly diverse and interesting cultural heritage. Architectural Heritage The NA s architectural heritage includes palaces, forts, mosques and shrines. Particularly important sites include: Altit Fort; Baltit Fort; Khaplu Fort and Palace; Shigar Fort and Palace; Mamorokutz Mosque; and Amburiq Mosque. Due to a strong hold of Muslims over the region, it consists of several examples of Islamic architecture especially mosques. Very few mosques older than 100 years have been preserved in the entire Gilgit Agency. The finest examples of old wooden mosques can be found in the Darel and Tangir valleys resembling those in Swat and lndus Kohistan The oldest mosque in Nager (Kamal Masjid in Uyum Nager) bears the inscription 8211 which could mean 1128 Hijri, i.e A.D. There are also some abandoned old Shi i mosques in the villages of central Hunza. The best known tombs of Muslim saints are those of Sayyid Shah Sultan Arif in Danyor (opposite Gilgit), of Sayyid Shah Wali in Ghulmet (Central Nager) and of Baba Ghundi in the Chupursan valley. Page 45

46 Figure 22: Views of Baltit Fort, Hunza Archaeological Heritage Important archaeological sites include cave paintings, megalithic stone circles, and Buddhist stupas and monasteries numerous ancient rock carvings and inscriptions have also been discovered throughout the NA, particularly along the Silk Route. The history of the Northern Areas has been reconstructed based upon this rock art, and there is a high likelihood that more sites await discovery. The Gilgit manuscripts are among the oldest manuscripts in the world, and the oldest manuscript collection surviving in Pakistan, having major significance in the areas of Buddhist studies and the evolution of Asian and Sanskrit literature. The manuscripts are believed to have been written in the 5th to 6th Century CE, though some more manuscripts were discovered in the succeeding centuries, which were also classified as Gilgit manuscripts. This corpus of manuscripts was discovered in 1931 in Gilgit, containing four sutras from the Buddhist canon, including the famous Lotus Sutra. The manuscripts were written on birch bark in old Sanskrit language in the Sharada script. The Gilgit manuscripts cover a wide range of themes such as econometric, folk tales, philosophy, medicine and several related areas of life and general knowledge. Location District Description Alam Bridge Gilgit Rock inscriptions and drawings on boulders near the bridge. The inscriptions are in Indian script, reflecting Indian influence on the region; the drawings suggest a Central Asian influence. Astore Valley Diamir Archaeologically unexplored area, but some sites confirm the presence of ancient graves and other features of interest. Chilas Diami Inscriptions and engravings on rocks and boulders dating from the 5th millennium B.C. through to medieval times. These inscriptions Page 46

47 reflect Chilas importance as a meeting point throughout the ages for traders and pilgrims. Gilgit Gilgit Several archaeological sites, including the Kargah Buddha, the Noorpur stupas, the Mughal Minar and the Danyor Inscription (a huge boulder bearing inscriptions from the 7th/8th century A.D.) This is the only archaeological site in the Northern Areas which is currently protected under the Pakistan Antiquities Act. Hunza Gilgit The Sacred Rock of Hunza. Shigar Valley Baltistan Many remains, including a Buddhist monastery, paintings and carvings from the 4th/5th century A.D. Shin Nala Diamir Buddhist complex with images, stupas and carvings from the early Buddhist period of 4th/5th century A.D. Skardu Baltistan The Manthal Rock, engraved with Buddhist inscriptions and showing the influence of Tibetan rule in the area. Yasin Ghizar Several megalithic stone circles dating back to the 1st millennium B.C. Table 27: Information on archaeological heritage of northern areas Living Cultural Expressions The Northern Areas have a rich variety of living cultural expressions, as reflected in the region s languages as well as its traditional music, foods, festivals, sports, arts and handicrafts. In Baltistan, for example, an archaic form of Tibetan is spoken, while to the north, near Rakaposhi, there are five separate language groups along just 150 kilometers of the Hunza River. Polo is the most popular traditional sport in the region. Patronized by local Rajas and Mirs for generations and played throughout the Northern Areas, but is particularly popular in Baltistan. The Shandur Polo Festival, in which polo teams from Gilgit compete with Chitral, attracts thousands of spectators each year. The Northern Areas are also known for their cultural festivals (such as the famous Mindok Ltanmo or Flower Festival, a music and dance ceremony performed in Khaplu to welcome spring) and a wide array of other traditions, such as the making of pattu (hand-woven, woolen cloth, used in jackets, coats and shirts) SKILLS: The main occupations of the people of Gilgit city are trade, mining and agriculture. The majority of the population is engage in these occupations. Other occupations are related to horticulture, livestock and its related products. However in late 1980s after the inauguration of Karakoram Highway with China and Pakistan brought economical revolution as majority of the people are being involved directly or indirectly with border trade as well as hoteling and transport. The other sources of income include labor, services in government or non-government organizations. Page 47

48 2. DESCRIBING THE CITY Gilgit is the capital city of the province of Gilgit-Baltistan. It is the administrative and commercial centre of the Gilgit-Baltistan. It is situated in the foot hills of the Karakorum mountain range. 2.1.GEOGRAPHICAL CONTEXT Gilgit city is situated between north latitudes and to east longitudes. The city is surrounded by steep vertical mountains 500m to 1500m surrounded by 2000m to 3000m high mountains. Gilgit city is located in a valley of the Karakorum Mountains, surrounded by high peaks ranging from 1600 m to 2000m on either side of the valley. The origin of the valley goes to the Shandur Pass in the west. The place where the valley comes to a stop is the intersection of the Gilgit River and the Hunza River locally known as the Duo Pani. It is the place where Gilgit River meets Hunza River. Figure 23: Passing through a road in Gilgit city One special feature that distinguishes District Gilgit from rest of the districts of Pakistan is that it has the confluence point of the three mightiest mountain ranges viz-a-viz Gilgit town Himalaya, Karakoram and Hindukush. 16 In the North- District Hunza- Nagar In the South- District Diamer In the East- District Skurdu In the West- District Ghizar Figure 24: Map showing Mountain ranges of Gilgit Baltistan 16 Presentation - Briefing of District Gilgit by Deputy Commissioner Gilgit Page 48

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50 Figure 25: Map showing primary roads of Gilgit city Gilgit lies about 10 kilometers (6.2 mi) off the Karakoram Highway (KKH). The KKH connects it to Chilas, Dasu, Besham, Mansehra, Abbottabad and Islamabad in the south. In the North it is connected to Karimabad (Hunza) and Sust in the Northern Areas and to the Chinese cities of Tashkurgan, Upal and Kashgar in Xinjiang. Beyond Gilgit there is no big town or city in any direction within a distance of about 450 Kilometers in any direction. Thereby, making Gilgit the trade center of the Northern Areas. Figure 26: Views of Gilgit River According to the Gilgit Master Plan 1977, (Pakistan Enviornmental Planning and Architectural Consultants Limited, 1977) Gilgit and its immediate hinterland may be divided into six areas by function and physical location as follows: Page 50

51 1. The Town Nucleus 2. Kunadas Plateau 3. Danyor Plain (+ Gujar Das) 4. Jutial 5. Basin The overall city is longitudinally spread along the North and South bank of the Gilgit River. Subsequent to the topographic contours, Gilgit expand from bottoms up to steep slopes. The south bank consists of the historic city centre with commercial areas, the administrative buildings, the bus stand, the airport and the old settlements along with open recreation areas of the old and new polo ground. The north bank consists of the administrative core called the Kunudas. This plateau has been feed by the Kunudas Nalla. It is connected by the road that runs parallel to the River Hunza. Near this is the informal settlement called Mujahid Colony 10 km along the North bank lies the recently construction of Karakorum International University. Figure 27: Views of Gilgit River Page 51

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53 2.2.LAND USE ZONES: Gilgit town, though is an unplanned city, but has an order and pattern. There are defined residential, commercial, administrative and farm land area. There are three major roads namely River View Road, University road, Shaheed-e- Millat road which links East part of the city to the West. Similarly, there are six bridges that link north part to south across the Gilgit River. Land use zones include market area, housing, industrial, amenities facilities, cantonment zones, universities etc RESIDENTIAL: Figure 28: Map showing connection between different areas of city Presently in all urban settlements within Gilgit, an unplanned and uncontrolled construction is in practice. The size of residential plots ranges from ten marlas to 2 kanals albeit small fractions of population have constructed households in 3-5 kanals. Figure 29: Views of Residential areas of the city Page 53

54 Unplanned construction following the contour of the land, sizes and shapes of agricultural fields has lead to haphazard growth and expansion in irregular shapes of plots. These areas also have narrow streets and lack of infrastructure facilities to the need of the growing population. These streets thus developed internally are narrow and zigzag which are only used by pedestrians and in some areas it is quite difficult to address the basic infrastructure facilities of urban population such as sewerage, drainage, provision of electricity and easy access to rescue services in case of emergencies. The residential plots have a lesser degree of plot coverage. Only in Gilgit town 51% of the plots have covered an area of up to 25% and as many as 84% have site coverage of up to 50%. On average only 3% of the urban population have double story buildings. Only 2% of the households have one room, 22% have up to 2 rooms whilst 74% households have more than 3 rooms. On average 60% of the households are semi pacca, 35 percent are pacca and the remaining 5 are kacha houses. (IUCN) COMMERCIAL: The city center of the Gilgit considered as the main commercial hub of the city as it contains a large number of shops. This part of the city is considered to be a settlement from the British period, based on the colonial style of nuclei planning. It acts as the nucleus of the city which is generated by the intersection of the Shaheed Millat Road (running parallel to the Southern Mountain Ridge) and the Raja Bazaar Road. The shops are selling a variety of goods that include textile, shoes, bags, kitchen utensils and spices. Most of the textile, shoes and crockery are mainly imported from China. Sometimes, hand carts encroached the road, however, on a temporary basis. Figure 30: Views of main commercial area of the city The commercial core of the city center seems to have shifted towards the east at the intersection of the Saddar Bazaar Road and Babar Road. This intersection is marked by the NLI (Northern Light Infantry Regiment) Market. These shops are related to jewelry, stone and gems, crockery, textile and traveler bags. The NLI market mostly consists of goods that are brought in from China. There are however, shops that house textiles brought in from down south of the country along with a few local handicraft shops. There are number of cooperate banks in NLI market. On the south of the node, there is a Jamat Khana Bazaar. It 17 IUCN Report on Urban Environment By Haider Raza 2003 Page 54

55 mostly comprises 15 to 20 feet wide shops that are selling daily use items i.e., bakery, general store, vegetable, fruits and meat AMENITIES: i. HEALTH Gilgit city is one of the main destinations for medical emergencies for the entire province. The total number of hospitals is 6 in number with 1 district health Quarters and five civil hospitals. Following table gives a detail of health facilities found in Gilgit City. Health Facilities Gilgit Hospitals 6 (1 DHQ Hosptial + 5 Civil) Basic Health units 4 Dispensaries 22 First Aid Posts 36 Bed Strength 269 (1998) 304 (in 2008) Doctors 59 Medical Officers 27 Lady Medical 4 20 (in 2008) Officer Specialists 16 Dental Officers 7 Paramedics 308 Lady Health visitors 370 Table 28: Showing health facilities in Gilgit city Awareness about health and hygiene is still under achieved among remote communities and therefore is a strong focus of interventions by authorities and projects. However, the Aga Khan Health Services extensive program on health and hygiene within Gilgit City and the province has brought a considerable change and awareness regarding health related issues. In January 2000, Army Hospital Gilgit circulated a report on the incidence of cholera cases in five districts. According this report 17,625 cholera patients were treated in different hospitals of the Gilgit, out of which 55 were died. District Cases Deaths Reported Gilgit DHQ Hospital 11, DHO 06, Total 17, Table 29: Showing cholera cases and deaths reported in Gilgit city Page 55

56 ii. EDUCATION The literacy level in Gilgit city is comparatively high with respect to other districts of Gilgit Baltistan. It has large number of educational institutions from primary education level to higher secondary education. Some of the famous colleges in the tow n are F.G Degree College Jutial, F.G Degree College for women, Army Public School and College, Public School and Colleges Jutial, the Aga Khan Education Services, and Aga Figure 31: Aga Khan School for boys, Gilgit Khan School for Boys. A Karakorum International University has been established recently in 2002, for graduate and post graduate programs. Education Facilities Number of Schools Enrollment Teachers Male Female Co.Edu Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Primary Middle High High Secondary Schools Colleges IT Centers Universities Table 30: Showing educational facilities in Gilgit city Table 31: Showing educational facilities in Gilgit city Page 56

57 iii. RECREATIONAL In Gilgit there are two public parks i.e. Chinar Bagh which covers an area of 8.5 acres and the City Park at the extension of Airport for recreational activities. However, polo which is a traditional game of the North is a popular sport and for that reason there are 3 polo grounds used for holding polo games as well as other cultural and social activities. A large number of spectators come to watch such events in summer times of the year. However, armed forces and local administration have their own complexes areas that are designated only for officials. Furthermore, there are three cinema halls with a total seating capacity of 800 seats. (IUCN) 18 Figure 32: View of Polo Ground Figure 33: Views of different recreational spaces 18 IUCN Report on Urban Environment By Haider Raza 2003 Page 57

58 AGRICULTURE: According to the Gilgit Master Plan of 1977, it is stated that the main landuse within the Gilgit city consists of agricultural land. Due to the mountainous terrian throughout the provinvce nay available land of ragriculture is a scarcity, hence with a lot of of value. However, due to the rapid growth of the city the agricultural land is being gradually taken over (Refer to the Danyor case study). Nonetheless most of the residences consists of livestock, kitchen gardens and small patch of cultivated land.(refer to Mujahid Colony case study) Figure 34: View of Agricultural lands District Farm (Nos) Farm Area (Ha) Cultivated Land (ha) Cultivated Waste Forests Total Gilgit Table 32: Showing number of farms and cultivated land area District Cultivated Area Cultivable Area Cereal Potato Other Veg. Fodders Fruits Total Gilgit Table 33: Showing number of cultivated land area for different vegetables Page 58

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60 2.3.TRANSPORT There are three major roads namely River View Road, University Road, Shaheed-e- Millat Road which links east part of the city to the west. Similarly, there are six bridges that link north part to south across the Gilgit River. The urban settlement has metal and un-metal roads ranging from Kilometers of paved roads consisting of radial roads, distributaries links and access roads. Encroachment on the right of way especially in the central business areas is common. In some urban areas the roads are very narrow ranging from 20 to 45 feet e.g. Karimabad centre some parts of Gilgit. The haphazard onstreet parking by various modes of transport is also very common. The loading and unloading activities both by heavy and light transport can be seen easily. Figure 35: View of a major road The number of vehicles plying on the roads is increasing with the passage of time while the roads widths remain same, and the effective carriageway widths on certain roads sections are unable to meet the present day requirement. Figure 36: Different modes of transport Page 60

61 S. No. Type of Vehicles Registered On Road 1 Motorcycle / Scooters 4,014 3,986 2 Motorcars 3,000 2,974 3 Jeeps 3,563 3,552 4 Station Wagons Tractors 1,557 1,487 6 Buses / Mini Buses Motorcar Cab Delivery Van Public Carrier Truck 7,939 7, Private Carrier Truck Pick-up Datsun Ambulance Oil Tankers Water Tanker Suzuki Pick-up 1,799 1, Grand Total 24,002 17,774 Table 34: Shows Numbers and Types of Vehicles in Northern Areas, 2000 Page 61

62 Figure 37: Views of various bridges in the city The number of vehicles becomes higher in summer season due to tourism and opening of boarder trade with China. Similarly vehicles used by armed forces are not included in this data as exact figures are not available. District (% ) 1997 (% ) 1998 (% ) 1999 (% ) 2000 (%) 2010 Gilgit city 14,825 15,142 (2.13) 15,386 (1.61) 15,615 (1.49) 15,723 (0.69) Table 35: Showing number of vehicles in Gilgit city from year ,928 (1.30) 17,042 (14) Gilgit lies 10 kilometer off Karakorum Highway. Karakoram highway connects Gilgit to rest of the Pakistan as well as with China and now the south East Asia. The road travel between Islamabad and Gilgit, by the Karakoram Highway, takes nearly 24 hours. Gilgit also has a small domestic Airport situated in the east of Gilgit. A number of buses run between Gilgit and Islamabad with a large number of passengers every day. There are 2 Fokker flights everyday between Gilgit and Islamabad, carrying up to 40 passengers per flight. However, due to unfavorable weather conditions the flights get Page 62

63 cancelled and usually there is backlog of several days. Most of the people prefer to travel by air, as it takes a mere minutes. Page 63

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65 2.4. EVOLUTION OF THE CITY: Gilgit was an important city on the Silk Road, along which Buddhism was spread from South Asia to the rest of Asia. It was ruled for centuries by the local Trakhàn Dynasty, which ended about 1810 with the death of Raja Abas, the last Trakhàn Raja. It was then captured by number of rulers until the Gilgit Agency was formed by the British rulers. The Gilgit Agency was a political unit of British India, which administered the northern half of the Princely state of Jammu and Kashmir. The Gilgit Agency was created in 1877 and was overseen by a political agent of the Governor-General of British India. The seat of the agent was Srinagar. In 1935, the Gilgit Agency leased the territory comprising the agency from the Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir, Hari Singh, for a period of sixty years. This lease and the Gilgit Agency ceased to exist when Pakistan and India became independent countries in Subsequent to the Partition of India in 1947 and the First Kashmir War, the name "Gilgit Agency" was adopted by Pakistan to refer to the territory which formed a de facto dependency of Pakistan from 1947 to 1970, but the name ceased to be used when the territory was merged into the Northern Areas. This Pakistani "Gilgit Agency" was administered directly from Islamabad, separately from the neighboring state of Azad Kashmir and the princely states of Hunza and Nagar. It did not include the district of Kargil and the subdivision of Ladakh which had been a part of the British Gilgit Agency. The Pakistani Agency bordered the Sinkiang region of China to the northeast, the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir to the south, Baltistan to east, and the North-West Frontier Province to the west. 19 History: Gilgit had been a flourishing tract but prosperity was destroyed by warfare over the next fifty years after the death of Raja Abbas, and by the great flood of 1841 in which the river Indus was blocked by a landslip below the HatuPir and the valley was turned into a lake. After the death of Abas, Suleiman Shah, raja of Yasin, conquered Gilgit. Then, Azad Khan, raja of Punial, killed Sulaiman Shah, taking Gilgit; then Tair Shah, raja of Buroshall (Nagar), took Gilgit and killed Azad Khan. Tair Shah's son Shah Sakandar inherited, only to be killed by Gaur Rahman, raja of Yasin of the Khushwakhte Dynasty, when he took Gilgit. Then in 1842, Shah Sakandar's brother, Karim Khan, expelled Gaur Rahman with the support of a Sikh army from Kashmir. The Sikh general, Nathu Shah, left garrison troops and Karim Khan ruled until Gilgit was ceded to Gulab Singh of Jammu and Kashmir in 1846 by the Treaty of Amritsar, and Dogra troops replaced the Sikh in Gilgit. 20 Nathu Shah and Karim Khan both transferred their allegiance to Gulab Singh, continuing local administration. When Hunza attacked in 1848, both of them were killed. Gilgit fell to the Hunza and their Yasin and Punial allies, but was soon reconquered by Gulab Singh's Dogra troops. With the support of Gaur Rahman, Gilgit's inhabitants drove their new rulers out in an uprising in Gaur Rahman then ruled Gilgit until his death in 1860, just before new Dogra forces from Ranbir Singh, son of Gulab Singh, captured the fort and town. In 1870s Chitral was threatened by Afghans Maharaja Ranbir Singh was firm in protecting Page 65

66 Chitral from Afghans the Mehtar of Chitral ask for help, In 1876 Chitral accepted the authority of Jammu Clan and in reverse get the protection from the Dogras who have in the past took part in many victories over Afghans during the time of Gulab Singh Dogra. 21 Prior to establishment of Princely state of Jammu and Kashmir by the Dogra rulers in the mid - nineteenth century, the Gilgit region had been ruled by princes who were styled Raas. The rulers of the neighboring Baltistan region used the Tibetan title of rgyal-po, having been founded as a western Tibetan kingdom in the thirteenth century. Gilgit and Baltistan, together with their neighbours Hunza, Nagar and Ladakh, became vassals of the Princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, but maintained considerable autonomy. After formation of the Gilgit Agency by the British in 1877, these territories, including the Wazarats of Gilgit and Ladakh, were administered directly by the British, though the Princely state of Jammu and Kashmir retained sovereignty. Due to the British control over Gilgit, the Gilgitis became subjects of the British government, therefore, efforts were undertaken by the British to free Gilgiti and KunjutiHunzaenslaved in China After being freed due to the efforts of British authorities in China, many slaves such as Gilgitis in Xinjiang cities like Tashkurgan, Yarkand, and Karghallik, stayed rather than return Hunza in Gilgit. Most of these slaves were women who married local slave and non-slave men and had children with them. Sometimes the women were married to their masters, other slaves, or free men who were not their masters. There were ten slave men to slave women married couples, and 15 master slave women couples, with several other non-master free men married to slave women. Both slave and free Turki and Chinese men fathered children with Hunza slave women. A free man, Khas Muhammad, was married with 2 children to a woman slave named Daulat, aged 24. A Gilgiti slave woman aged 26, Makhmal, was married to a Chinese slave man, Allah Vardi and had 3 children with him. The local rulers of these territories continued to appear at the Jammu and Kashmir Durbars until The events of Partition and the subsequent invasion of Jammu and Kashmir by Pakistani tribals during the First Kashmir War led to most of the former Gilgit Wazarat becoming part of Pakistan-administered Kashmir, but most of the Ladakh Wazarat, including the Kargil area became part of Indian-administered Kashmir. The Line of Control established at the end of the war is the current de facto border of India and Pakistan. Initially, the Gilgit Agency was not absorbed into any of the provinces o f West Pakistan, but was ruled directly by political agents of the federal government of Pakistan. In 1963, Pakistan entered into a treaty with China to transfer part of the Gilgit Agency to China, (the Trans- Karakoram Tract), with the proviso that the settlement was subject to the final solution of the Kashmir dispute. The dissolution of the province of West Pakistan in 1970 was accompanied by change of the name of the Gilgit Agency to the Northern Areas. In 1974, the states of Hunza and Nagar and the independent valleys of Darel-Tangir, which had been de facto dependencies of Pakistan, were also incorporated into the Northern Areas. 22 Pakistan and India continue to dispute the sovereignty of the territories that had comprised the Gilgit Agency.On 29 August 2009, the Gilgit- Baltistan Empowerment and Self- Governance Order, 2009, waspassed by the Pakistani cabinet and later signed by Page 66

67 the President of Pakistan. The order granted self-rule to the people of the former Northern Areas, now renamed Gilgit-Baltistan, by creating, among other things, an elected legislative assembly. There has been criticism and opposition to this move in Pakistan, India, and Gilgit- Baltistan CATEGORIZATION OF HOUSING 23 Page 67

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69 2.6 SOCIAL MAPPING: Gilgit is considered to be home to a number of diversified cultures, ethnic groups, languages and various backgrounds RELIGION More than 97% of the population is Muslims belonging to Shia, Suni, Ismaili and other sects. On Religious basis, the major communities belong to Ahle Tashee, Ahle- Sunnat and Ismaili group. These communities exist in close proximity to each other. The religious tension in Gilgit has crippled the whole area since Although these areas are culturally rich but law and order situation has badly damaged its tourism and economy as mostly populations livelihood was dependent on tourism. The city center is considered to be the highly charged area. More dire issue occurs in this area during times of sectarian clashes. The area comes under immense strain due to the presence of Jama Masjid e Ahle Tashee and Jama Masjid e Ahle Sunnat. The two mosques facing each other across the length of the polo ground becomes the center of violence during sectarian tensions in the city. (Refer to the City Center case study) LANGUAGES SPOKEN The local languages of Gilgit Baltistan are Shina, Balti, Khowar, and Broshiski. Shina language is dominant in Gilgit, district. Page 69

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71 3. INTRODUCTION TO THE CASE STUDIES Objectives: The objective of the surveys was: 1. To document the physical aspect of the cases areas identified. 2. To develop a better understanding of critical urban issues affecting slum dwellers and urban poor, including issues related to climate changes. 3. To identify the potential and constraints of the selected case study areas. 4. To identify disaster affected areas and to study existing condition of the selected areas for revitalization of those areas. Research Methodology: The research has been supervised by Architect Fazal Noor and Architect Mariam Karrar. U.N- Habitat engaged the Department of Architecture and Planning, NED University of Engineering and Technology (DAP-NED UET), as a partner in this research through case study documentation, analysis and design alternatives formulation. The research was divided into 2 parts, namely, the physical and the social surveys and their analysis. The research team members Architect Affan Iqbal & Architect Aisha Rasheed of the NED UET conducted the physical surveys under the guidance of Architect Mariam Karrar at the department and helped in tabulating the data. Information was gathered through; mapping, interviews, questionnaire surveys and photographic documentation. Data gathered was converted in to tables and drawings which have been analyzed and tabulated as matrices by the NED UET team. All analysis draws from primary research material. About the Cases within region: Based on the above criteria, 3 cases have been identified from Gilgit and its surrounding areas. The first case is taken from the city centre. This centre is the historic and commercial core of the city. The second case is a low income, mixed ethnic and sectarian settlement in the vicinity of the main city centre of Gilgit City. The third case is taken from the periphery. In this case the development and changes occurring in the Daniyor Plateau are under discussion. Page 71

72 The physical, social and environmental changes have been identified in all the respective cases in detail in the following chapters. PERIPHERY DANIYOR is an agricultural land just outside the Gilgit city accessible from the main Gilgit Road. The reason of choosing the case of Daniyor is because of its real estate value and increasing growth in population. The issues identified were; 1. The change in land morphology and land use with the construction of KKH passing through the area, thereby resulting in: - Increase in commercial activity - Congestion in the city center - Rise in the land value. 2. The pull of the population from the Gilgit City towards Daniyor due to availability of water and the construction of Karakorum Highway. 3. The changing ratio of built versus open land over the passage with time. - Reduction of plot sizes with the passage of time. CITY MUJAHID COLONY is located at the northern bank of the Gilgit River. This colony over the last ten years has been designated for low income housing by the local government. The reason of choosing the case of Mujahid Colony is because of its mixed ethnic character along with grid layout. Issues under discussion are; 1. Mixed community with limited sectarian clashes. 2. Lack of potable water for the residents. 3. Well maintained locality with secondary lanes cleaner than the primary lanes. 4. Problems resulting from landslide. 5. Proximity to city centre. Page 72

73 INNER CITY CITY CENTER is considered as the main historic and commercial hub of the city. This part of the city is considered to be a settlement from the British period, based on the colonial style of nuclei planning. Issues under discussion are; 1. Highly charged with sectarian clashes 2. Limited pedestrian access (unfriendly for pedestrians in terms of lack of footpaths, unregulated vehicular traffic, and lack of shade) 3. Limited space for future expansion due to single lane road width. 4. Open and green spaces hidden behind high walls and commercial outlets 5. With the construction of the new RCC Bridge, the city centre activities will spill over the North bank. Case studies are analyzed and described based on complete physical documentation of the selected areas including observations of the use of space, and facilities available within the area (potential/constraints). Page 73

74 Major findings: Based on the physical documentation and observation is can be concluded that the environmental conditions of city center are much better than any other area of the city. It is the commercial hub of the city. This part of the city is considered to be a settlement from the British period, based on the colonial style of nuclei planning. The planning principles have been implemented adequately but the controls are weak which lead to dependency on cars and non utilized open spaces. City center houses a variety of land uses ranging from retail to wholesale to residential to institutional. Introduction of recreational and entertainment facilities in the form of parks can lead to richer social setups. The infrastructure of the locality is well. The road, SW disposal and sewerage drains are well maintained as compared to other localities of Gilgit. But the sewerage directly falls into the Gilgit River without being treated or recycled which affects the environment of the city. The area is considered as highly charged in terms of sectarian clashes. The city center has important religious centers of the three communities. i.e. Jama Masjid e Ahle Tashee, Jama Masjid e Ahle Sunnat and the Jamat Khana. The area comes under immense strain due to the presence of Jama Masjid e Ahle Tashee and Jama Masjid e Ahle Sunnat. The two mosques facing each other across the length of the polo ground becomes the center of violence during sectarian tensions in the city. Moreover, the area is unfriendly for pedestrians in terms of lack of footpaths, unregulated vehicular traffic, and lack of shade. The widths of the streets should be made more to avoid future congestion and to promote future expansion. There is also conservation and urban morphological issues which need to be addressed and stricter bylaws for conservation of heritage buildings and tress need to be implemented. The second case study of Mujahid Colony is situated on the north bank of the city. The settlement is developed by the government for low income group over the last 10 years along the Nomal Road. Unplanned residential area built on and around a hill following grid planning with back to back houses. The area suffers from lack of water supply which is the source of tension in the area. The condition of the area is better in terms of SWM and drainage system. Since the area is built on a hilly site therefore the natural slope helps the drainage of rain water. Like other areas of the city, there is a problem related to sewerage waste which is directly thrown to the Gilgit River without being treated. Hence the area needs improvement in terms of providing recreational facilities which could be developed in the leftover open plots being used as garbage dumps. Page 74

75 Lastly the third case study Daniyor is an example of the peripheral settlements and is predominantly rich agricultural land with plots sizes demarcated according to the sizes of personal holdings. The internal pressure of land sub-division over generations has overall reduced the extent of the agricultural land. Based on the physical documentation and observation is can be concluded that the settlement has the potential to develop as a self sustaining housing scheme as it has a large number of agricultural lands. The fact that the settlement is embedded in agricultural land and there is a trend of the residents being engaged in urban farming is a big potential which can be explored and developed upon further to generate large scale environmental and economic benefits for the residents. The need is to develop amenities and other recreational spaces in the area. The case study areas have been faced by the improper distribution of civic facilities and amenities which needs to be focused upon. The major issue which should be solved on immediate basis is the treatment of sewerage before flowing into the Gilgit River. Page 75

76 4. Intervention Areas a) MECHANISM/ RESPONSIBILITY: On an official level the responsibility for constructing water supply schemes, hydro projects, water channels, roads and other infrastructure services in the Gilgit-Baltistan lies with the NAPWD (Northern Areas Public Works Department). The department is also responsible for the interventions being regulated, monitored and executed properly. A number of government and non-government organizations like the Northern Areas Public Works Department (NAPWD) along with WWF-Pakistan, IUCN Pakistan, AKDN and MIES have been working in the field of infrastructure. Natural Resource Management (NRM) and a number of studies and surveys in Gilgit-Baltistan have been conducted in the past. Despite some efforts to compile the existing information like the Northern Areas Strategy for Sustainable Development (NASSD), there is still a need for scanning through the data available, compiling it and putting it in one place so that future NRM interventions are made easier and successful. 24 Various government and non-governmental organisations implementing and donor agencies working in the Region include: - National Rural Support Program, NESPAK, - Aga Khan Development Network: Aga Khan Rural Support Program AKRSP, Aga Khan Planning and Building Services Pakistan (AKPBSP), Aga Khan Cultural Services Pakistan (AKCSP), Aga Khan Education Services Pakistan (AKESP), Aga Khan Health Services (AKHS) - United Nations: UNICEF, UNDP, UN Habitat, WHO - International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) - World Wildlife Fund (WWF) - World Bank - Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA) - Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) b) IMPLEMENTING AGENCY: i. NAPWD Northern Areas Public Works Department (NAPWD) is the main government organization that is responsible for providing and monitoring infrastructure services in GB. Within Gilgit, it is mainly involved in construction of roads, public buildings, and construction of power supply stations (hydro power, thermal). 24 Page 76

77 However, the aforementioned working areas, the environmental impacts have not been considered seriously due to lake of awareness, resources and time constraints. In addition to this NAPWD is also responsible to construct and maintain drinking water supply systems, unfortunately due to lake of resources (both financial and skills) quantity and quality of drinking water in urban settlements doesn t match with WHO standards set for developing countries. 25 ii. Municipalities Municipalities are primarily political institutions at grass root levels and are involved directly to maintain urban environment. Five municipalities are functional at the moment in districts headquarters of GB. According to Local Bodies and Rural Development Department (LB&RDD), municipal committees are responsible to carry out all kinds of development works in their respective jurisdiction vis-à-vis other service utilities i.e. water supply, electricity, MSW management, town planning, enforcement of laws regarding building and constructions. However, in GB due to financial and human resources especially technical staff all municipal committees in GB are currently responsible only for keeping cleanliness, solid waste management, and traffic laws in main urban settlements of GB. 26 iii. Non Governmental Agencies (NGO s) Aga Khan Development Network AKDN AKDN has been in the region for almost twenty years (since 1982) and is recognized internationally as a community based organization with the mission to alleviate poverty through promoting sustainable livelihoods, health, education and conservation practices in the mountain communities. As the region moves from being extremely underdeveloped and traditional to being more modern and relatively more developed, the strategic objective of the program is to develop human resources and institutional capacities that will allow the people of the program area to better manage this process of change. AKDN AKRSP AKPBSP BACIP, WASEP AKES AKHS AKRSP, AKPBSP, AKHS and AKHS fall under AKDN which is a broader network for the development of cities. AKRSP has fostered a network of almost 4000 local organizations where men and women have an opportunity to participate in a range of collective development initiatives. These activities are 25 IUCN Report on Urban Environment By Haider Raza 2003 Pg IUCN Report on Urban Environment By Haider Raza 2003 Pg. 15 Page 77

78 related to constructing and maintaining infrastructure, managing natural resources and asset creation. Health, education and conservation efforts are supported by government and Aga Khan Health Services, Aga Khan Education Services, and Aga Khan Trust for Culture. BACIP/ WASEP: The Building and Construction Improvement Program (BACIP), and Water and Sanitation Extension Program (WASEP) operating in Gilgit-Baltistan of Pakistan, is a project under the Aga Khan planning and Building Services, Pakistan (AKPBSP). The objective of the Building and Construction Improvement Program (BACIP) has been to make sustainable improvements in their living conditions through improved technologies. Some of the technologies developed for home improvement range from: BACIP stove to reduce smoke from the stove in the interiors of the house. Skylights to bring in sunlight, especially during harsh winters Double glazed windows to bring in sunlight, especially during harsh winters Seismic construction development of manuals to improve strength and quality of construction in local building technology. These constructions technologies are designed to make buildings seismically resistant. WASEP was initiated with the aim of providing integrated water supply infrastructure services to local communities and to help prevent water related diseases though improved hygiene and sanitation practices. Development of community capacity in design and maintenance of these services is a key element of WASEP s integrated approach.. This should not only allow them to optimize their investment in built-environment-related aspects but also result in improving their quality of life. Page 78

79 1. LAND AND HOUSING i. Present situation: In Gilgit City, there are no defined rules as per settlement, therefore pattern is mostly unplanned, scattered, semi-scattered and congested depending upon the availability and contouring of land. Households are constructed in clusters in the basin of the mountains and or near river banks, because of mainly two reasons a) easy accesses to available water sources and b) form where they can use natural resources at a maximize level both in winter and summer. Various households formed clusters known as Mohallas based on ethnical religious or sometimes tribe formation. Household size varies region to region, depending upon the prevailing economical, cultural and religious norms of that particular area. Construction design and material also varies depending upon the prevailing climatic, economical and environmental situations as well as availability of local material and absence of basic infrastructure. Earthen blocks and wood are the main construction material due to sever winters and high cost of stone cutting or its unavailability, In some conditions, where economical conditions permit, stone is fairly available as compared to soil and then stones are used as a construction material. In Gilgit City, major portion of the land is community own land or private land. The plot sizes vary from one another. The size of residential plots ranges from ten Marlas to 2 kanals although a small fraction of population has constructed households in 3-5 kanals. There are two kind of constructions i.e., formal and Informal. The informal are those which have no rights, and lay in the form of a katchi abadi. One of the major issues with informal settlements is water availability. Water rights are available to natives only. The societies are mostly introverted. (IUCN) 27 The real estate value of land is different with respect to different areas. The prices have reached their peak value and now almost constant in areas of inner city i.e., old city and other city areas like Jutial. The price of 1 Kanal plot is expected to be 50 lac Rupees in Jutial. In case of periphery, the real estate value is not constant. It is increasing day by day. 28 Therefore the urban growth is putting pressure on the agricultural land. With increase price of land value and increase in population growth (2.74%) over time the agricultural land is being consumed by rapid construction. Moreover, limited building strength and technology is forcing people to spread horizontally instead of vertically. District Inner city Main City Periphery Gilgit City Old City Jutial (2005) Danyor (2011) Danyor 27 IUCN Report on Urban Environment By Haider Raza Physical Survey Conducted in Gilgit City by NED Tea m April 2011 Page 79

80 I Kanal Plot 40 Lac 50 Lac 15 Lac 20 Lac Table 25: Land price of 1 kanal plot in inner city, main city and periphery Better education, health facilities, and broader job opportunities both for skilled and unskilled labors, are the main encouraging factors for rural population to migrate in the city. These migrated people mostly belong to Skardu, Hunza, Swat and NWFP The city is completely occupied at western side till Basin. The only Available land for expansion is at Eastern side. ii. Present Support The Aga Khan Planning and Building Services under BACIP has developed housing construction methods that are low-cost, seismic-resistant, and energy- and resource-efficient. BACIP engineers work to create stable building materials for traditional stone, so il block and cement block constructions. The work uses low-cost wire mesh technology specially designed for Pakistani homes. There is also an emphasis on replacing traditional roofs which are made of a large amount of timber and clay and which can be very dangerous when they collapse, with lightweight roof beams. 29 Figure 38: BACIP low cost construction method for a house 29 Article on Building and Construction Improvement Program in Pakistan by BACIP Page 80

81 iii. Intervention In order to reduce the foot print of the constructed areas, the construction quality and technology should be strong enough to go for vertical construction. Page 81

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83 2. WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION 2.1. Water supply: i. Present situation Glaciers and seasonal snow deposits are the principal sources of all flowing water in Gilgit City. The melted water enters streams called nullahs, which subsequently ingress in rivers. There are two rivers in Gilgit vicinity, named as Gilgit and Hunza River. The channels which subsequently ingress in Gilgit and Hunza River are of 2-4 feet wide and of similar depth. 30 A large number of small ravines emerge from various glaciers, springs and lakes that eventually mix in these rivers. Seasonal variations create significant effect on the discharge of primary rivers resulting in significant decrease in the discharge flow in peak winter seasons. The flow is greatest from July to September, when snow melts in the mountains, while southwest as well as northern monsoon brings torrential rain resulting in land sliding, high flood levels and increase in the turbidity of water. 31 In areas where no pipeline exited, nearby households fetch water for domestic consumption. The surplus water in the channels generally discharges into the river flowing in the valley bottom. In villages the activities like washing clothes, utensils and foodstuff is undertaken along the channel edge. In Gilgit, there are five drinking water supply complex, which are situated in the south of Gilgit, charged by two water channels built around 30 years ago. For population living in the north side of the Gilgit, main source of water for piped water delivery system is river. However in the some parts of Gilgit town, dug wells are also in used for drinking purposes. Socio-economic survey conducted in 1994 by government of Pakistan revealed that 92% of the households in Gilgit have piped connections. Urban Area 1998 Population after 10 years Population after 20 Years Water Demand after 10 years(gal) Water Demand after 20 years(gal) Gilgit City 56,701 72,350 92, Table 26: Gilgit city population and projected water demands The drinking water supply complexes in Gilgit City are as follow. Burmus water supply complex, Majini Mohalla, Gilgit Jutial, water lift system Sonikot Jutial, lift water supply complex (Zulfiqar Colony) Water supply complex Danyore Chikas, Choke Area Gilgit City filtration plants i.e., APC (Aquatic Plant Control) Filtration Plant and DHQH (District Headquarter) Filtration Plant. 30 Gilgit info 31 IUCN Report on Urban Environment By Haider Raza 2003 Page 83

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85 2.2.SEWERAGE SYSTEM i. Present situation Owing to rapid socio-economic development almost every households in urban settlements have pour- flash latrines. Due to lack of any proper sewerage system on-site disposal (sockpits) of sewage is a common practice. The settlements which are along the river have open drains running along the side of the streets, and ends up in the river without any treatment. 32 Area No of Villages covered for sanitation facilities Population Covered No. of Pour Flush latrines completed No. of Sanitation and Hygiene Workers trained Gilgit Table 27: Gilgit villages sanitation related statistics ii. Present Support for Water and Sanitation In most urban areas water delivery systems have been around since the early 1980s but there has been a problem of continuity and quantity of water supplied to the homes. Water demand depends on the socio-economic status of the population, its density, the quality of raw water available and so on Because of interventions by NGOs and the government the situation with water supply has improved over the years. Over the last two decades many government and non-government organizations have been involved in water supply and development schemes. Below is presented a summary of their work supplied by WASEP. 33 Table 28: Major government and non-government water supply schemes in Northern Areas and Chitral by 2001 a summary WASEP was initiated in 1997 with the aim of providing integrated water supply infrastructure services to local communities and to help prevent water related disease s though improved hygiene and sanitation practices. Development of community capacity in design and maintenance of these services is a key element of WASEP s integrated approach. Communities also take the responsibility of the operation & maintenance of the scheme, as 32 IUCN Report on Urban Environment By Haider Raza Page 85

86 well as contribute to a fund for salaries of community scheme based operators, health monitors, and spare parts. 34 NESPAK has proposed two water supply proposals NESPak proposal (1970 s, 1980 s) that could be revitalized to improve the existing conditions of water supply in the town. (The drawings and other information is attached in the appendices) iii. Intervention To avail the natural resource of water, and drainage in order to develop an integrated water and sanitation scheme at the city and community level MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL (SWM) i. Present situation Gilgit being the largest city of GB faces more solid waste related problems than other cities within the region. A strategy is proposed to tackle this growing problem with emphasis on institutional strengthening of the line departments, making SWM financially sustainable and raising awareness among the general public, so that they can assist the Municipal Corporation. The solid waste is collected with the help of Municipal tractor trolleys and transferred to the dumping site behind Karakorum International University (KIU). In main town areas where provision of dustbins are available (mostly in bazaar areas) people dispose of wastes in these dustbins. In Gilgit City households situated along the water channels dispose off their garbage directly into nearby water channels. Figure 39: View of a garbage dump inside a housing colony According to a survey conducted by IUCNP the average MSW generation (estimated) in Gilgit town is around 0.4 kg of waste per person per day. According to IUCNP survey conducted in 1998 the estimated MSW generation only in Gilgit town is around tons per day. 35 Municipal Corporation is short of capital, manpower, and indispensable equipment such as collection vehicles. Lack of monetary assets, the existing infrastructure cannot be maintained, skilled professionals cannot be hired, and equipment and other necessary procurements cannot be made. 34 i ibid Page 86

87 District Urban Area Population MSW Generation (in 0.4 Kg/person/day Gilgit Gilgit City 56, Table 29: Gilgit city population and power consumption /person/day Projected population and estimated MSW generation after 10 and 20 years is as follow. Urban Area Gilgit City Population 1998 MSW Generation Tons Population after 10 Years MSW Generation Tons Population after 20 years 56, MSW Generation Tons Table 30: Gilgit city existing and proposed population and power consumption /person/day ii. Interventions: - Invigorate solid waste recycling at neighborhood level. - Identifying collection points for solid waste. - Set up recycling plant near the dumping site. - Raising awareness by encouraging use of recyclable goods / materials for amiable environment and discouraging use of the goods materials that are hazardous to environment. 2.4.DRAINAGE SYSTEM i. Present situation The settlements either urban or rural are situated on slope of the valleys towards river. Every urban settlement has a network of roadside sanitary drains downtown area constructed by NAPWD, and is being maintained by MCs. These kinds of drains could also be observed alongside KKH constructed by Frontier Works Organization (FWO). These drains are not constructed for grey water effluent from the households but instead are basically for roads to collect storm water. The household drains in mohallahs or cluster of mohallahs are collected in katcha paka drains constructed by self-help basis by the inhabitants or by members of MCs. Frequent blockage and over flowing of all kinds of drains whether roadside drains or drains for collection of household waste water could be observed due to common practice of garbage being thrown in these drains by the inhabitants or due to improper maintenance. This drainage water is used for irrigation of fields as well at various Figure 40: Condition of drainage line along the road Page 87

88 locations whilst, surplus water is naturally disposed off in nearby rivers or streams without treatment thus polluting the fresh water bodies. It is worth mentioning that in Gilgit City two big water channels constructed in ancient time now becomes open sewers but the most alarming thing is that these two water channels i.e., Jutial Nala and Konudas Nala are the major source of drinking water complexes for Gilgit town. Page 88

89 Page 89

90 ii. interventions: - On a neighborhood and household level, linking up the sewerage waste for agriculture / urban farming. - On a city level, create a reservoir for vegetation. - Before entering the river, the drainage channels should be collected at one point for sewage treatment before discharging into the river water. (Case study AKRSP, Hunza) Page 90

91 3. ENERGY i. Present situation In Gilgit, surface water is abundant and there is good potential of hydropower generation. At the moment there are 80 power stations (hydro and thermal) functional in five districts of NA. The capacity of these power stations is 43 MW, partially fulfilling the requirement of 45% of the total population of NA. The current electricity demand only in Gilgit town is estimated as KW per household whereas present hydropower generation is 8 MW only in summer and only 2.7 MW in winters. 36 (IUCN) Figure 41: View of a Hydropower plant District Current Demand Current Production Difference Summer Winter Summer Winter Gilgit Table 31: Gilgit city current demand for electricity and its production statistics Source: (NAPWD) It is worth mentioning that above electricity demand has been calculated only on household bases. If small scale industries and commercial consumption like hotels, restaurants taken into account that this figure might be doubled. In winter season the consumption of electricity is doubled in urban areas due as majority of the people living in urban areas use electricity for heating, cooking and other domestic facilities like warming water etc. In summer season electricity consumption also increases as due to increase in the commercial purposes like hotels, small industries and even in shops where refrigerators are used for cooling down the cold drinks. Similarly in household the use of refrigerator is a common practice nowadays and almost every fifth household has this facility. ii. Present Support: Mountain Infrastructure & Engineering Services abbreviated as MIES is a Consulting Engineering firm based in Gilgit with its head office at Al-Sabah Chowk SoniKot. During the period of association with AKRSP, the MIES Company, then called MIES section, has been developing feasibility reports, designed and supervised construction of different kinds of Infrastructure projects funded by international donors e.g. DFID, GTZ, CIDA, NORAD, 36 IUCN Report on Urban Environment By Haider Raza 2003 Page 91

92 OXFAM, Japan Embassy, Australian Embassy, AKF and PPAF etc. in the Northern Areas of Pakistan Report by Mountain Infrastructure related to its project Page 92

93 Figure 42: Map showing projects in operation in Northern Areas Hydal Potential in Pakistan by Power & Infrastructure board Page 93

94 iii. Intervention To avail the natural resources of water, gradient and pressure in order to develop hydro power units. 4. TRAFFIC AND TRANSPORT i. Present Situation: Based on the physical survey of different areas of Gilgit City, it seems that currently, there are as such no congestion issues, as the existing number of vehicles can be easily accommodate in the existing road network. However, it may not fulfill the requirements in the near future as the population of the area is rapidly growing with annual growth rate of 2.56%. There are three major roads namely River View Road, University Road, Shaheed-e- Millat Road which links east part of the city to the west. Similarly, there are six bridges that link north part to south across the Gilgit River. Figure 43: View of a road Considering the city center of Gilgit town, the streets in the market are accessible by vehicles and are in the form of U shapes or courtyards. The minimum street width observed was 20 feet and the maximum street width was 35 feet, which allows vehicular and pedestrian access though there are no formally designed footpaths in internal streets. The parking of cars on either side of the streets reduces the width of streets but doesn t give a sense of compactness due to low profile of surrounding structures. People can get access to public transport that includes Cart, wagons, Suzuki wagon and taxis from the informal stand locally termed as adda near the market. Streets of city center are completely active during day time. Considering the residential areas of Gilgit, they are usually along the primary roads. The widths of the internal road are ft on average. The secondary and tertiary roads are in the form of katcha road and pacca road. The maximum street width observed to be 20 ft. that is of secondary roads allows vehicular and pedestrian access though there are no formally designed footpaths. The internal streets are completely pedestrian in nature. Their width varies from 8 to 10 ft. Based on the observations, the absence of street furniture i.e. designed footpaths weakens the pedestrian linkages. The public transport also seems to be limited in terms of its quantity and accessibility. Page 94

95 ii. Interventions: The transport system can be made more effective through following interventions. To design bus route in three phrases - Public transport includes private taxis, vans and datsun pickups - Design public stops on important nodes. - Linking public transport with pedestrian routes. - Creating one way traffic flows in the commercial area, thereby, decongesting the city center. Page 95

96 Figure 44: Map showing bigger loop- Public transport Figure 45: Map Showing Smaller Loop Public Transport Page 96

97 5. URBAN HORTICULTURE i. Present situation Cultivation in the GB is dominated by the production of cereal crops, fruits, vegetables and fodders. Table presents a summary of agricultural land-use in the Northern Areas in In that year, the area under cereals amounted to some 52,837 ha, with Diamir, Baltistan and Gilgit Districts accounting for over 76 per cent of the total. The area under fruits was estimated to be 12,056 ha; Gilgit District was the most important fruit producing area, accounting for over 38 per cent of the total. The area under fodder production Figure 46: View of agricultural land amounted to 47,558 ha, with Gilgit District again accounting for over 39 per cent of the total. Vegetable production amounted to 10,638 ha. 39 District Area under Cereals (ha) Area under Fruits (ha) Area under Vegetables (ha) Area under Fodders (ha) Gilgit 10,194 4,602 3,232 18,741 Table 32: Gilgit district farmlands area In urban areas of Gilgit district, major trend that is found in residential areas is that there is a Kitchen Garden in each unit where different crops are cultivated. People use to keep live stock animals like cow, goat and hens in their houses. The predominant agricultural areas are now slowly being transformed. The internal pressure of land sub-division over generations has overall reduced the extent of the agricultural land. Plot sizes of the agriculture land have reduced along with increase in the built structures, housing cattle and residences units for family. Since all construction that takes place on ground only, any additional construction that takes place encroaches over the agricultural land. 39 State Of Environment & Development IUCN Pakistan, 2003 Scott Perkin Pg. 25 Page 97

98 Table 33: Gilgit district farmlands and livestock land utilization Issues and trends Agriculture and food security within the Northern Areas are confronted by a number of important issues and constraints, including: ii. Lack of cultivable land; Lack of awareness about improved agricultural management practices; Lack of quality seeds; Crop diseases and insect pests; Poor storage and processing; Weak marketing and poor access to markets; Weak extension services; Insufficient access to micro-credit; Insufficient public sector investment and insufficient Involvement of the private sector; Insufficient and inappropriate research. Present Support: Government Line Departments The key government line department involved in cultivation in the Gilgit-Baltistan is the Department of Agriculture. It is responsible for providing extension services for the development of crops, forage, fruits and vegetables. The department operates 47 fruit nurseries and nine seed farms. The production of fruit tree seedlings is relatively low, however, and is currently estimated to be only 150,000 plants per year. Seedling quality is also reported to be variable, and as a result, the plants are difficult to sell to farmers, in spite of widespread demand. Seed production is also low and has proven to be Page 98

99 insufficient to ensure the effective dissemination of new varieties to farmers. With the assistance of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), four green houses, a number of screen houses and a tissue culture laboratory have been established at Gilgit for the production of virus-free, pre-basic, potato mini-tubers. Production is at a level of about 30 tones of pre-basic seed per year. This seed is then multiplied by private seed companies under contractual arrangements with farmers located in the disease-free, higher altitude zones. Extension activities are largely focused upon the provision of training in pre- and post-harvesting techniques to farmers. There are no training facilities or pre-service training programs for departmental staff in the Northern Areas. Non-Governmental Organizations: The Aga Khan Rural Support Program is actively involved in agricultural development in the four districts of Gilgit, Baltistan, Ghanche and Ghizar, and in the subdivision of Astore (Diamir District). At the end of 1995, AKRSP had established some 1,950 Village Organizations in its area of operation. Approximately 73 per cent of the total rural population is actively engaged in AKRSP programs. AKRSP s agricultural activities have focused upon the dissemination of improved crop technology, the promotion of forage and fodder production, horticultural development, and animal production and health. The main thrust of this model is to organize village groups, assess their needs on a participation-response basis and provide the required services through AKRSP staff, thus by-passing the various line departments. This approach has proven to be very effective but has raised concerns about long-term sustainability. Agricultural Research Institutions The Karakoram Agricultural Research Institute for the Northern Areas (KARINA) is part of the Pakistan Agricultural Research Council (PARC). Established in 1984, it is the only research institute currently located in the Northern Areas. KARINA is located in Juglot Sai (near Gilgit), and has three substations in Chilas, Astore and Skardu. The Institute has a staff of 13 researchers working in the fields of agronomy, fodder crops, cereals, pulses, fruit crops and vegetables. 40 iii. Interventions: There is a deficiency of a body or a platform in the area which can gather all the research and knowledge related to all the fields. Providing such platform in the form of a Networking Cell would be helpful for improvement of various aspects. - Gathering Information and Resources between various Government and Non- Government Organizations. 40 State Of Environment & Development IUCN Pakistan, 2003 Scott Perkin Page 99

100 - Providing a platform for sharing of knowledge and basis for its development. - Integration of water, sanitation, waste disposal with the urban horticulture. The sewerage waste on neighborhood and household level would be linked up for agriculture and urban farming. The drainage channels would be collected at one point before entering the river and treated before discharging into the river water. The treated waste water would also be used for irrigation of farmlands which will result in improving the economy of the city. Page 100

101 5. IMPACT ANALYSIS An integrated approach is required between all the proposed intervention areas. The overall aim of the below described proposals is to improve the urban environment and quality of life of the resident and visiting population. 1. LAND AND HOUSING 1.1 In order to reduce the foot print of the constructed areas, the construction quality and technology should be able to be strong enough to uphold vertical construction. Based on the trend of increase land prices, and horizontal expansion of the built structures, it is suggested that technology should be developed to promote vertical growth of the structures. The impact of intervention is going to increase availability of land for cultivation and agriculture output. This is going to have a direct impact on environment and reduce the overall pollution and carbon footprint of the area. Meanwhile, it will have an indirect impact on urban poverty. Fruits and vegetables are available for free of cost to the residents, along with reducing the cost of marketing and transportation of food items from agricultural fields to the market places, overall reducing the cost vegetables and fruits. Meanwhile, the surplus produce can be used to get cash. 2. WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION 2.1 To avail the natural resource of water, and drainage in order to develop an integrated water and sanitation scheme at the city and community level. The general trend within Gilgit City is that sewerage from the households is directly being discarded in the fresh water. This is polluting the river water consequently, contaminating the drinking water as well. It is projected that with increase in population growth and industrialization, contamination of the water will increase to an unsustainable level. As a result this will directly affect the human, and livestock population and overall ecology of the region. Treatment of household grey water at the household and mohalla level will overall reduce the infrastructure and management cost of water and sanitation at the city level. Meanwhile, the same waste water can be used for home grown cultivation. The household waste being rich in nutrients of the plants can act as fertilizer for the home grown vegetation. Thereby, resulting in better produce and yield that will have a direct impact on urban poverty. Meanwhile, the reduced contamination of the river water will have a direct impact on health and hygiene of the overall city. Containment of waste will also have a direct impact on the environment of the area. Page 101

102 3. MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL (SWM) 3.1 Invigorate solid waste recycling at neighborhood level. 3.2 Set up recycling plant near the dumping site. 3.3 Raising awareness by encouraging use of recyclable goods / materials for amiable environme nt and discouraging use of materials that are hazardous to environment. Solid waste is not a noticeable component in Gilgit City. Due to limited consumer oriented lifestyle, the solid waste produced per person is contained to 0.4 kg. This is added by an efficient municipal system that constantly checks the upkeep of the city. The solid waste on regular intervals is picked up from the city centre and neighbourhoods and dumped at the dumping site next to the University. As per the above mentioned proposal, it is suggested that the solid waste should be sorted and recycled. It is hoped that this proposal will have a direct impact on the environment and indirectly the income generated and job opportunities from the recycling industry will have a positive impact on the economy and hence alleviate urban poverty of the area. 4. DRAINAGE SYSTEM 4.1 On a neighborhood and household level, linking up the sewerage waste for agriculture / urban farming. 4.2 On a city level, create a reservoir for vegetation. 4.3 Before entering the river, the drainage channels should be collected at one point for sewage treatment before discharging into the river water. (Case study AKRSP, Hunza) The drainage system needs to be integrated with water and sanitation system. For impact analysis refer to water supply and sanitation proposal. 5. ENERGY 5.1 To avail the natural resource of water, gradient and pressure in order to develop hydro power units. (Case study AKRSP, Hunza) The province of Gilgit-Baltistan is the ideal location for hydro power production with abundance of water, and steep gradients. Gilgit is already being supplied electricity through 80 Hydro and thermal power plants. The AKRSP is already developing hydro power units at the village level. They are cases in Hunza valley where village is exporting electricity and using the surplus for village development activity. Page 102

103 In the same league it is suggested that development of hydro power plants at community level can have a direct impact on energy efficiency and sustainability. It may also lead to a boost in economic generation through exporting of electricity. 6. TRAFFIC AND TRANSPORT 6.1 The transport system can be made more effective through following interventions. - Design public stops on important nodes. - Linking public transport with pedestrian routes. - Creating one way traffic flows in the commercial area, thereby, decongesting the city centre. To design a transport system for Gilgit a three phrase approach has been suggested An overall transport network plan has been suggested based on the compactness of the city, making it potentially a walk able city in the backdrop of scenic beauty of the surrounding context. Gilgit is longitudinally spread over 5 kilometres and 2 kilometres across. A public transport system is suggested along with integration of pedestrian routes. This compact city transport proposal is aiming to have a direct positive impact on the urban environment and ecology. The integration of public transport system will aim to create a more efficient and user friendly approach, that will decrease the congestion in the city centre. It is hoped that this will add to the cities potential as a tourist destination, thereby also indirectly impact on the economy of the area. 7. URBAN HORTICULTURE 7.1 Integration of water, sanitation, waste disposal with the urban horticulture. 7.2 The sewerage waste on neighborhood and household level would be linked up for agriculture and urban farming. The drainage channels would be collected at one point before entering the river and treated before discharging into the river water. The treated waste water would also be used for irrigation of farmlands which will result in improving the economy of the city. Page 103

104 It is suggested that the water, sanitation, drainage should be integrated with urban horticulture and farming. The direct impact of this would have a positive effect on the ecology, environment, and overall health of the city. Last but not the least, the enhanced quality of the environment will have a positive impact on user friendliness and increase the cities potential as a tourist destination. This will eventually have a positive effect on the economy. 8. KNOWLEDGE SHARING 8.1 Gathering Information and Resources between various Government and Non- Government Organizations. 8.2 Providing a platform for sharing of knowledge and basis for its development. There is a deficiency of a body or a platform in the area which can gather all the research and knowledge related to all the fields. Providing such platform in the form of a Networking Cell would be helpful for improvement and dissemination of effective and good practices. Page 104

105 SOCIO-ECONOMIC ANALYSIS- GILGIT CITY A Socio Economic Survey was conducted in Gilgit city in the year 2011 as part of the Sustainable Urbanization component within the Joint Program on Environment (JP-E4), which envisions building capacity to provide an effective and sustained improvement in urban poor living conditions, including urban issues relating to climate change. As part of this program 3770 Socio-Economic questionnaires were filled in Gilgit City. The questionnaires were divided over the City, Inner city and Peripheral localities within Gilgit City. The data collected from these questionnaires was then tabulated and analyzed. Following are the major findings of the socio-economic survey for Gilgit city. These have been categorized according to the sub heads used in the questionnaire. House Hold Characteristics A total of 3783 respondents were interviewed out of a population of ---- in Gilgit City. The cross section of the socio-economic analysis is based on a sample survey that has been carried out in the inner city, city and periphery of the city. The distribution of the sample survey is based on the respective density of the population found in the city. Of the total sample population it was found 48% of the household members were under the age of 25, while only 9% of the population was found to be under the age of 50%. Surprisingly 32% were under 16. This creates a large portion of the population that is dependents. Even though the majority of the population (32%) cited above is under the marriageable age (under 16), yet, it is noted that a surprising number of people are still unmarried. This trend can indicate towards a higher education, a sign of economic growth and upward social mobility. After evaluation of the trends in different parts of the city; it seems that a similar trend is visible throughout. However, slight deviations of 5% increase in the unmarried status is indicative between the inner city that is more urban than the periphery which can be bending towards the rural culture. The total percentage of literate people out of the sample population comes up to 78%. However, it is interesting to note that only 1% of the population claimed to be unable to read or write. The rest of the respondents gave no response. If we sum up the percentage of literate people than it overall comes to 79% literate in the inner city, 83% in the city, 74% in the periphery. However, a rising trend of education can be deduced with 33% of the population attending primary school as compared to 31% in the inner city and 30% is seen in the periphery. Almost all the respondents have received education through the conventional schooling system, except for a negligible number from the madarsah in the periphery area. 63% of the population has recorded to be unemployed according to the survey. The largest numbers of people employed were in the Government and the Private sector followed by teaching. Interestingly, only 1 percent of the population is in the agriculture sector. It seems that more people seem to be employed in the service sector economy. 45% of the population are employed within Gilgit city and the greater city region. Out of which 35% are working within the city centre. 4% of the resident population are working in the bigger cities of Pakistan. Page 105

106 Most of the residents are working within the inner city and the city centre (a total of 80%) while 23% (?) of the population is working in the periphery region. If we plot the places of work on the map, it seems that most of the work places seem to be east of the city centre. Average monthly income of a household (number of members?). The household comprises of ---- individuals, the average income of the household is Rupees It is obvious from the figures that most of the high income group resides in the city area. (Refer to table 5 and 6) from the table it is also indicative that 46% of the city residents are under the 30,000+ category. However, the surprising aspect is that within this income category 63% of the residents are said to come under the unemployed category. (Refer to table 5) 7% of the monthly income comes under the minimum wage Rs The rest 42% lie in the between the 10,000 and 30,000 rupees category. Out of the entire population only 25% of the population uses any form of motorised vehicle. Meanwhile, it is interesting to note that 35% of the population is unable to comprehend or even give an answer to the stated question. 40 % of the respondents walk, indicative of the compact nature of the city. Since the periphery is at a considerable distance from the city centre, there is a slight increase of use of vehicular transportation. Overall it can be deduced that most people tend to live near their places of work. Another important indicator from the table is next to the pedestrian linkages, is the use of contract buses to transport passengers. All these indicators verify the need of developing pedestrian linkages within the city and to connect the outer limits of the city with the city centre through a public transport system. The daily travelling cost does not correspond with the mode of transportation used by the residents (as indicated in the table 8: Travel Mode). It could be that the idea of spending money on travel is not a major expense amongst the residents of Gilgit. This is indicated by 76% of no responses by the sample survey. Mother Tongue 96% of the respondents belong to the local ethnicity (33% Brushaski, and 58% Shina speaking, Khuwar 3% and Wakhi 2%). The only language spoken outside the Northern Areas is Pashto (2%). Similarly this trend seems to be constant throughout the city. However a slight increase in present in the periphery area as compared to the inner city area. It is probable that the inner city is attracting migrant from the Khyber- Pakhtunkhwa for trade and commerce. Period of Residence Most of the population as started is residing in their homes for more than 36 years (35%). However, it is worth noting that 20% of the population has recently occupied their places of residence, indicative towards a shift in demographics within the city. Household Expenditure and Savings Overall, only 22% of the population is spending less than Rs 5000 on food, is indicative either of the poverty level or the fact that this number of people are leading a subsistence life i.e. growing their own food. Page 106

107 However, a sizable income is being spent of food, thereby indicating a trend towards a cash economy. There is no information that will help deduce a co-relation between the monthly expenditure and the household income. If one compares spending of a household between the scale of Rs 0 - Rs 5000, the spending on food (67%) education (76%), utility (90%), and, health (92%) is in the progressive order. The overall spending on health can be indicative of issues related to the quality of built environment, water, sanitation and hygiene related issues. If one looks within the bracket then the spending on utility and power seems comparatively more in the inner city as compared to the city and the periphery region. However, within the Rs 5000 Rs 7000 bracket, relatively more is spent in the periphery compared to the inner city (3%) and the city (6%). It is interesting to note that the cost of utilities (average 2%) hardly exceeds the Rs mark. It is an interesting point to note that an average population of 49% of the sample population is spending monthly Rs 1000 Rs 5000 on the education of children. Meanwhile overall 67% of the population is spending between Rs 1000 to above 10,000 on the children s education. Even though the percentage of school going age is high, even then this shows the awareness of the importance of education and the tendency towards upward social mobility. As mentioned earlier, percentage wise a large health seems to be the major expense in Gilgit city. It is even more surprising since a large part of the population is still young and should presumably with little health problems. The number of people is spending money on the health facilities. If one looks at the overall picture an average of 49% of the population is spending between Rs 1000 to Rs 5000 every month of health related expenses. The overall house rent or maintenance lies within Rs 10,000 bracket. However, it is difficult to deduce whether the money spent is on rent or on maintenance. Housing Characteristics Nonetheless, based on the sample questionnaire, it can be assumed that at least 33% of the population live in their owned houses. We can cross check this fact with the Period of Residence (Table 11) which says that up to 35% of the population has been living in their places of residence for more than 36 years. This trend of living in owned homes is more obvious towards the periphery area (51%) and considerably lower towards the main city centre (11%). This is indicative towards a sizable number of migrant population or population that is based elsewhere and coming towards the city for trade or work. A sizable percentage (49%) of the population is spending less then Rs 1000 on entertainment. However, 24% of the population is spending between Rs 1000 to Rs 5000 on social and entertainment expenses. Page 107

108 This trend is more evident in the main city area (30%). Meanwhile, it gets less towards the main city centre (16%), with (20%) in the city centre. This table corresponds with the Daily Travel Mode (Table 8), Travel Time (8A), and Travel Time per Trip (Table 9). Generally it can be said that 25 % are paying between Rs 1000 Rs 10,000 at a household level for travelling. The rest 75% are paying less than then Rs 1000 per month. Based on the survey 30% of the respondents are practise saving. This trend is similar with slight deviation throughout the city. Most of the household saving is less than Rs 2000 (31%), which is most evident in the periphery areas (47%), compared to the city (33%) and inner city (12%). Meanwhile a further 29% of the savers are saving between Rs This time more savings are occurring within the city (33%) compared to the periphery (31%) and the inner city (20%). According to Table 21, as per the intended reason for saving, education comes first, with (47%) of those who are saving. The second on the list is marriage (32%) followed by house construction (25%) and debt serving (23%). The trend in this approach seems to be similar in all the areas within the city. This analysis of this table is in continuation with the Period of Residence Table 11 and Home Rent and Maintenance Table 16. However, according to the above table 72% of property is owned, while only 27% is rented. This trend is more obvious in the periphery area where 96% of the property is owned compared to the inner city (63%) and the city (61%). According to table 23, most of the houses on an average consists of the 3 (30%) to 4 (24%) rooms. However, the general trend is that houses with same or number of rooms are found more on the periphery areas as compared to the city and inner city areas. Meanwhile, based on the findings of Table 24, the houses tend to sprawl horizontally then vertically. With only 11% of the houses consist of ground plus 1while predominantly 87% of the houses are spread over the ground floor. It is also important to note that within the 11% of ground plus 1 construction; most of it is situated within the inner city and the city area. Table 25 shows the variation of plot sizes within the Gilgit city. Based on the figures it can be deduced that there are no fixed type or sizes found in the city. Overall there is a higher concentration or trend of plot sizes. Although larger plot sizes of 10 marlas and above seem to be more concentrated towards the periphery areas. The type of planning is around the courtyard houses. The open private areas within the houses. Majority of the houses 84% have courtyards while only 12% do not. Overall, there is a rising trend in the construction of concrete and RCC technology within the city. However, this trend is more obvious in the inner city areas (43%) and the city (41%) as compared to the periphery (18%). Page 108

109 Even though the material of construction is overall drastically changing from stone and rubble (27%) to concrete blocks (70%), yet it is interesting to note that with change in material the change in structure is not so obvious. For example, overall, 43% of the houses are still opting for the load bearing structures as compared to the 35% of the RCC structures. Moreover, overall, 51% of the structures still have wooden roofs. However, this type of roofing is more evident in the periphery (69%) as compared to the inner city (49%) and city (42%). Generally, it can be said that even though resources and material are being used are most recent, yet the structure doesn t have the capacity to hold super structure, thereby resulting in more horizontal sprawl (87%) that vertical growth (11%). The latrine (87%) and kitchen (84%) construction technology is indicative towards a developed infrastructure. The other reason for this is the extreme weather conditions of Gilgit- Baltistan. The two dominant assets owned by majority of the residents of Gilgit seem to the TV (82%) and cell phone (91%). Apart from that it is even more interesting to note that very few people actually own any form of vehicle for transportation. The ownership are as cars (17%), Jeep van (7%), motorcycle (15%), bicycle (6%). This trend is evident throughout the different areas of the city. However, one of the biggest anomalies out of the list of assets is that 72% percent of the respondents have ownership of washing machines. This trend is more or less present throughout the various areas of the city. Utilities available in the area Generally it can be said that water related infrastructure is sufficient. 87% of the respondents claimed to have sufficient water for domestic consumption. This water is being supplied by piped system (81%). A small percentage (6%) of the respondents get water supplied through water tanks. However, what is worth noting is that (72%) of the respondents felt that the water supplied was not fit for human consumption. Even though majority of the respondents felt that the water was not good enough for drinking purposes, nonetheless, 73% of the population do not perform any kind of processing to improve the water quality. Only 16% of the respondents boil water, while 5% filter water, and another 5% use other cleaning techniques. The quality of water can be correlated with the health expenditure amongst the respondents. Overall the respondents show a general un-satisfaction with the operation and maintenance within the city. Amongst the responses, 14% out of the total still feel satisfaction with the O and M performed by the government municipality. Little input is identified by the community related organisations (overall 13% input documented). 78% of the respondents state that the sewerage waste is directly discharged through open drains. However, this trend is more evident in the inner city and city area (86% and 88% respectively). The Page 109

110 sewerage system of the city goes directly in the river water, adding to the overall contamination of fresh river water. Eventually leading to health and hygiene related issues for the resident population. In the periphery area, since the river is at a considerable height from the resident population, an equal % of the waste is disposed off in the septic tanks (46%). Sufficient disposal of garbage is an issue within the city. Most of the garbage is rid of in open plots either near the source or at designated disposal sites. Out of which the garbage is either burned or shifted to the designated municipal dumping sites. The municipal collection is 28% compared to the self initiated dumping at 62%. As indicated almost all (99%) electricity is supplied by the government developed facility (WAPDA). Road infrastructure seems to be lacking in terms of metalled roads. Most of the roads (as stated in the table) are kacha or un-metalled. However, this can also be looked in relation to the limited vehicular movement within the city. Overall, all the respondents have accessibility to the basic needs of health, education, recreation and market facilities. It is worth mentioning that education, either in the form of school or madarsa (97% each respectively) are the most available of all the services in the city. This is indicative of the demand for education that is reciprocated by its supply. Issues Related to Housing and Development Preferences It is worth noting that poor sanitary conditions (77%) seem to be the most important aspect within issues related to housing. This is followed by threat of seismic activity (68%). The seismically weak structures can be further categorized by poor construction quality (51%) within the structures. The primary issues identified are bad quality of water (68%) followed by poor sanitary conditions (52%). Similarly, the development preference stated by the residents indicates towards infrastructure development. Predominantly clean drinking water seems to be a major is a major need amongst 54 % of the respondents; this is followed by issues related to drainage and sewage system (27%), and quality of construction of the roads (24%). Reason for health and education (21%) could be since there already exists an infrastructure for these two facilities in Gilgit city. Page 110

111 APPENDIX 01 Page 111

112 CASE STUDY # 1: INNER CITY - CITY CENTER Physical Description (Location\Context): The city center of Gilgit is considered as the main commercial hub of the city as it contains the large number of shops. This part of the city is considered to be a settlement from the British period, based on the colonial style of nuclei planning. It acts as the nucleus of the city which is generated by the intersection of the Shaheed Millat Road (running parallel to the Southern Mountain Ridge) and the Raja Bazaar Road. Figure 47: Map showing major roads of Gilgit city and the case study area # 01 Page 112

113 The overall description of the case study on the city center will be explained into four parts: 1. The historical nuclei of the city. 2. The shift of the nuclei. 3. Linkage with the historical neighborhood. 4. The proposed link to the north bank through the construction of the new RCC Bridge. The Historical Nuclei of the City: Colonial Period Planning This part of the city is considered to be a settlement from the British period, based on the colonial style of nuclei planning. The nucleus is generated by the intersection of the Shaheed Millat Road (running parallel to the Southern Mountain Ridge) and the Raja Bazaar Road (Refer to Map no.--). This intersection is marked by the presence of the British Cemetery on the plan of the area. On the opposite side of the cemetery is the Aga Khan Polo Ground, along with the existence of the Masjid e Ahle Tashee and Masjid e Ahle Sunnat on the respective length of the polo ground. The extent of the Raja Bazaar Road starts from the British Cemetery and goes up to the intersection of the Gilgit Pull Road in the east. The extent of this road is approximately 1360 or 0.42 km. The north of Raja Bazaar Road is also linked with the north bank of the city through the link road known as Gilgit Pul Road. The street facade on both sides of the 40 wide Raja Bazaar Road is dominated by 15 to 25 feet wide shop fronts (with the depth of 30 ft). While the open spaces like polo ground and cemetery are hidden from the main road. The shops are selling a variety of goods that include textile, shoes, bags, kitchen utensils and spices. Most of the textile, shoes and crockery are mainly imported from China. On both sides of the road, random cars are parked that belong to the shop owners and area residents. Sometimes, hand carts encroach the road, however, on a temporary basis. The narrow width of the road, can lead to congestion at times, with little or no infrastructure for pedestrians. This creates problems for the pedestrian movement on the road. More dire issue occurs in this area during times of sectarian clashes. The city center comes under immense strain due to the presence of Masjid e Ahle Tashee and Masjid e Page 113

114 Ahle Sunnat. The two mosques facing each other across the length of the polo ground becomes the center of violence during sectarian tensions in the city. The Shift of the Nuclei: NLI Market The commercial core of the city center seems to have shifted towards the east at the intersection of the Saddar Bazaar Road and Babar Road. This intersection is marked by the NLI (Northern Light Infantry Regiment) Market. The name of this area has been kept keeping in mind the name of the infantry that fought in the independence of the Kargil war. The Raja Bazaar Road extends towards the east and is referred as the Saddar Road (after the Gilgit Pul Road intersection). This road then diverges into a fork intersection marked by a stone clock tower and an old maple tree. Because of the presence of the clock tower, this intersection is also referred to as Ghari Chowk. Figure 48: Picture showing entrance of NLI (Northern Light Infantry Regiment) Market Figure 49: picture showing Ghari Chowk From this intersection the road that continues in the east west direction is referred as NLI road, linking the NLI market to the airport. Meanwhile, the north-south road is referred to as Baber road which is expected to extend on to the north bank of the Gilgit River after completion of RCC Bridge. There is another important node as we move towards the south from the intersection. This node is known as NLI Chowk marked by a traffic island followed by an entrance portal marking the limits of the market on either ends. The street profile of NLI market is majorly consists of G+ 1 structure, with the exception of the office building that is G+ 4. Page 114

115 The ground plus 4 office building consisting of offices for transport companies, mobile phones companies, traders. The NLI road is 40 ft wide with the presence of infrastructure consisting of street lights and footpath. Figure 50: picture showing NLI road Figure 51: Picture showing G+4 Commercial building The NLI market is designed in a mix of U shaped blocks and double loaded corridor aligned perpendicular to the main NLI Road. The shops are a mix of ground and ground plus one marked by series of 15 to 25 feet shop fronts. The U shaped plan exists on the north side of the road with 65 by 150 feet of open space in the middle also used as parking plaza. These shops are related to jewelry, stone and gems, crockery, textile and traveler bags. The NLI market mostly consists of goods that are brought in from China. There are however, shops that house textiles brought in from down south of the country along with a few local handicraft shops. There are number of cooperate banks in NLI market. On the south of the node, there is a Jamat Khana Bazaar. It mostly comprises 15 to 20 feet wide shops that are selling daily use items i.e., bakery, general store, vegetable, fruits and meat. The linkage with the historical neighborhood: Figure 52: View of NLI market The commercial center is linked to the old town situated parallel to the Shaheed-e-Millat Road. (Map) The old town is situated in between the southern mountainous range and shaheed millat road. It is linked to the city center through Khasanna road and Jamat Page 115

116 Khana road along a north-south axis. Overall the old town consists of three neighbourhoods: Nagaral Colony in the south and Majini Mohallah and Haider Pura on east side. The Nagaral Colony has the oldest polo ground in the city. 41 The polo ground has an interesting morphology as it is located away from the main Shaheed-e-Millat Road and completely surrounded with old residential settlements. Figure 53: View of condition of Nagaral colony The houses are made up of stones, sand and straw. The secondary and tertiary lanes within the settlement are not aligned. The area has basic infrastructure but in poor condition. The streets are maintained and clean, paved with stones and compacted earth. Drainage lines are open and end up in the river without treatment. The theft of electricity is a common issue in an area. Future Expansion: Link to the north bank through the construction of the new RCC bridge The city center is linked to the new settlement that is constructed ten years ago. It has old town on the south and Mujahid Colony on the North, i.e., on the opposite side of Gilgit River. The case study area is linked to the northern bank of the Gilgit River through Gilgit Pul that intersects Rajah Bazaar Road at one side and Nomal Road on another side. The approx length of this link road will be 800 ft. Figure 54: Construction of a new RCC bridge to link to the north bank However, the under constructed extension of Babar Road in the form of New RCC Bridge will become an important link between the two areas as it will connect nucleus of the town to the North bank of the city. 41 The favorite sport in Gilgit is polo which local folks claim originated here. It's more rugged, free-style version than the sedate variety known in the plains. Page 116

117 PLANNING MATRICES OF CITY CENTER: Indicators The city centre of Gilgit Approximate Date Colonial period planning with post colonial additive land use. (Need to verify through source) Planning layout Zoning Dominating Planning Feature Nuclear Planning. Converging of Raja Bazaar Road and Shaheed e Millat Road. River view road running parallel to the main city centre. Mixed use. Including commercial outlets, administration, public and religious buildings Shaheed e Millat Road is following the mountain ridge line on the south. While Raja Bazaar is intersecting the Shaheed e Millat Road at the Nucleus (Gilgit Master Plan, 1977) Important Landmarks Aga Khan Polo Ground, Masjid Ahle Tashi and Masjid Ahle Sunni Jammat Linkages to the significant neighboring settlements Linked to old city via Shaheed e Millat Road. The old city constitutes of old residential settlements around the Old Polo Ground Page 117

118 Page 118 Figure 55: Map showing Landuse of the Case study area

119 The amenities found in the area of the city center include: o Hospital: The area has the main district hospital known as DHQ Hospital. It is located along the main Hospital road just before the commercial hub started. It is offcentrally located in the area. It is the only government hospital in Gilgit, other five hospitals are civil. o Educational Institutions: A government girls college is located along the Khassana Road, which later intersect the Shaheed-e-millat road. The students from this school belong to the residents of old town including Nagral colony and Majini Mohalla. The department of Directorate of Education is also located in the same area, on the intersection of Jamat Khana Road and Saddar Bazaar Road, opposite to NLI Market. o Private\ Government Organistions: The Government sectors also have keen interest in the development of the area. However, there is no Gilgit Development Authority to look after these matters. (Shigri, 2011) o Open spaces: The map of city center shows a number of vacant/open spaces. These open spaces are in the form of Polo Ground, graveyard, or green patches. There are two polo grounds in the area. One is the Agha Khan Polo Ground, opposite to the British Cemetry. Another is located in old town of Nagral Colony and surrounded with residential settlements. There is also large number of green patches. However, with the growth of the city these patches are converting into constructed land. o Important Features: The city center has important religious centers of the three communities. i.e., Jama Masjid e Ahle Tashee, Jama Masjid e Ahle Sunnat and the Jamat Khana. The area comes under immense strain due to the presence of Jama Masjid e Ahle Tashee and Jama Masjid e Ahle Sunnat. The two mosques facing each other across the length of the polo ground becomes the center of violence during sectarian tensions in the city. Page 119

120 Page 120 Figure 56: Map showing Amenities of the Case study area

121 Activities in and around the Streets In the area of city center, there are different markets in which most Prominent is the NLI Market. There are two nucleuses in the City center; one is generated by the intersection of the Shaheed Millat Road (running parallel to the Southern Mountain Ridge) and the Raja Bazaar Road. This intersection is marked by the presence of the British Cemetery on the plan of the area. Another important node is east at the intersection of the Saddar Bazaar Road and Babar Road. This intersection is marked by the NLI (Northern Light Infantry Regiment) Market. It served as the main commercial hub to the city. The residents of Gilgit are dependent on this bazaar for all their needs. The Raja Bazaar road is 40 wide. The street facade on both sides is dominated by 15 to 25 feet wide shop fronts (with the depth of 30 ft). It is encroached with random parked cars due to which its width is reduced to 30 ft. Sometimes, hand carts also encroaches the road, however, on a temporary basis. Another major road is the Babar road which intersects main Saddar Bazaar Road and lies on north south axis. Its width is 30 feet. The Raja Bazaar road is mainly used by the truck and other loaders to carry good from and to the market and go-downs. The roads in the Bazaar area are metalled and paved. Internally, the streets in the market are accessible by vehicles and are in the form of U shapes or courtyards. The minimum street width observed was 20 ft. and the maximum street width was 35 feet, which allows vehicular and pedestrian access though there are no formally designed footpaths in internal streets. The parking of cars on either side of the streets reduces the width of streets but doesn t give a sense of compactness due to low profile of surrounding structures. People can get access to public transport that includes hand pushed carts, wagons, Suzuki wagons and taxis from the informal stand locally termed as Adda near the market. It is located near NLI chowk. Streets of city center are completely active during day time. Page 121

122 CONDITION OF STREETS: Indicators Major / Minor Streets Modes of Transportations Street Facade Street Widths Street Maintenance Presence of Vegetation/Animals Major Street: Raja Bazaar and Shaheed e Millat. Minor Street: Name of minor streets to be verifies and inserted Suzuki pickup, cars, taxis, motor bikes, 4 wheel drives, hand carts, along with few horse drawn carts. Ground and ground plus one with a mix of 15 to 25 front shops. Raja Bazaar: 40 wide, single lane two way road. Shaheed e Millat: 30 wide, single lane two way road. Open drains, with random cars parked on the road side. The street does not seem to have any encroachment with little or no solid waste on the street. Presence of old maple tree as a marker of the street. However compared to the rest of the city it is sparsely vegetated. Pedestrian movement restrained due to lack of foot paths; however, due to light vehicular traffic it is possible to walk along the street. Page 122

123 Page 123 Figure 57: Map showing road networks of the Case study area

124 Open Spaces and their Use: The areas of Nagaral Colony and Majini Mohalla are the oldest towns in Gilgit and have secondary lanes converging of Raja Bazaar Road and Shaheed e Millat Road. The commercial area and the residential area, both have breathing spaces between the structures. These breathing spaces are in the form of U shaped parking lots, or green patches, polo ground, graveyards, farms or a vacant land in residential area. In residential areas, vacant lands or streets are used by the children for playing activities. The sizes of vacant plots vary from one another and can also be developed as small community parks. It is obvious from the research that there is only one park available in Gilgit city known as Chinar Bagh. Infrastructure: Water Supply: Water supply in this area is not an issue. The water is supplied to the residents through Gilgit River which is treated through different filtration plants. Sewerage: The sewerage waste of the area is directly being dumped in the River at various points along the river. Electricity: Electricity is generated through hydro power. The two hydro electricity plants are situated along the Kargah Nalla and the Konodas Nalla. Due to shortage of spring water in the winter s electricity short fall is primarily witnessed during the winter. Fuel: Due to the inaccessible terrain, it is not possible to provide Gilgit City with the gas line. However, LPG cylinders are imported from Rawalpindi on a regular basis. Other forms of fuel generations are fire wood and in case of availability of electricity, electric stoves are also used. Telephone: Communication system is also well equipped in the area. Telephone service providers are Special Communication Organization (SCO) & Pakistan Telecom Company Limited (PTCL) and the leading mobile network. (Ufone, Mobilink, Telenor, Warid and Zong). Page 124

125 Significance of the City Center: It is the commercial hub for the Gilgit-Baltistan Province and Gilgit City. This is the commercial centre that consists of shops selling textile, shoes, bags, kitchen utensils and spices. The Gilgit District Headquarter Hospital is located in this area that is used to cater all Gilgit citizens. This part of the city has historical value that belongs to the era British Era. The extension of the centre is home to the Gilgit Cantonment. Gilgit Bazaar has no income based demarcation with respect to prices, although it has different cluster with respect to specialized items. People can get access to public transport that includes cart, wagons, Suzuki wagons, and taxis easily from the market area. Repercussions of Urban Pressure: The historic maple trees from the British era are being are being cut down to accommodate new roads and construction. The existing width of the streets will be insufficient in the near future, as the number of cars is increasing day by day. Page 125

126 Indicators Electricity Gas Water Sewage/ Drainage Area of Case Study Theft of Water is electricity is supplied to the common. area residents Load shading through Gilgit occurs for 8 to river treated 12 hours with different filtration plants. The use of LPG gas is through cylinders. The gas cylinders are available in abundance from Rawalpindi through local suppliers. Open drains are passing through lanes and end up in Gilgit river. Telephone Communication system is well equipped in the area. Telephone service providers are Special Communication Organization (SCO) & Pakistan Telecom Company Limited (PTCL) and the leading mobile network. (Ufone, Mobilink, Telenor, Warid and Zong). Solid Waste Waste is collected with the help of tractor trolleys and transferred to the dumping site behind Karakorum International University (KIU). Page 126

127 Real Estate and Land Value: The city center has shops of different sizes. These shops usually have 15 to 25 ft wide shop fronts with 30 ft depth. The plot size of residential plots ranges from ten marlas to 2 kanals although a small fraction of population have constructed households in 3-5 kanals. The prices have reached their peak value in this area and almost constant now. The real estate value in this area for 1 kanal plot is equal to 40 lacs. Condition of Building/Houses: The city center has different type of constructions. The market area has usually G+ 1 buildings that are made up of RCC, with plastered walls. There are few buildings that are made up of stone or earth blocks. On the other hand, in residential area, the houses are made up of stones, sand and straw. The secondary and tertiary lanes within the settlement are not aligned. The area has basic infrastructure but in poor condition. The streets are maintained and clean, and paved with stones and compacted earth. Social Set Up: Main bazaar area is an interactive space for the entire city. Currently, most of the people use the space in front of their shops, courtyards and the overall streets for socializing. Street is preferred by almost all the shopkeepers as an immediate open space and its use is much higher.the reason for this space use and preference is that people feel sense of security and belonging to their respective streets where everyone is known to them. Page 127

128 Page 128

129 CASE # 2: CITY MUJAHID COLONY Physical Description (Location\Context): Mujahid Colony is situated on the north bank of the city. The settlement is developed by the government for low income group over the last 10 years along the Nomal Road. This road is also known as University Road and is one of the major roads on the north bank of Gilgit River, as it connects the east part to the University and Daniyor in the west. It is laid on a steep slope; where flat land is hardly available. It consists of people of mixed ethnicities coming from the GB region as well as Khyber Pukhtunkhwa as well as far as Afghanistan. Figure 58: View of Mujahid colony Figure 59: Map showing major roads and location of case study area no 2 Page 129

130 Planning and Morphology: Mujahid Colony is located at the northern bank of the Gilgit River, along the University Road. The dominating feature in the area is the old police settlement laid on grid planning along the University Road. The same grid pattern is then repeated in the rest of the Colony. The houses are arranged in grid system with secondary road running from south to north wide enough for vehicular access, while pedestrian lanes run from east to west. The area follows the line of the northern mountainous ridge on one side and the Gilgit River on the other side. Figure 60: Morphology of the area Land use As far as land use is concern, the area is purely residential in nature. The commercial strip is limited to the major corridor, Nomal Road. Majority of the houses are Ground or G+1. The amenities are provided within the area vicinity on secondary roads. Figure 61: View of a street Page 130

131 Page 131 Figure 62: Map showing landuse of the Case study area

132 Link to the City Center: The case study area is located adjacent to the city center. Mujahid Colony is linked to city center through Gilgit Pul Road that intersects Nomal Road at one side and Raja Bazaar road on another side. Therefore, people of Mujahid Colony have easy access to the hub for livelihood and other purposes. The under constructed extension of Babar Road in the form of the new RCC Bridge will also become an important link between the two areas as it will connect nucleus of the town to the North bank of the city. The Extension of Babar road will intersect Nomal Road on the other side. The approx length of this link road will be 800 feet. Konudas Nalla Konudas Nalla is use to supply drinking water to surrounding areas. Water is stored in the reservoir from Gilgit River and after treatment, and then drains into Konudas Nalla. The Mujahid Colony has certain legal rights issues due to which the residents get useable water for only half an hour daily. Page 132

133 Area of Case Study Indicators Approximate Date Planning layout Zoning Dominating Planning Feature Newly Constructed within ten years by the local Government. Grid pattern, laid parallel to the Nomal Road, following Ridge of mountainous range on North side. Majorly it s a residential area, including amenities Masajids, Jamat Khana, and Schools. There are chief court and Supreme Affiliated court on the opposite side of Nomal Road. The settlement follows the grid pattern of the planned amenities belong to armed forces along the Nomal Road. Important Landmarks Police ground which is used as the play ground for the settlement. Chief court / Supreme Affiliated court. Important Linkages The Gilgit pull links this area to the City center. Another under construction bridge Garhi Bagh Pull will also link it to the same area. Page 133

134 The amenities found in the area of Mujahid Colony include: o Residential Units: Kitchen gardening is found in most houses for daily use of vegetables and fruits. Live stock like cow, goat and chickes are also usually found in individual houses. o Religious Institutions: Mujahid Colony has different small masjids which belongs to Ahl e Sunnat community. The prominent mosque in this area is the Ahl e Sunnat Masjid in the area is Dar-ul Irfan Masjid. It is located near centre in the area. There is also a central Konudas Jamat Khana for Ahl e Tashee community. o Educational Institutions: There are different madrassas in the area which are also serving as p schools. One of the prominent madrassas in the area is Nasrat-ul-Uloom and Orphan Madrassa. Beside these, there is F.G Girls school for primary education. Similarly, other small Institutions are also located within the locality. A Bagrot Hostel for boys is also located on main Nomal Road. o Health Centers: There is no government or private health centers, clinics or hospitals in Mujahid Colony. o Commercial Area: Small commercial belt in the form of small shop is present on Nomal Road, which is a daily needs grocery shops serving the residents of the area. o Recreational Centers: There is a police ground along the Nomal Road which is used by the community for playing activities. It has an area of approx. 4.5 acres. o Regulatory Institutions: The Chief Court and the Supreme Affiliated Court of Gilgit Baltistan are located in this area along the River side of Nomal Road. Page 134

135 Page 135 Figure 63: Map showing amenities of the Case study area

136 Activities in and around the Streets The area of Mujahid Colony, is along the major primary road i.e. Nomal Road which is connecting Konudas to the outskirt areas mainly Daniyor. It is majorly used for two major Functions. First, it is highly used by the residents of Mujahid Colony as it is the only primary road that passes through the area and links it to rest of the Gilgit. Secondly, this road is used by the residents of the Gilgit to approach Karakorum international University. The width of this road is 30 ft. wide. The secondary and tertiary roads are in the form of katcha road and pacca road. The maximum street width observed was 20 feet which allows vehicular and pedestrian access though there are no formally designed footpaths. The internal streets are completely pedestrian in nature. Their width varies from 8 to 10 ft. People can get access to transport facilities like taxis and private cars i.e. which are majorly available on primary road i.e. Nomal Road and few secondary roads. Streets of Mujahid Colony are active in day timings and evenings. As mentioned previously, it s a multi ethnic colony; therefore it has no sectarian clashes. Maintenance of the lanes: The internal street widths of area are 10 to 15 feet. The streets are unpaved. At the intersection of secondary and pedestrian lanes, IF there is any open space available, it usually turned into Garbage dump space. This is because of lack of ownership of these open spaces. If there would be a sense of ownership for the whole area. There would be no such garbage heaps in the lanes that affects the overall hygiene of the area. Other important problem for an area is running water in open drainage lines passing through the lanes and ends up in Gilgit River without treatment. These drainage lines should be covered. Figure 2: View of garbage dump along the street Page 136

137 Page 137 Figure 65: Map showing road networks of the Case study area

138 CONDITION OF STREETS: Indicators Major / Minor Streets Modes of Transportations Street Facade Street Widths Street Maintenance Presence of Vegetation/Animals Area of Case Study Major street: Nomal Road. Minor Road: secondary roads passing through the area from south to north. Car and Taxi can access the area through secondary roads. Internal movement is pedestrian or possible with motorbikes. Majorly structures are Ground. Few of them are G+1. This includes Jamat khana, Masajids and court area. Nomal Road is 40 wide Secondary roads are ft wide and have vehicular access. Open drains, Little or no solid waste on the street. The street does not seem to have any encroachment. The street does not have any foot path; however, due to light vehicular movement it is possible to walk along the street. The area has number of livestock and green patches. People have farmlands with the vicinity of their houses. Page 138

139 A Few Observations Regarding Mujahid Colony The traffic flow is almost negligible in this colony. Further, available traffic is mostly limited to main Nomal Road; therefore it keeps the internal area free of traffic congestion, air pollution and noise pollution. Open pathways with grid planning allow natural light and air circulation. Due to multi-ethnic behavior of colony, the area remain save from sectarian violence. Water is a major issue in this area. According to law, water rights are limited to natives only. Therefore, residents have to buy water for their daily use. No public transport like wagons or buses serves the area keeping in mind that the area has low income settlement. People without cars have to walk large distances to get on a public transport. The area of Mujahid Colony is along the flood way therefore this area is subjected to a threat of land sliding and water shed zone. Page 139

140 Open spaces and their Use: The major active zone in Mujahid Colony is the police ground adjacent to 40 wide Nomal Road. It is the most active open space in the Colony used for sports like cricket and football. It has an area of approx. 4.5 acres. These facilities are exclusively for men as the local culture does not allow women to take up such activities. Within the colony, there are few vacant plots in the cluster of houses, which, due to the sense of nonownership, are in poor condition and got turned into heaps of garbage. These left over vacant, open and barren land in the area have potential to be developed and planned as recreational spaces or supporting amenities like health facilities. Beside this, open\ green spaces are present in the form of an open area within the housing boundaries used for kitchen farming. Figure 66: View of open spaces inside the area Real Estate and Land Value: Mujahid Colony is the only residential colony located along the northern bank of the Gilgit River and has been developed by the government as a low income settlement. House sizes varies from 5 Marla to10 Marla. A house having two rooms, two washrooms and a Kitchen would be rented for Rs per month. There are small scale commercial outlets like small shops proximity to the residences which is catering daily needs of inhabitants. Page 140

141 Indicators Electricity Gas Water Sewage/Drainage Telephone Solid Waste Area of Case Study Theft of Electricity is common. Load shading occurs in alternate days. The use of gas Is through cylinders. The gas cylinders are available in abundance from Rawalpindi through local suppliers. Water is first collected in the Konudas reservoir at top of the mountain and then supplied to the area residents. Open drains are passing through lanes and end up in Gilgit river. Communication system is well equipped in the area. Service Providers are Special Communication Organization (SCO) & Pakistan Telecom Company Limited (PTCL) and the leading mobile network. (Ufone, Mobilink, Telenor, Warid and Zong). Waste is collected with the help of tractor trolleys and transferred to the dumping site behind Korakoram International University (KIU). Page 141

142 Condition of Houses: The arrangement of houses happened to be in cluster format back to back and attached with other in a grid pattern. They are made up of various materials like RCC, with plastered walls, stones, concrete blocks or earth blocks. Peoples are using vernacular material and techniques to build their houses themselves depending upon the status of their income group. Courtyard house plans, with kitchen gardens Majority of houses in the area are Ground or G+1 and have typical house plans. All houses are constructed around a courtyard, used to grow fruits and vegetables along with rearing of domestic animals. The house size varies 10 to 15 Marla. Each unit is consisting of a visitor s room, private bedroom s, toilets and a kitchen constructed around an open courtyard. The drawing room and bedroom are constructed as separate blocks. Social Set Up: Figure 67: View of a house of the area In Mujahid Colony, Mostly single family is living in one house which compromises of four to six persons. The male to female ratio in the area is almost equal. This shows a trend towards nuclear family setups and individual family housing (as average number of families per plot is not more than 1). As mentioned previously, it s a multi ethnic colony; therefore it has no sectarian clashes. People prefer socializing behavior with each other. There is a Police ground along the Nomal Road which is used by the community. Most of the women stay home for the larger part of the day and are involved in daily chores. Women face problems with regards to recreation and communal spaces because there are no such separate areas for them. Page 142

143 Infrastructure: Water Supply: One of the major issues related to the case study area is related to supply of portable water. Although, Konudas Nalla is passing through the area but the residents have no rights to use its water. The government line supplies water for only half an hour daily. Because of this, people have to buy tankers which cost 800 Rs for one week. For domestic use like washing clothes, people access the Gilgit River. Electricity/ Fuel/ Telephone/ Sewerage: Similar to that of the main city center. Land Sliding: Another issue is related to land sliding. Since the settlement is situated in the base of the mountain, the settlement faces land sliding and rock falls during heavy rains and seismic disturbances. Page 143

144 Page 144

145 CASE # 3: PERIPHERY - DANIYOR Physical Description (Location\Context): Daniyor Plateau is a fertile area to the east of River Hunza and the north of Gilgit River. The name of this area is kept after the Daniyor Nalla a source of water supply for agriculture and potable water for areas on either side of the Nalla. It is predominantly rich agricultural land with plots sizes demarcated according to the sizes of personal holdings. Daniyor is predominantly agricultural land, with a city center at the crossing of the Gilgit Road and the Karakorum Highway. This predominantly agricultural area is now slowly being transformed. The internal pressure of land sub-division over generations has overall reduced the extent of the agricultural land. Plot sizes of the agriculture land have reduced along with foot print of built structures, and resident units for family. Since all construction that takes place on ground only, any additional construction that takes place encroaches over the agricultural land. Figure 68: Map showing major roads and location of the case study area no 3 Page 145

146 Apart from the internal pressure, the improved linkages in the form of the two bridges na mely the Daniyore Pull and Suspension Bridge, between Gilgit City (along Nomal Raod) and Daniyor has opened the way for further expansion towards the Daniyor side. Reason being that up till now Daniyor has been self sufficient in water supply whereby areas around Gilgit have been suffering from lack of portable water supply. Figure 69: View of Daniyor Pul and suspension brigde It is also expected that the construction of KKH (by 2012) passing through the city center will act as magnet of commercial activity in the area. Consequently, the land value and prices will go up, making Daniyor an important point along the Karakorum Highway. Overall it can be said that with the proximity of the facilities in Gilgit Town, the Univeristy, and the availability of water, Daniyor tends to show indication of future urban hub for the city of Gilgit. Figure 70: View of Gilgit River Figure 71: View of internal streets of the area Page 146

147 PLANNING MATRICES OF DANIYOR Indicators Approximate Date Planning layout Dominating Planning Feature Peripheral area Daniyor The traces of settlement belong to 20 th century. Initially, the settlement was limited to Chikaskot and later spread out towards Do darya. Agricultural land with field demarcation following the natural contour of land. The houses are constructed within the demarcated fields. Daniyor market is the central node of activity, with the proposed Karakorum highway passing through it. Daniyor Nalla acts as a water supply for settlements (Sultanabad, Daniyor) on either side of the Nalla. Therefore, agricultural fields dominate either side of the Nalla. Important Landmarks Do darya where River Hunza and Gilgit River meet up. Daniyor Nalla acts as an irrigation canal for the area. Daniyor Market that becomes the central node along the proposed KKH. Daniyor Pull linking the Daniyor to Nomal Raod. Important Linkages Daniyor links to rest of the city via Danyour Pull Bridge that joins KKH to Nomal Road over River Hunza. Page 147

148 Page 148 Figure 72: Map showing road networks of the Case study area

149 The amenities found in the area of Daniyor include: o Religious Institutions: Daniyor has Jamia Masjid which is along the central node known as Daniyor Market. There are different Graveyards like Shangot Graveyard and Sultanabad Graveyard. The remarkable Chinese Cemetery is also situated in Daniyor along the main Karakorum Highway. It houses graveyards of Chinese Engineers and labor who passed away during the construction of the Karakorum Highway. o Educational Institutions: There are large numbers of Primary schools like Shaheen Model School for Boys and Colleges like Global Higher Secondary school and College etc along the main Gilgit Road. o Health Centers: There is no hospital (private or government) in Daniyor. However, small scale clinics and Health centers belong to NGOs are available. o Commercial area: A small commercial hub along the intersection of Karakoram Highway and Gilgit Road is available to cater basic needs of the residents of Daniyor. This commercial hub is known as Daniyor Market or Baig Market. o Private\Government Organisations: Many of the NGO s are working for the development of Daniyor i.e. AKRSP (Aga Khan Rural Support Programmme), AKESP (Aga Education Support Programme). o o Recreational Centers: Daniyor Plain is a fertile plateau located to the east of River Hunza. For recreational, there is Daniyor Polo Ground which is used by the residents to play their tradition game along with a Karakorum Highway Memeorial. Important Features: Do Darya is located in the west of Daniyor. It is a point where the two Rivers, Gilgit River and Hunza River merge up with each other. Page 149

150 Page 150 Figure 73: Map showing landuse and amenities of the Case study area

151 The Activities in and Around the Streets: There are two important and major road passed through the center of this area i.e. Karakoram Highway which connects Gilgit to rest of Pakistan on one side and to China on other end, and Gilgit Road, which connects Daniyor to the Gilgit City. The Karakoram Highway was massively used to transport goods between China and Gilgit but got destroyed due to floods of The width of Karakoram highway is _ feet wide. The secondary and tertiary roads are mostly in between the agricultural lands and are in the form of katcha road. The maximum street width observed was 15 ft. and the minimum street width was 8 feet, which allows vehicular and pedestrian access though there are no formally designed roads. It is predominantly open land, with cultivation on either side of the road. Public transport or private cars are less in number in this area. People can get access to public transport i.e. taxis, only from main roads i.e. Karakoram Road and Gilgit Road and the intersection known as Daniyor market. Page 151

152 Page 152 Figure 74: Map showing major roads of the Case study area

153 CONDITION OF STREETS: Indicators Major/Minor Streets Mode of Transportation Street Widths Street Maintenance Vegetation/Animals Peripheral area Daniyor Karakorum Highway passes through the center of the area. All other streets are not well defined. People keep their own cars as smuggled cars are available on low price. Some of the private car owners also use their cars as taxi. The Karakorum Highway is 20 wide in this area. Other pedestrian lanes are 10 wide that passes between the agricultural fields. The pedestrians lanes are un paved but have no litter. The commercial hub Daniyor Market is encroached with hand carts in peak hours. Daniyor is an agricultural land. It has plenty of green patches in the form of farms, pastures, grazing fields and parks. Livestock includes cows, goats, horses, buffaloes, hen, duck etc. Page 153

154 Open spaces and their use: It has vast open land with cluster of houses at large distances. The typology of these open spaces ranges from graveyard, space for tube well, waters tanks, and a Polo ground. It has plenty of green patches in the form of farms, grazing fields and parks. A Pasteur land is situated above Daniyor at 12 hour walking distance. The arrangement of houses happened to be in cluster format back to back and attached with other irregular pattern, giving rise to irregular pattern of streets. Streets are mostly unpaved. The wide street also adds to the openness and congestion free environment of the area. There is large open sandy belt along the side of River Hunza. There are Mohan settled on this belt and extract Gold from the sand. Infrastructure Conditions: As mentioned earlier potable water is availability here is better than other areas within Gilgit. The drinking water is provided by the Daniyor Nalla to the area residents through the treatment plant installed at Chikaskot. Water from the Daniyor Nalla is also used to irrigate land of Sultanabad and Daniyor for agricultural production. There is no systematic system of sewerage lines in this area. Soak pits are constructed for the purpose of waste. The soak pits are 10 feet deep the ground and 10 to 15 feet depth. One soak pit is enough for 15 to 20 years. If there is sand below, than a soak pit is enough for 30 to 40 years. However, this is a source of ground water contamination as waste water seeps inside the ground. For Solid waste, sanitary workers collect solid waste from individual houses and dump it on site behind Karakoram International University. Page 154

155 INFRASTRUCTURE: Indicators Electricity Gas Water Sewage/Drainage Telephone Solid Waste Area of Case Study People have proper electric connections. However, load shading occurs for 8 to 12 hours. The use of gas is through cylinders. The gas cylinders are available in abundance from Rawalpindi through local suppliers. The drinking water is provided by the Daniyor Nalla to the area residents through the treatment plant installed at Chikaskot. Water from the Daniyor Nalla is also used to irrigate land for agricultural production. People have made soak pits 10 deep in the ground. Since the locality is situated on a plateau the ground water is low and a soak pit lasts up to years. Communication system is well equipped in the area. Service Providers are Special Communication Organization (SCO) & Pakistan Telecom Company Limited (PTCL) and the leading mobile network. (Ufone, Mobilink, Telenor, Warid and Zong). Waste is collected with the help of tractor trolleys and transferred to the dumping site behind Korakoram International University (KIU). Page 155

156 Real Estate and Land Value: This is an area which is present at the periphery of Gilgit city. It is an agricultural land, but due to urban pressures of expansion.the green land is converting into constructed land.. Costs of plots are increasing day by day i.e. Price in 2005 = Rs 1500, 000/ Kanal Price in 2011 = Rs 2000,000 / Kanal This is affordable for middle to higher income people. The area of Daniyor is not planned according to any land use percentages or byelaws. Condition of Houses: The arrangement of houses happened to be in cluster format back to back and attached with other irregular pattern, giving rise to irregular pattern of streets Theses cluster of house are away from another. They are made up of various materials like RCC, with plastered walls, stones, concrete blocks or Earth blocks. None of the houses are designed by architects or any professional urban planner. Peoples are using vernacular material and techniques to build their houses themselves depending upon the status of their income group. People keep Livestock in therir houses. Livestock includes cows, goats, horses, buffaloes, hen, duck etc. Social Set Up: Figure 75: View of a house of the area In Daniyor, the social set up consists of Extended families. There is equivalent ratio of male to female gender in the area with peoples per house which is the average household size for the area of Daniyor (as average number of families per plot is more than 1). This trend of having 2 to 3 generations living in a house is possible due to the fact that, the plot sizes in Daniyor give the possibility of horizontal extensions. They are constructing G+1 structure through RCC Construction. Further, the area has no sectarian demarcation, therefore, safe from any such terrible violence. 156

157 The Daniyor Plateau has following advantages with respect to Gilgit City. Traffic congestion is limited to main road; therefore it keeps the internal area of Daniyor Plateau free of traffic congestion, air pollution and noise pollution. Open pathways allow natural light and air circulation. The width of the streets makes them more interactive. The Gilgit town has no more land capacity for expansion, therefore major construction and expansion is taking place in west of Gilgit town, including Daniyor. Therefore, the real estate prices of the area are increasing day by day. The Karakoram International University is situated in the vicinity of Daniyor. There are few disadvantages also: The increasing urban pressure on the area, reducing the agricultural land. Non accessibility to emergency care. 157

158 Appendix 02: Matrices Matrix 1: Environmental Conditions 158

159 Matrix 01: Environmental Conditions Case Study CITY CENTER MUJAHID COLONY DANYOR Settlement layout The intersection of the two main roads in the city creates a nucleus. The settlement follows the road grid of Raja Baazar Road and the Shaheed Millat Road. Unplanned residential area built on the Kunadas Plateau following grid planning with back to back houses Haphazard planning following the land contours and field patterns on the Danyor Plateau Built area Open area (voids which are either open spaces or un constructed plots) Noise Level Control (traffic and general noise) Fair Good Good Since there is little congestion of vehicular traffic therefore the noise level is acceptable As the settlement is on the mountain side and there is less vehicular access so there is very less noise pollution. Scattered residential units within respective fields. Air and Ventilation Fair Good Fair Average air quality due to location in the valley. The low story construction helps in ventilation of the overall area. Settlement has no vehicular traffic, added by it is away from any city congestion. The Danyor city center is relatively congested. However, houses away from the main road are surrounded by green fields, thereby increasing the air quality. Solid waste disposal Fair Fair Good No garbage dump seen on the streets and side lanes. The City Municipality looks after the Only unattended open plots have solid waste collected. Otherwise no garbage seen in the lanes. The upkeep of side Overall little garbage is seen in the commercial center otherwise no solid waste is visible in the residential 159

160 maintenances and upkeep of the area. lanes is taken care by the resident population. settlements. Drainage during rain Good Fair Fair The natural slope of the terrain helps the drainage of rain water which eventually falls in the Gilgit River. The natural slope of the terrain helps the drainage of rain water. The natural slope of the terrain helps the drainage of rain water. Water supply Fair Poor Fair Water supply is adequate and regular and is supplied to the area through the Municipality In-adequate and irregular supply of municipal water, which is divided over a substantial population, becomes a source of tension in the area. Water supply is adequate and regular and is supplied to the area by the Danyor Nalla. Sanitation Fair Fair Fair There are open nallas along the street, moreover, the sewerage system directly fall in the Gilgit River, without being treated or recycled. There are no open nallas and sewerage lines visible on the street, however, the sewerage system is either collected in soak pits or it is directly disposed off in the Gilgit River, without being treated or recycled. There are no open nallas and sewerage lines visible on the street, however, the sewerage system is either collected in soak pits thereby contaminating the soil and soil water. Electricity Fair Fair Fair Security of Area Fair Good Good 160

161 During the time of sectarian clashes the city center becomes the center of this violence with the mosques of Ahl e Tashee and Ahl e Sunnat facing each other. The mixed population especially migrant population residing in the area reduces is not prone to any stressful incidences during the time of sectarian clashes in the city. The issue of sectarian clashes was not under discussion as a large number of residents of this area belong to Ismailia community. Parking for cars Fair - Fair The primary streets are wide enough to accommodate cars. Cars cannot enter secondary streets. The roads are not wide enough to accommodate cars. The KKH is the primary road that will pass through the area. The secondary roads are wide enough to accommodate individual cars. Traffic condition Fair Good Good Landscaping and vegetation Little or no traffic congestion was noticed in the area Negligible vehicular activity was noticed Commercial center had narrow roads; however with the upcoming construction of KKH, the traffic flow is expected to increase. Poor Poor Good Little or no vegetation in the city center, except for the old maple trees planted during the British times. However, due to road widening and construction of bridges the green heritage is under threat. Roads have no space for plantations. Overall the Danyor Plateau is an agricultural area with vegetation in the form of trees and agriculture. Area parks Good Fair - 2 polo grounds: The Old Polo A football field attached to the - 161

162 Dominant land use and consequent street condition Ground and the Aga Khan Polo ground These grounds are especially active especially during the summers. Commercial use is on the main road and residential on secondary lanes. settlement along the Nomal Road. It was observed to be active with sports activity during the day. Primarily residential. With a few scattered shops selling daily use items on the secondary roads. The main road includes amnesties and commercial outlets; however the residential area does not have any commercial activity except for agricultural activities. Note Good is an indication of above average working conditions in the given context. Fair is an indication of average working conditions in the given context where there are some problems or irregularities. Poor is an indication of below average working conditions where there are more irregularities and major problem 162

163 Appendix 02: Matrices Matrix 2: Housing Conditions 163

164 Matrix 02: Housing Conditions Case Study CITY CENTER MUJAHID COLONY DANYOR Average plot/apartment size Layout of houses/ apartments Average size household Average number of families per plot Average number of rooms Average Built up floors Land value per square meter Livability conditions of the locality Varying sizes sq. meters Varying sizes A variety of plot sizes varying from one to two room layout of single household around a private internal courtyard which is connected to the toilet, kitchen. In some cases a small cultivation patch is also attached. One to two room layout of single household around a private internal courtyard. Separate blocks for visitor s toilet, kitchen and livestock. Large size plots sizes where the built structure is separated by varying sizes of fields Mostly extended families A mixture of single families and joint families Mostly extended families G G and G+1 G Fair to good Fair to Good Good Little solid waste was found in the city center. Also due to the gradient in the land, there was no issue of stagnant water. The overall environment un Little solid waste was found in the locality. The overall ambiance was well organized. However, the major drawback being lack of water and water distribution within the area. Overall pleasant living conditions surrounded by green fields and abundant water supply from the Danyor Nalla. However, the sewage waste is an issue as it gets disposed off in soak 164

165 congested and though pedestrian movement was difficult in the city center. However, there were pleasant areas in the residential neighborhoods. This leads to tension amongst the residents of the area. The internal layouts of the houses were fairly spacious, well maintained and ventilated. pits. Availability of open Fair Fair Good spaces Use of Roof Use of Compound/ Good Good - Courtyards Use of Street Fair Fair - Use of Nearby Ground Good Good - Overall Building Stone, bricks, Block masonry and Mix of load bearing, bricks and Bricks, Block masonry and RCC Material RCC R.C.C structures Roofing Mix of timber, stone, mud and RCC R.C.C Mix of timber, stone, mud and R.C.C Flooring Concrete finish, rammed earth Concrete finish Concrete finish, and - Façade treatment Mostly unplastered, somewhere Plastered and paint finish. Plastered and paint finish Mix of unplastered and paint finish Boundary walls In the residential areas the The boundary walls were raised to 7 The boundary walls were raised to boundary walls are raised 7 to 8. to 8. 7 to 8. Indicator of - Yes No Incremental Growth The extension of the settlement gets Extension of family houses to more haphazard towards the accommodate new generations. mountain top. Also reduction in agricultural sizes Ventilation of Houses/ Apartment Fair Fair Fair 165

166 Shops facing wide fronts. Also the courtyard houses facilitates in ventilation. Courtyard houses facilitated in ventilations. Courtyard houses facilitated in ventilations. Privacy Good Good Good House Development and Maintenance As such no issues of privacy violation were visible. People were respectful of each other. Only old men and women and children were seen in the lanes within the residential settlements. As such no issues of privacy violation were visible. People were respectful of each other. Since the Fair Good Good Since the market and the settlement are oldest within the quality of construction was primarily local vernacular construction. Since the locality was developed over the last 20 years the quality and maintenance of construction is fairly good. Depending on the economic capacity of the residents Note Good is an indication of above average working conditions in the given context. Fair is an indication of average working conditions in the given context where there are some problems or irregularities. Poor is an indication of below average working conditions where there are more irregularities and major problem. 166

167 Appendix 03: INDICATORS MATRIX CASE OF CITY CENTER, GILGIT Indicator Trend Potential Threat Design Strategy Land & Housing Due to limited space within the city centre, the trend is that the city activities are slowly shifting towards west. Heritage and cultural value both in terms of built environments and natural environment. Human scale. Natural beauty. Booming real estate. Good infrastructure conditions. Sectarian tension Weak regulations. Lack of space for expansion. Pressure on heritage structures and vegetation due to growth pressures in the city. Open spaces under developed. Develop an integrated strategy for pedestrian network and transport within the city. Traffic Transport Water Sanitation & & Inter city transport network is in the form of private taxis, and wagons. High private car ownership. Untreated sewage water ends up in the River. Development of transport stops. Linear growth of the city helps reduce haphazard road networks. Small city size. Piped distribution of water. Gradient supports rain water drainage. Household sewage waste. Lack of industrial waste Household cultivation and vegetable gardens Unregulated traffic flow Lack of availability of transport stops lead to confusion in the city center. Contamination of river water. Develop an integrated strategy for pedestrian network and transport within the city. An integrated approach should be devised of a waste supply, sanitation and urban horticulture programme. 167

168 CASE OF MUJAHID COLONY, GILGIT Indicator Trend Potential Threat Design Strategy Land & Housing Settlement pattern extending towards the mountain top. Mixed communities. Water Sanitation Traffic Transport & & Lack of potable water. Soak pits used for sewage waste. Low car ownership. People prefer walking and talking public transport. Maintenance of the settlement Mixed and harmonies communal living Literate and educated community. Gradient of locality providing natural drainage for rain water. Household sewage waste used for cultivation or recycling. Extremely low car ownership. Public transport available at walking distance. Land sliding from the mountain top. Unclear development directions. Lack of potable water. Contamination of the soil and sub soil water due to seepage of sewage waste. Non metallic roads. Narrow road widths. Emergency access difficult and not possible. Any further development activity should look into land sliding and seismic related issues of the area. An integrated approach should be devised of a waste supply, sanitation and urban horticulture programme. Develop an integrated strategy for pedestrian network and transport within the city. 168

169 CASE OF DANYOR, GILGIT Indicator Trend Potential Threat Design Strategy Land & Housing Water & Sanitation Traffic & Transport Construction of KKH will have a direct impact on the land value of the area. Irregular plot sizes. Land sub-division over generations. Housing taking over agriculture land. Undefined framework for land development. Soak pits used for sewage and sanitation purposes. Good water supply system supplied by the Danyor Nalla. Construction of KKH in the near future will open up the city to down country traffic. Commercial activity Fertile and well irrigated land. Clear ownership patterns. Potential to grow vertically. Increased land value. Gradient of locality providing natural drainage for irrigation and water supply. Household waste fit for cultivation. Increase in real estate value. Increase in commercial activity Unregulated commercial growth Encroachment of agricultural land by built structures. Land value for commercial activity. Contamination of soil and subsoil water through the soak pits. Increase in traffic flow. Unregulated traffic flow and congestion in the area. Better construction techniques to promote vertical construction. An integrated approach should be devised for usage of waste supply, sanitation and cultivation. Devising regulations to maintain the natural assets and reduce the expected congestion within the area by implementation of policy and regulations. 169

170 Appendix 04 BIBLIOGRAPHY GENERAL INTERVIEWS Shigri, Environmental Protection Agency, Gilgit Yasir, Directorate, Tourism Department, Gilgit Jahangir Ahmed, Principle, Daniyor College, Daniyor Ali Ahmed Jan, Field Assistance, Agriculture Department, Gilgit Rashid ud din, Chief Directorate, DC office, Gilgit Ali, World Wild life Federation, Gilgit Zulfiqar Ahmed, Town Muncipal Officer, TMA, Gilgit Khalid, College Lecturer, Upper Jutial, Gilgit Huzur Ali, Carpenter, Resident of Yaseen Colon y, Gilgit REPORTS: coordinator), I. A. A breif profile of Larkana. larkana: Small & Medium Enterprise Development Authority. Google Maps. (n.d.). Retrieved May 2, 2011, from IUCN Raza, H. (2003). Northern Area Strategy for Sustainable Development. Gilgit: IUCN. Pakistan Enviornmental Planning and Architectural Consultants Limited. (1977). Gilgit Master Plan. Lahore. Popiulation Census Organization, P. (1998). District Census Report. Gilgit: Population Census Organization. Page 170

171 BOOKS: Arif Hasan, M. R. (2011). Migration and Small Towns in Pakistan. Karachi: Oxford University Press. Holzwarth, W. (2006). Sources of Gilgit, Hunza and Nager History ( ) and Comments on the Oral Roots of Local Historiography. In H. Kreutzmann, Karakoram in Transition: Culture, Development and Ecology in the Hunza Valley (p. 171). Karachi: Oxford University Press Neil, J. M. (1996). Trekking in the Karakoram and Hindukush. Hawthorn: Lonley Planet Publications. WEB SITES: Accessed on, 17 th -March Page 171

172 Appendix 05 Presentation thumbnails 28 th July 2011 Page 172

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177 Appendix 06 GILGIT CITY DESIGN INTERVENTION PROPOSAL Executing Agency: UNDP Design of Project: Department of Architecture and Planning, NED University Project Area: Gilgit City, Gilgit Baltistan, Pakistan INTRODUCTION UN-Habitat Islamabad is responsible to demonstrate an infrastructure project for upgrading urban living conditions in the target areas of Gilgit city which aims at improving urban indicators through strengthening partnership between communities and Government. The project is based on the idea of water treatment and waste recycling model. The local community and NGOs would be sharing their ideas at one platform and then approach the government agencies like the local TMA. This will result in solving out the water and sanitation problems and eventually the city will get economic boost and urban poor will get economic empowerment. VISION: To enhance Gilgit s amiable environment through capitalizing on its natural assets and resources. OBJECTIVE: To improve the environmental condition of the city using advance technologies. URBAN TRENDS IDENTIFIED - Shortage of accessible water, electricity and gas to residential areas - Un equal water distribution affecting especially low income settlements. - Change in land morphology and land use under urban pressure with the passage of time (i.e. reduction of built versus open agricultural land with time, and plot sizes over time.) - Affordability of land value - Eastern side of the city have increasing land value pattern whereas it is constant on the southern side. - Open and green spaces hidden behind high walls and commercial outlets. - Limited pedestrian access (Unfriendly for pedestrians in terms of lack of footpaths, narrow road widths, unregulated vehicular traffic, and lack of shade). - Growth of the city is towards the East (KUI, proposed GB Secretariat, Daniyor). Page 177

178 CHARACTERISTICS OF GILGIT: POTENTIALS Human Resource - Level of education There is comparatively high level of education and awareness in the city with respect to other districts of Gilgit Baltistan. - Sectarian strife THREATS Due to the different ethnic groups, diversified cultures and close proximity to each other, the city is mostly under sectarian tension, leading to law and order break down, hindering future planning possibilities. - Amiable and conducive work culture (willingness to share and exchange experiences and knowledge) - Role of NGOs Many NGOs work very actively in the city. Local initiative and community building through the presence of organizations like the AKDN - Sense of community People of the city has a strong sense of community Natural Resource - Water quality Fresh water quantity is abundant in the form of rivers and streams, therefore possibility of hydro power generation. - Fresh water contamination The waste disposal into the river causes the contamination of fresh water which is used by the residents of the city causing health problems. - Gradient of the landscape - Agriculture land The city has a vast area comprises of agriculture land which is one of the natural resource and a source of income for the people. Page 178

179 - Life style People of the city have a simple lifestyle which can be seen through their culture. Urban Resource - Sewerage water - Open spaces (Polo grounds) Since polo is the traditional game of the North that s why there are a large number of polo grounds used for holding polo games and other social and cultural activities. - Solid waste disposal Pollution is generating due to the improper waste disposal esp. along the river banks which is causing health and environmental problems. - Reduction of agricultural land Due to the city expansion and change in land morphology, the agricultural land area is continuously being taken over by the urban pressure. - Lack of power supply in winters The consumption of electricity during winters is doubled than the summer which causes the lack of power supply. - Prone to disasters The city has a specific type of topography which makes the area faced by flood and land sliding esp. during the snow melting season. Furthermore, the deforestation leads to increased damage from flooding. STRATEGY: Strategy would be to design / develop projects / schemes that first satisfy basic needs, than it should also have a capacity to benefit the city also in the long run. Page 179

180 STRATEGY MODEL: The strategy model is based on water supply and sanitation in which water treatment and supply and waste recycling would be majorly dealt with. This model would surely be helpful in improving the environmental conditions and health status of the people of the city and secondly the agriculture production of the city would be raised. Hence due to all these betterment, the overall economy of the Gilgit city would drastically increase. PHYSICAL RESEARCH FINDINGS: After Physical and Socio Economic surveys, it has been concluded that: Issue related to water contamination, comes out to be the basic indicator. Treatment to the issue can benefit the city at various levels. DESIGN PROPOSALS 1. UN as a networking cell between all the development agencies 2. Sewerage waste recycling 3. Solid waste recycling 4. Compact city for ease of pedestrian and vehicular movement Page 180

181 PHASES OF THE PROJECT: Phase I - Networking Cell In this phase, information and resources would be gathered between various government and non-government organizations. In this way, a platform would be provided for sharing of knowledge and basis for its development. Phase II - Sewerage Recycling Waste In this phase, the sewerage waste on neighborhood and household level would be linked up for agriculture and urban farming. Secondly, the drainage channels would be collected at one point before entering the river and treated before discharging into the river water. Furthermore, a reservoir would be created for the vegetation of the city. Phase III - Solid Waste Recycling In this phase, first of all, awareness on the importance and benefit of solid waste recycling at the neighborhood level would be established. After then collection and formalize points for solid waste would be made. And lastly a recycling system near the dumping site would be created. Phase IV - Compact City for Improved Linkages A bus route would be designed in 3 phases: 1. First of all, a big loop would be established along the river, catering the Gilgit region by linking the three major parts of the city. 2. In second phase, small loop would be established which will be along the city center, serving the commercial needs. Page 181

182 3. In third phase, pedestrian linkages would be defined, linking the neighborhood to commercial and recreational activities. Furthermore, the other strategies of this phase would be: o Defining public transport modes which would comprise of private taxis, vans and datsun pickups. o Designing Public Stops on important nodes. o Linking Public transport with pedestrian routes. o Creating one way traffic flow in the commercial area, thereby, decongesting the city center. Figure 3: Map showing proposed linkages of bigger loops Page 182

183 Figure 4: Map showing proposed linkages of smaller loops IMPACTS: The intervention areas may impact in the following way. The basic need i.e. good quality of water would be fulfilled through the deve lopment of this proposal. Urban Poverty would be reduced by increasing in income through generating economic activities. Health of the residents would be better when the environment would be free from pollution and the water free from contamination. Economy would get positive effect when people get job opportunities and the agriculture/ urban farming would be improved through ample supply of water. The implementation of this project would drastically reduce the contamination of water thus resulting in improved environmental conditions. Page 183

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