Using Linux Clusters as VoD Servers

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1 HAC LUCE Using Linux Clusters as VoD Servers Víctor M. Guĺıas Fernández Computer Science Department University of A Corunha funded by:

2 Outline Background: The Borg Cluster Video on Demand. Introduction Goals and initial design proposal Key technologies Design refinement Conclusions and ongoing work

3 Antecedents Functional paradigm + Parallel Computation Declarative, no side-effects High level of expressiveness, abstraction and prototyping Yale Haskell concurrent extension Explicit concurrency, higher-order communications RTS of a distributed functional language Semi-implicit model (annotation, dynamic load balance) Explicit model, higher-order asynchronous communication Interesting architecture: Beowulf Clusters

4 Borg, LFCIA s Beowulf Cluster FORERUNNER 3810 (External world) 10 Mb Ethernet link Dual Pentium II 350Mhz 384MB RAM 8GB HD SCSI AMD K6 300Mhz 96MB RAM 4GB HD IDE (23, up to 47) Mb Fast Ethernet link (2 per node) 6 3COM SuperStack II 3300 Switch (4, 24 slots per switch) 7 1 Gb link (2 independent networks) frontend 3 4 CPU 5 CPU... CPU CPU CPU... CPU

5 Video on Demand. Requirements A Video On Demand (VoD) server is a system that provides video services in which a user can request any Video Object (VO) at any time. Applications: Movie on demand, distance learning, interactive news, etc. Main requirements: Large storage capacity High bandwidth Predictable response time (in preference: low) Support a high number of concurrent users Scalability Adaptability Fault tolerancy Low cost

6 Existent (Commercial) VoD Solutions Project start point 1999 [WAN]) (MPEG-2 2Mbps [LAN], Real 28 Kbps Apple, Quicktime Streaming Server (now Darwin Streaming Server) IBM, DB2 Digital Library Video Charger Microsoft, NetShow Theater (now Windows Media Server) Oracle, Video Server Real Networks, RealVideo Server SGI, WebForce MediaBase (now Kassenna) Sun, StorEdge Media Central Some solutions as extensions or adaptations of other commercial products Expensive, closed, no scalable, no flexible (adaptable) solutions

7 VoDka: Distributed Functional VoD Server Hierarchical storage system, based on Linux Clusters built with commodity hardware. Design using GoF s desing patterns and OTP behaviours. Development languages: Monitorization, Control, Scheduling: Erlang/OTP Input/Output: C (prototype in Erlang/OTP) Emphasis in reusability: Use of OpenSource tools (Linux, Erlang/OTP,...) Adaptation of existent solutions (Darwin) Subsystems independendization (OpenMonet, Erlatron)

8 Initial Design Proposal Tape loaders, jukeboxes... Tertiary level (massive storage) Cluster nodes with local storage Secondary level (large scale cache) Cluster heads Primary level (buffering and protocol adaptation) Output streams Three level hierarchical structure: Tertiary level (): Large capacity Secondary level (): Scheduling, aggregated bandwidth Primary level (Streaming): Protocol adaptation

9 Borg Configuration as VoD Server K MB Bus 32 bits Alpha Server DS20 Buses 64 bits borg24 ( ) 3COM Superstack II 3300 Borg0 borg0 1 ( ) borg borg23 1 ( ) borg0 0 ( ) borg borg23 0 ( ) AutoPAK VXA Tape Charger (~$8.000) 3 SCSI: 2 heads, 1 arm 15 slots (33GB Tapes) * ~100 2 hour long 300Kb/s movies * ~15 2 hour long 2Mb/s movies Each head: 5MB/s

10 Key Technologies: Erlang/OTP Designed, developed and used by Ericsson AB for their complex distributed control systems Suitable for distributed, fault tolerant, soft real time systems Main design features: Functional: no side-effects Concurrent: Asynchronous message passing, value transparent transport, high order communications Distributed: Transparent location of processes over nodes Fault tolerance built-in primitives Code hot swap without stopping the system Open Telecom Platform: libraries design patterns for distributed systems Generic servers Supervision mechanisms Distributed database (location transparency, fragmentation, replication, integration with the language) Integration: SNMP, ASN.1, Interface with C, Corba, Java,

11 Key Technologies: Linux Cluster Group experience with high speed networks, distributed systems and clustering over Linux Source code availability: modification of any part of the software for adapting, correct, locate problems or instrumentation. Homogeneous licence (GPL): easy legal treatment (versus, e.g., current MPEG4 situation, where each component has a different licence, and its interaction is sometimes annoying and even contradictory). Compatibility: code developed with Linux can be ported without problems to Solaris, AIX, Tru64, IRIX, etc. Respect of standards (POSIX 1003.*, SVID, 4.xBSD) Good performance Wide availability of development tools Different hardware platforms support (x86, Alpha, SPARC, ARM, S/390 (zseries), IA64, SH3, MIPS... )

12 Learned lessons CNeed for flexibility: hierarchical architecture redefinition, giving another module composition with a standard API. The number for levels and the way they are composed should be flexible (e.g.: the whole server as data source of another server) In each level: different protocols both for storage and transference Need of factorization: communication process abstraction (pipes, transfers), server reflection (VoDka Browser ), monitorization (observer+mediator ), etc. Independence with regard to protocols and file formats (at this time in constant change) Bottlenecks are not so in the network but in the nodes: disk access TCP/IP is convenient for inter-module communication, but is a heavy protocol when dealing with hundreds of Mbit There is no efficient off-line massive storage with commodity hardware. Tape chargers are efficient but too expensive (IBM 3575: $15000).

13 Design refinement. Current proposal (I) Separation of the management subsystem (common web application) and the video server kernel. Video On Demand Kernel Architecture Smirnoff SERVER VODKA Relevant Data Observer Request1 Request2(MO) Response1 SERVLETS XSLT Consults Consults Management Data (MO) Agent Management Subsystem The figure represents SMIRNOFF (Second Monitoring and Improved Release Now Offering Further Features) version structure

14 Design refinement. Current proposal (II) Internal transferences in VoDka after a request from a remote client VODKA Monitor Monitor RTP MO MO Stream DD2 Streaming DD2 Group lookup Sched lookup Sched lookup Group MO lookupans(a) lookupans(a) lookupans(a,b,c) DD1 lookup f(state,mo)={ds1,dd2} lookup lookup lookupans(a) f(state,mo)=ds2 lookupans(a) lookupans(b) lookup lookupans(c) H.263 MO Frontend Frontend Streamer transfer (File) (TAPE) Group PIPE TCP DD1 DS1 Video Stream TCP PIPE FILE DD2 DS2 () STREAM I/O STORAGE I/O A whole server can be data source for the storage level, using the adequate input at the storage driver

15 Design refinement. Current proposal (III) VODKA Monitor Monitor Monitor Stream Group Streaming Sched Sched n cache levels Sched Group RTP H.263 Frontend Frontend Streamer Group (File) (TAPE) Group (File) (File) () The figure shows VoDka SMIRNOFF s flexibility: 1 streaming level, n cache levels, and the massive storage level.

16 Design refinement. Current proposal (IV) borg24 borg25 Streaming Sched Sched 100Mb/s Sched 10Mb/s Frontend Streamer Group Group 10Mb/s Streaming Sched Sched 100Mb/s 100Mb/s 100Mb/s (File) (TAPE) Streamer (File) (File) (File) ATM Frontend covas borg1 borg22 borg23

17 XSL transformations using the Cluster XML documents (generated with OpenMonet) transformation XSL selection based in the document type, browser, etc.: mod_xsl XSLT C++ Alibrary Sablotron adaptation: sablotron_adapter Load balancing: erlatron Client xslt result erlatron master ready xslt erlatron slave erlatron slave port C adapter sablotron library C adapter Client erlatron slave C adapter pool of workers erlatron server requests per second ab -c 10 -n 500 ab -c 15 -n 500 ab -c 25 -n 500 ab -c 50 -n 500 execution time (s) ab -c C -n number of slaves (P) concurrency level (C)

18 Conclusions and ongoing work Need of flexibility Need of factorization Independence with regard to protocols and formats Bottleneck: disk access TCP/IP: heavy protocol Doesn t exist commodity massive off-line storage Prototype implantation within the University Campus Adaptation and implementation study of a prototype within R network

19 Fundings Related projects: FEDER 1FD (VoD server development) (Technological partner: R) XUNTA PGIDT99COM10502 (performance evaluation) University of A Coruña (design patterns in distributed functional systems) Infrastructure: Xunta de Galicia. Infrastructure Borg Xunta de Galicia. Infrastructure BorgTNG

20 Web resources LFCIA Home Page. VoDka Project Home Page. OpenMonet Home Page. mod_xsl Home Page. A Coruña, September 12-14,

Using Linux Clusters as VoD Servers

Using Linux Clusters as VoD Servers HAC LUCE Using Linux Clusters as VoD Servers Víctor M. Guĺıas Fernández gulias@lfcia.org Computer Science Department University of A Corunha funded by: Outline Background: The Borg Cluster Video on Demand.

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