ARTS & CULTURE ECONOMY The Economic Impact of Artsbased. Michelle Bach-Coulibaly Senior Lecturer of Theatre, Speech, and Dance; Brown University

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1 BROWN UNivERSiTY ROgER WiLLiAMS UNivERSiTY ARTS & CULTURE ECONOMY 2014 The Economic Impact of Artsbased Afterschool Programs Michelle Bach-Coulibaly Senior Lecturer of Theatre, Speech, and Dance; Brown University Matthew Gregg Associate Professor of Economics; Roger Williams University Rupayan Gupta Associate Professor of Economics; Roger Williams University

2 ARTS & CULTURE ECONOMY THE ECONOMIC IMPACT OF ARTS-BASED AFTERSCHOOL PROGRAMS RESEARCh QUESTiONS Our research aims to explore the potential of arts-based and other after-school activities to positively impact youth by reducing juvenile crime in the state of Rhode Island. We pursued a two-pronged research strategy: 1) An econometric analysis to determine: Does youth participation in educational after-school activities reduce juvenile crime in Rhode Island? 2) A qualitative study to explore: What are the characteristics of successful arts-based after-school programs for youth? There are a number of ways the arts and culture sector impacts the broader economy. While cultural events and artistic products produce tangible financial benefits, the capacity of the arts to influence individual lives may be less immediately visible, but is no less impactful. When evaluating the economic value of the arts, we should include the potential benefits created by arts programs and opportunities designed to improve the lives of participants. Rhode Island has several longstanding arts programs whose mission is to steer youth away from crime and other risky behaviors onto a more positive path. Prominent examples include the multidisciplinary arts training and mentoring programs offered by Riverzedge and New Urban Arts. How do these programs, and other kinds of after-school activities, help young people stay out of trouble? What impact do they have on crime? Lowering juvenile crime helps not only individual young people and their families, it also improves the surrounding community and economy. Research shows that lower crime rates are associated with higher property values, increased business and investment activity, and greater levels of human capital. 1,2 1

3 Michelle Bach-Coulibaly, Matthew Gregg, Rupayan Gupta 2014 previous RESEARCh What potential do after-school programs have as a tool for reducing juvenile crime? Existing research suggests they can have both negative and positive effects. They reduce the incentive to commit crime through increased adult supervision and the development of human capital. 3, 4 Yet expanding the amount of interaction among adolescents has been shown to raise juvenile violent crime. 5 Few studies of this issue have been conducted in Rhode Island. The most noteworthy is a recent evaluation of the Providence After School Alliance s AfterZone program. It found that participation in the program improved students attendance, strengthened their connection to their school and community, and enhanced their social skills. 6 There is limited research on the relationship between juvenile crime and arts-based after-school programs in particular, but there have been studies of the impact of arts engagement more broadly. A review of four longitudinal datasets found that socially and economically disadvantaged young people who had high levels of arts involvement (in or out of school) performed better academically and showed greater civic engagement than their peers with lower levels of arts involvement. 7 A review of existing research also found that arts programs in schools are related to a wide range of academic and social benefits, such as improved performance on standardized exams and greater participation in community service. 8 QUANTiTATivE ANALYSiS Data We conducted an econometric analysis using the following sources of data: 1) Self-reported data on student participation in after-school programs was obtained from Rhode Island Department of Education (ride) surveys covering the years 2003 to This data comes from surveys of students at 68 high schools and 51 middle schools. Prominent Arts Programs In Rhode Island AS220 YOUTH: A free arts education program for people ages 14 to 21, with a special focus on those in the care and custody of the state. Their mission is to engage youth in a creative process that will lead to positive social, educational and vocational outcomes. RIVERZEDGE ARTS PROJECT: A social enterprise that provides talented teens hands-on work experience in graphic design, digital photography, and the visual arts. Their mission is to create positive educational and economic outcomes for youth and their communities through artistic expression. EVERETT COMPANY, STAGE, & SCHOOL: A multi-disciplinary performance arts incubator. Its ensemble of dance and theater artists create, perform, teach, and mentor new generations of artists within a diverse community guided by the principles of collaboration and experimentation. NEW URBAN ARTS: A community arts studio that provides high school students with programming and training by established professional artist-mentors. Their mission is to build a vital community that empowers young people to be artists and leaders. Unfortunately, there are no direct measures of participation specifically in arts-based after-school programs, so we analyzed the effect of participation in educational after-school activities more generally. This category includes arts programs (music, dance, theater, etc.), academic enrichment activities (chess club, debate, etc.), musical lessons, and career programs. 2) Data on juvenile crime was drawn from the fbi s uniform crime reports. These statistics consist of a range of offenses committed by individuals under the age of 18, including property crime (e.g., motor vehicle theft, vandalism), violent crime (e.g., robbery, aggravated assault), and non-violent offenses such as alcohol and drug violations and disorderly conduct. 3) Control variables included the per capita income of each city and town, taken from the American 2

4 ARTS & CULTURE ECONOMY THE ECONOMIC IMPACT OF ARTS-BASED AFTERSCHOOL PROGRAMS Community Survey, and the population of each school, based on data from the ride surveys. Methods We matched the educational after-school activity participation rates with the level of juvenile crime in each city or town over the same academic year (September to May). By matching participation and crime data from the same time period, our analysis focuses on the immediate effect of after-school activities on crime for example, what might be achieved by keeping teens occupied and off the street rather than the long-term impact produced by lasting shifts in behavior. Our total sample size is 195 (5 years of data for 39 cities). RI High School Student Participation in Afterschool Activities Paid Work Sports Educational AVERAGE MINIMUM 44% 16% 70% 57% 28% 96% 38% 11% 86% Percent of a school s students engaged in after-school activities based on type of activity. Results of the Quantitative Analysis MAXIMUM We analyzed how participation rates and crime changed within each city over a five year period using two statistical techniques: Fixed Effects (fe) and Instrumental Variables (iv). 9 fe and iv models are rigorous methods commonly used by economists because of their capacity to weed out potential sources of bias and address other statistical concerns like reverse causality. We also tested the data using a much simpler Ordinary Least Squares (ols) regression model. Findings Two of our statistical models (iv & ols) indicate that participation in educational after-school activities has a negative effect on juvenile crime rates in Rhode Island (i.e. participation lowers crime). Additionally, we find that the impact on crime is larger in lower-income cities, defined as cities whose income level is below the statewide median. The size and significance of the effect varies across the different statistical models. In the iv model, we find that a 10 percentage point increase in the share of students participating in educational afterschool activities lowers juvenile crime by 4.2%. In lower-income towns, a 10 percentage point increase in participation reduces juvenile crime by slightly more: 5.4%. The ols model finds that a 10 percentage point increase in participation lowers juvenile crime by 2.5%. The fe model also showed an increase in participation connected to a decrease in crime, but the results were not statistically significant. Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) ACROSS RHODE ISLAND IN LOWER INCOME TOWNS 2.5% *** 2.8% * In two (iv, ols) of the three statistical models, the effect of participation in after-school programs on juvenile crime is negative, statistically significant, and greater in lower-income cities. Fixed Effects (FE) Instrumental Variables (IV) 1.6% 1.8% 4.2% *** 5.4% ** Notes: *, **, and *** represent statistical significance at the 10%, 5%, and 1% levels, respectively. Lower-income towns are the 51% of towns in the study whose income is below the statewide median. QUALiTATivE ANALYSiS Data & Methods We conducted qualitative research on four longstanding youth arts programs in the state: Everett Dance Company, as220 Youth, RiverzEdge, and New Urban Arts. We visited and toured the sites, observed program activities and attended com- 3

5 Michelle Bach-Coulibaly, Matthew Gregg, Rupayan Gupta 2014 munity events, and conducted formal and informal interviews with program directors, faculty-mentors, current and former participants, and board members. Between three and six formal interviews were conducted at each site, along with several informal conversations that took place during the site visits. Findings Through our interviews and site visits, we identified several key criteria and philosophies that play a role in program success: A focus on participant retention and the creation of a sense of belonging and responsibility for the perpetuity of the overall program; The evolution of young people s roles over time, from participants to leaders and peer mentors to graduates engaged in arts and entrepreneurship in the community; Efforts to engage participants families in program activities; Skill-based training designed to lead to improved employment opportunities; Resources to assist students with graduating high school, applying to college, and obtaining scholarships and internships; and A focus on active participation in creative and civic engagement projects. Our interviews also provided anecdotal evidence supporting the effectiveness of these four programs at mitigating a vicious cycle of poverty, trauma, juvenile crime, and general disenfranchisement. Participants commonly testified that participation in the programs saved their lives, kept them out of jail, or gave them a home, a career, and family. These claims were supported by program directors and mentors who reported witnessing students transform from victims and/or victimizers to productive citizens. discussion Our quantitative and qualitative research both provide support for the hypothesis that educational after-school activities such as the arts-based programs emphasized in the second part of the study might be a valuable tool for reducing juvenile crime in Rhode Island, and therefore deserve additional exploration. Though our analysis has limitations, it indicates that participation in educational after-school activities by middle and high school students in Rhode Island may lower juvenile crime by up to 4%, or more than 5% in lower-income towns. However, future research using more extensive data would be necessary to understand whether various kinds of after-school activities, particularly arts-based programs, have a long-term effect on criminal activity. This research would require individual-level data on participation in different types of programs tracked over a longer period of time. If future research corroborates our initial findings, then investment in arts-based after-school programs may be recommended as a tool for lowering juvenile crime. Any resulting reductions in crime will have a number of social and economic benefits that stretch far beyond just the young people involved in the programs. Testimonials from Young People Participating in Arts-based Programs AS220 gives me many opportunities that school does not The instructors listen to what [we] want in our program, and help us reach that goal The instructors here provide us with support, as well as relating to us At AS220 I am allowed to be myself. By middle school I slipped into the pattern of behavior typical to the youth surrounding me; I joined a gang and began engaging in risky behaviors. [Then] my best friend and I discovered break dancing, and somehow also found Everett From preparing for shows across the state to being exposed to places and people I otherwise would never know, these experiences changed the course of my life forever. If you re feeling hurt, if you re feeling bad at home, you can come to AS220Youth and, through the music and through the art, you can get some sense of healing. 4

6 ARTS & CULTURE ECONOMY The Economic Impact of Arts-Based Afterschool Programs REFERENCES 1. Anderson, D. (1999). The Aggregate Burden of Crime. Journal of Law and Economics, 42(2), Malinowski, W. Z. and Milkovits, A. (2013). The cost of a bullet: Price of gun violence takes widespread toll in Rhode Island. Providence Journal. October Witte, A. D. (1997). Crime. In J. Behrman and N. Stacey (Eds.), The Social Benefits of Education, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. 4. Lochner, L. (1999) Education, Work, and Crime: Theory and Evidence. Rochester Center for Economic Research, Working Paper No Jacob, B.A. and Lefgren, L. (2003). Are Idle Hands the Devil s Workshop? Incapacitation, Concentration, and Juvenile Crime. National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper No To read the full research report, please visit: collaborativeri.org 6. Kauh, T. (2011). AfterZone: Outcomes for Youth Participating in Providence s After-School System. Philadelphia: Public/ Private Ventures. 7. Catterall, J.S., Dumais, S.A., and Hampden-Thompson, G. (2012). The Arts and Achievement in At-Risk Youth: Findings from Four Longitudinal Studies. Washington, DC: National Endowment for the Arts. 8. Ruppert, S. (2006). Critical Evidence: How the ARTS Benefit Student Achievement. Washington, DC: National Assembly of State Arts Agencies. 9. For a detailed discussion of the differences between the statistical models and the benefits and drawbacks of each, please see our full report. 5

7 ABOUT 50 Park Row West, Suite 100 Providence, RI Amber Caulkins Program Director ext. 105 funded by: adminstered by: The College & University Research Collaborative (the Collaborative) is a statewide public/private partnership of Rhode Island s 11 colleges and universities that connects public policy and academic research. The Collaborative s mission is to increase the use of non-partisan academic research in policy development and to provide an evidencebased foundation for government decision-making. The Collaborative turns research into action by sharing research with policymakers, community leaders, partner organizations, and the citizens of Rhode Island. Through our partnership with Footnote, we translate the findings of our research teams into accessible, engaging content that reaches a general audience. The Collaborative was developed in response to calls from both public officials and community leaders to leverage the research capacity of the state s colleges and universities to provide non-partisan research for informed economic policy decisions. Following the Make It Happen RI economic development summit, the Rhode Island Foundation committed funding for the creation of the Collaborative. As a proactive community and philanthropic leader, the Foundation recognized the Collaborative as an opportunity for public and private sectors to work together to improve the quality of life for all Rhode Island residents. In fy 2013, Commerce RI, the official economic development organization for the state of Rhode Island, matched the Foundation s funding, viewing the Collaborative as a cost-effective approach to leverage the state s talent and resources for the development of economic policies. At Make It Happen RI, we heard about the community s desire to better utilize & leverage our state s talent. Through a public/private partnership, the Collaborative is connecting policymakers with our state s leading academic researchers to support sound economic policy decisions. neil steinberg, president & ceo, rhode island foundation Footnote is an online media outlet that expands the reach of academic expertise by translating it into accessible, engaging content for a mainstream audience. It offers readers concise, compelling articles that highlight the valuable knowledge being produced at colleges and universities. Footnote s editors, Diana Brazzell & Suzannah Weiss, managed the development and production of this brief. www. footnote1.com

8 2013/2014 research teams Arts & Culture economy Team #1 Deborah Johnson, Professor of Art History & Women s Studies; Providence College Francis J. Leazes Jr., Professor of Political Science & Public Administration; Rhode Island College Team #2 Michelle Bach-Coulibaly, Senior Lecturer of Theatre, Speech & Dance; Brown University Matthew Gregg, Associate Professor of Economics; Roger Williams University Rupayan Gupta, Associate Professor of Economics; Roger Williams University Regional Competitiveness Team #1 Shani D. Carter, Professor of Management; Rhode Island College Jongsung Kim, Professor of Economics; Bryant University Team #2 Dawn King, Visiting Assistant Professor of Environmental Studies; Brown University Joseph A. Ilacqua, Professor of Economics; Bryant University Advanced Manufacturing Team #1 Richard Brown, Professor of Materials & Chemical Engineering; the University of Rhode Island Gilbert Brunnhoeffer, Associate Professor of Construction Management; Roger Williams University Dean Plowman, Chair, Department of Mechanical/Electrical Engineering Technology; New England Institute of Technology Linda A. Riley, Professor of Engineering; Roger Williams University

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