3 rd International Symposium on Occupational Scientific Diving. Organised by:

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3 Organised by: Italian Association for Scientific Divers (AIOSS), the Italian member of the European Scientific Diving Panel (ESF MB ESDP) ABSTRACTS

4 In collaboration with: Symposium secretariat: With the patronage and sponsorship by: Porto Cesareo (Lecce) Italy, 9-12 November 2011

5 ORGANISING COMMITTEE Massimo Ponti University of Bologna, Italy Carlo Cerrano University of Genova, Italy Antonio Terlizzi University of Salento, Italy Giorgio Caramanna The University of Nottingham, UK Rita Auriemma University of Salento, Italy Carlo Beltrame University of Venice, Italy Roberto Palozzi University of Tuscia, Italy Stefano Acunto International School for Scientific Diving, Italy Fabrizio Antonioli ENEA, Italy SYMPOSIUM SECRETARIAT Stanislao Bevilacqua, Giuseppe Guarnieri Antheus s.r.l. Academic Spin off, University of Salento Rossella Perlini, Davide Poli, Eva Turicchia AIOSS Italian Association of Scientific Divers Layout and Graphics: Giuseppe Guarnieri Porto Cesareo (Lecce) Italy, 9-12 November 2011

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7 The symposium is dedicated to the memory of Gaetano Ferruzza and Dario Romano, who tragically disappeared the afternoon of October 6, 2009 in a scientific research diving Gaetano Ferruzza Dario Romano

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9 PROGRAM Wednesday Afternoon Arrivals (transfer) 16:00 Dive (optional) 20:00 Dinner Thursday :00 Breakfast 08:30 Registration 09:00 Welcome Local authorities 09:20 Philipp Fischer ESDP Steering Committee 09:30 Biology and ecology Chairmen: M. Sayer A. Terlizzi Scientific diving techniques to experimentally approach bio-ecological processes 09:30 Invited speaker F. Boero You can learn a lot by just looking: diving and marine biology 10:00 Carlo Cerrano Ecosystem engineers in the mesophotic coralligenous assemblages 10:20 Lorenzo Bramanti* The application of mixed gas closed circuit rebreathers in experimental coral ecology 10:40 Massimo Ponti Manipulative field experiments to investigate the ecology of the coralligenous assemblages 11:00 Coffee break 11:40 Biology and ecology Chairmen: M. Weber M. Ponti Scientific diving techniques to experimentally approach bio-ecological processes 11:40 Antonio Terlizzi Experimental monitoring of human impacts in subtidal systems 12:00 Simone Modugno Three years of observation about the benthic marine macrofauna and fish composition on the artificial underwater barriers off the Emilia-Romagna coast (north Adriatic Sea) 12:20 Ken Collins Black bream (Spondyliosoma cantharus) nest studies 12:40 Martin Sayer Seaweed and oomycete benthic diversity in the Canadian marine Arctic: managing scientific diving operations in a remote location 13:00 Light lunch *Cancelled for impossibility to participate Porto Cesareo (Lecce) Italy, 9-12 November 2011 VII

10 14:20 Biology and ecology Chairmen: K. Collins, C. Cerrano Scientific diving techniques to experimentally approach bio-ecological processes 14:20 Roberto Palozzi A conservation ecology survey on a karst sink-hole in Central Italy 14:40 Christian Lott Habitat and physiology of a chemosynthetic marine worm the contribution of field research and its constraints 15:00 Stefano Acunto Monitoring the recovery of Maldivian reefs ten years after the mass mortality of the :20 Miriam Weber SEDCOR: How sediment influences coral calcification 15:40 Coffee break 16:20 Geology Chairmen: M. Schipek Scientific diving as tool in remote or difficult places G. Caramanna 16:20 Franco Tassi The 2011 seismic crisis at Santorini (Greece): new insights from fluid geochemistry of submarine and subaereal emissions 16:40 Giorgio Caramanna Scientific diving techniques for the study of flooded sinkholes in Italy 17:00 Marco Ponepal Continuous measurement of gas discharge at Point 21, Panarea, Italy 17:20 Christin Mueller Gas geochemistry at the submarine volcano Panarea, Italy - results from 2006 to :40 Matteo Vacchi Scuba scientific diving and beach monitoring: examples from Liguria (NW Mediterranean Sea) 18:00 Round Table 1 Chairmen: M. Sayer G. Caramanna 20:00 Social Dinner European Scientific Diver: legislation and safety Planned interventions: Salmasi, Caramanna Friday :00 Breakfast 09:20 Innovation & Technology Chairmen: C. Lott A. Norro New Technology in Underwater Science Porto Cesareo (Lecce) Italy, 9-12 November 2011 VIII

11 09:20 Elaine Azzopardi Diving computers: seeing isn t always believing 09:40 Arne Sieber Head up display for full face masks 10:00 Benjamin Kuch GSM/GPS diving computer for underwater tracking and mapping 10:20 Alain Norro Marine habitat mapping ground truth. Testing the position accuracy of a geolocalization system used for in-situ sampling against a state of the art acoustic USBL device 10:40 Marco Palma From underwater surveys to interactive virtual 3D visualization: new tools for spatial analyses and coastal management 11:00 Andrej Jaklin Commented photo gallery of marine organisms from Croatia 11:10 Coffee break 11:30 Poster session and ITN ESDTN internal meeting 12:45 Light lunch 14:00 Archaeology Chairmen: R. Auriemma Maritime archaeology and coastal landscape 14:00 Invited speaker G. Volpe* 14:30 Essi Keskinen Cultural heritage in Hossa area Underwater archaeology and global landscape archaeology 14:50 Vladimir Kovačiċ A submerged building in the Busuja bay (Poreč, Croatia) 15:10 Ida Koncani Uhač Savudrija (Umag, Croatia): a research programme for the harbour and the coastal landscape in the Roman age 15:30 Saso Poglajen Multibeam application in underwater archaeology 15:50 Giuseppe Mastronuzzi* New archaeological evidences of relative sea level changes along the coastlines of Apulia (southern Italy) 16:10 Coffee break 16:40 Archaeology Chairmen: R. Auriemma Maritime archaeology and coastal landscape 16:40 Angelo Cossa Coastal landscapes archaeology in southern Apulia. Ancient semi-submerged structures behind the modern harbour in Otranto 17:00 Cristiano Alfonso The ancient coastal landscape of Marine Protected Area of Porto Cesareo (Lecce,Italy): recent researches Porto Cesareo (Lecce) Italy, 9-12 November 2011 IX

12 17:20 Rita Auriemma The Marano Lagoon landscape during the Roman age: a study in progress 17:40 Caterina De Vivo Sea level variations since Roman time and coastal landscape modifications in the Marine Protected Area Gaiola Underwater Park 18:00 Claudia Pizzinato Underwater archaeological parks: some ideas for the underwater archaeological sites of Leptis Magna and Apollonia (Libya) 18:20 Round Table 2 Chairmen: A. Sieber S. Acunto 20:00 Dinner Saturday :00 Breakfast 10:00 Dive (optional) Departures (transfer) Appropriate training path for scientific divers focusing on the worldwide available working scenario Planned interventions: Sieber, Acunto Porto Cesareo (Lecce) Italy, 9-12 November 2011 X

13 SESSION BIOLOGY: INDEX OF CONTRIBUTIONS COMUNICATIONS F. Boero YOU CAN LEARN A LOT BY JUST LOOKING: DIVING AND MARINE BIOLOGY...3 C. Cerrano, C. G. Di Camillo, M. Milanese, L. Vezzulli ECOSYSTEM ENGINEERS IN THE MESOPHOTIC CORALLIGENOUS ASSEMBLAGES...4 L. Bramanti, G. Tsounis, A. Ferrucci THE APPLICATION OF MIXED GAS CLOSED CIRCUIT REBREATHERS IN EXPERIMENTAL CORAL ECOLOGY M. Ponti, F. Fava, R.A. Perlini, V. Ventra, D. Grech, M. Abbiati, C. Cerrano MANIPULATIVE FIELD EXPERIMENTS TO INVESTIGATE THE ECOLOGY OF THE CORALLIGENOUS ASSEMBLAGES...6 A. Terlizzi, S. Bevilacqua, G. Guarnieri, S. Fraschetti EXPERIMENTAL MONITORING OF HUMAN IMPACTS IN SUBTIDAL SYSTEMS..7 S. Modugno, A. Congi, A. Rinaldi, A. Tasselli THREE YEARS OF OBSERVATION ABOUT THE BENTHIC MARINE MACROFAUNA AND FISH COMPOSITION ON THE ARTIFICIAL UNDERWATER BARRIERS OFF THE EMILIA-ROMAGNA COAST (NORTH ADRIATIC SEA)...8 K.J. Collins, J.J. Mallinson BLACK BREAM (SPONDYLIOSOMA CANTHARUS) NEST STUDIES...9 M.D.J. Sayer, F.C. Küpper, P. van West, H. Brown, E. Azzopardi SEAWEED AND OOMYCETE BENTHIC DIVERSITY IN THE CANADIAN MARINE ARCTIC: MANAGING SCIENTIFIC DIVING OPERATIONS IN A REMOTE LOCATION...10 R. Palozzi, M. Quartararo, M. Marcelli, T. Kirin, A. Laiou, M.P. Tomasino, B. Schirone A CONSERVATION ECOLOGY SURVEY ON A KARST SINK-HOLE IN CENTRAL ITALY...11 C. Lott, C. Bergin, M. Kleiner, C. Wentrup, M. Weber, S. Häusler, L. Polerecky, D.S. Sevilgen, S. Nemecky, P. Stief, M.M.M. Kuypers, D. de Beer, N. Dubilier HABITAT AND PHYSIOLOGY OF A CHEMOSYNTHETIC MARINE WORM THE CONTRIBUTION OF FIELD RESEARCH AND ITS CONSTRAINTS S. Acunto, L.M. Leone MONITORING THE RECOVERY OF MALDIVIAN REEFS TEN YEARS AFTER THE MASS MORTALITY OF THE Porto Cesareo (Lecce) Italy, 9-12 November 2011 XI

14 M. Weber, C. Humphrey, M. Glas, D. de Beer, K. Fabricius SEDCOR: HOW SEDIMENT INFLUENCES CORAL CALCIFICATION...14 SESSION GEOLOGY: F. Tassi, O. Vaselli, L. Giannini, G. Vougioukalakis, G. Papadokotsolis THE 2011 SEISMIC CRISIS AT SANTORINI (GREECE): NEW INSIGHTS FROM FLUID GEOCHEMISTRY OF SUBMARINE AND SUBAEREAL EMISSIONS...17 G. Caramanna, R. Malatesta, M.M. Maroto-Valer SCIENTIFIC DIVING TECHNIQUES FOR THE STUDY OF FLOODED SINKHOLES IN ITALY...18 M. Ponepal, G. Barth, W. Fütterer, K. Bauer, T. Pohl, B. Merkel CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENT OF GAS DISCHARGE AT POINT 21, PANAREA, ITALY...19 C. Müller, R. Sieland, M. Schipek, F. Italiano, N-A. Kummer, B. Merkel GAS GEOCHEMISTRY AT THE SUBMARINE VOLCANO PANAREA, ITALY - RESULTS FROM 2006 TO M. Vacchi, A. Rovere, C.F.S. Schiaffino, M. Ferrari SCUBA SCIENTIFIC DIVING AND BEACH MONITORING: EXAMPLES FROM LIGURIA (NW MEDITERRANEAN SEA)...21 SESSION INNOVATION & TECHNOLOGY: E. Azzopardi, M.D.J. Sayer DIVING COMPUTERS: SEEING ISN T ALWAYS BELIEVING...25 A. Sieber, B. Kuch HEAD UP DISPLAY FOR FULL FACE MASKS...26 B. Kuch, G. Buttazzo, M. Sayer, A. Sieber GSM/GPS DIVING COMPUTER FOR UNDERWATER TRACKING AND MAPPING...27 A. Norro, K. Degrendele, W. Versteeg, J. Vercruysse, M. Roche MARINE HABITAT MAPPING GROUND TRUTH. TESTING THE POSITION ACCURACY OF A GEO-LOCALIZATION SYSTEM USED FOR IN-SITU SAMPLING AGAINST A STATE OF THE ART ACOUSTIC USBL DEVICE...28 M. Palma, U. Pantaleo,G. Landi, M. Previati FROM UNDERWATER SURVEYS TO INTERACTIVE VIRTUAL 3D VISUALIZATION: NEW TOOLS FOR SPATIAL ANALYSES AND COASTAL MANAGEMENT...29 Porto Cesareo (Lecce) Italy, 9-12 November 2011 XII

15 SESSION ARCHAEOLOGY: G. Volpe UNDERWATER ARCHAEOLOGY AND GLOBAL LANDSCAPE ARCHAEOLOGY 33 E. Keskinen CULTURAL HERITAGE IN HOSSA AREA...34 M.B. Carre, V. Kovačiċ A SUBMERGED BUILDING IN THE BUSUJA BAY (POREČ, CROATIA)...35 I. Koncani Uhač, R. Auriemma, D. Gaddi, C. Alfonso, A. Dell Anna, S. Furlani SAVUDRIJA (UMAG, CROATIA): A RESEARCH PROGRAMME FOR THE HARBOUR AND THE COASTAL LANDSCAPE IN THE ROMAN AGE...36 S. Poglajen MULTIBEAM APPLICATION IN UNDER WATER ARCHAEOLOGY...37 G. Mastronuzzi, F. Antonioli, M. Anzidei, R. Auriemma NEW ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCES OF RELATIVE SEA LEVEL CHANGES ALONG THE COASTLINES OF APULIA (SOUTHERN ITALY)...38 A. Cossa, L. Calcagnile, G. Quarta COASTAL LANDSCAPES ARCHAEOLOGY IN SOUTHERN APULIA. ANCIENT SEMI-SUBMERGED STRUCTURES BEHIND THE MODERN HARBOUR IN OTRANTO...39 C. Alfonso, R. Auriemma, T. Scarano, G. Mastronuzzi, L. Calcagnile, G. Quarta THE ANCIENT COASTAL LANDSCAPE OF PROTECTED MARINE AREA OF PORTO CESAREO (LE): RECENT RESEARCHES...40 R. Auriemma, D. Gaddi, C. Alfonso, S. Mauro, A. Dell Anna, E. Florido, A. Fontana, G. Fontolan, S. Furlani, A. Ninfo THE MARANO LAGOON LANDSCAPE DURING THE ROMAN AGE: A STUDY IN PROGRESS.. 41 M. Simeone, P. Masucci, C. De Vivo, V. Vecchione SEA LEVEL VARIATIONS SINCE ROMAN TIME AND COASTAL LANDSCAPE MODIFICATIONS IN THE MARINE PROTECTED AREA GAIOLA UNDERWATER PARK...42 C. Beltrame, C. Pizzinnato UNDERWATER ARCHAEOLOGICAL PARKS: SOME IDEAS FOR THE UNDERWATER ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES OF LEPTIS MAGNA AND APOLLONIA (LIBYA)...43 Porto Cesareo (Lecce) Italy, 9-12 November 2011 XIII

16 SESSION ARCHAEOLOGY: POSTERS O.E. Salmasi UNDERWATER ARCHAEOLOGY REGULATIONS...47 SESSION BIOLOGY: A. Molinari, S. Bava APPLICATION OF UNDERWATER VISUAL CENSUS METHODS TO STUDY THE FISH ASSEMBLAGES OF THE MARINE PROTECTED AREA OF BERGEGGI (WESTERN LIGURIAN SEA) A. Molinari, P. Bernat, V. Mačić, M. Fant, F. Polato, A. Rzaničanin, J. Knežević, N. Čadjenović THE USE OF SCIENTIFIC SCUBA DIVING ACTIVITIES TO COLLECT INFORMATION ON FISH AND BENTHIC COMMUNITY FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF AN MPA IN THE COASTAL WATER OF MONTENEGRO, ADRIATIC SEA...49 F. Rende, M. Polifrone, M. Stroobant, D. Rocca, P. Cappa, S. Scalise, F. Cinelli THE MONITORING OF SEAGRASSES THROUGH UNDERWATER PHOTOGRAPHIC IMAGES AND VIDEO: TECHNICAL OVERVIEW ON THE CASE STUDY OF THE MARINE PROTECTED AREA OF CAPO RIZZUTO, (ITALY)...50 M. Simeone, P. Masucci, C. De Vivo, L. Appolloni, M. Cotugno, P. Psomadakis MONITORING OF THE COASTAL ECOLOGICAL SYSTEM IN THE GAIOLA UNDERWATER PARK: AN INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH...51 SESSION INNOVATION & TECHNOLOGY: C. Lott, B. Unger, J. Wiedling, M. Weber TUBO A SIMPLE TOOL FOR FINE-SCALE IN-SITU EXTRACTION OF STERILE POREWATER FROM SANDY SEDIMENTS BY DIVERS...52 C. Müller, G. Barth, B. Merkel GEOTHERMAL STATE OF THE SHALLOW SUBMARINE GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM OF PANAREA, AEOLIAN ISLANDS (ITALY)..53 SESSION OTHERS: M. Baj, M. Segre Reinach, Y. Barrettara, C. Serra, M. Ponti, C. Cerrano SCIENTIFIC DIVING IN INDONESIA: THE CORAL EYEREEF RESEARCH OUTPOST...54 G. Arlotti, J. Bythell, G. Bavestrello, C. Cerrano, M. Ponti, L.P. Madin, J. McManus, T.J. Goreau THE KORALLION LAB (VAVVARU ISLAND, MALDIVES) PROPOSALS FOR TROPICAL MARINE RESEARCH.55 Porto Cesareo (Lecce) Italy, 9-12 November 2011 XIV

17 F. Cinelli, M. Abbiati, C.N. Bianchi, P. Colantoni, F. De Strobel, S. Acunto INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL FOR SCIENTIFIC DIVING : 25 YEARS OF TRAINING COURSES FOR SCIENTISTS AND STUDENTS...56 C. Cerrano, C.G. Di Camillo, F. Fava, M. Ponti, M. Abbiati SCIENTIFIC DIVING TRAINING FOR ITALIAN MARINE BIOLOGISTS AND NATURALISTS...57 M. Ponti, C. Cerrano, S. Hill, N. Shashar, F. Brümmer, M. Sayer, L. Dickel, M. Gonella, C. Lott, M. Palma, S. Perkol-Finkel, A. Bosco, P. Longobardi, A. Norro, A. Jaklin ESDTN - EUROPEAN SCIENTIFIC DIVING TRAINING NETWORK: A PROPOSAL FOR THE MARIE CURIE INITIAL TRAINING NETWORKS (FP7-PEOPLE-2012-ITN) CALL...58 A. Sieber, J. Kot, A. Marroni, P. Gerompre, N. Donda, S. Angelini, Z. Dujic, A. Taher, J. Meintjes, B. Gardette, J.M. Pontier, M. Theron, G. Garofalo, G. Distefano, M. Ljubkovic, F. Cronje, A. Sakr, C. Balestra, F. Guerrero PHYPODE - A MARIE CURIE INITIAL TRAINING NETWORK ADDRESSING PHYSIOPATHOLOGY OF DECOMPRESSION...60 Ch. Walcher, P. Fischer SCIENTIFIC DIVING AS IMPORTANT TOOL FOR A SUSTAINABLE AQUATIC RESEARCH...62 G. Caramanna, P. Kekäläinen, J. Leinikki SCIENTIFIC DIVING TECHNIQUES IN HAZARDOUS ENVIRONMENTS...63 Porto Cesareo (Lecce) Italy, 9-12 November 2011 XV

18 Porto Cesareo (Lecce) Italy, 9-12 November 2011 XVI

19 COMUNICATIONS Session BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY Scientific diving techniques to experimentally approach bio-ecological processes Aquatic biologists and ecologists are concerned about very different types of researches. Some study areas are based on high observational skills and on descriptive/mensurative approaches; some require manipulative experiments to define cause/effect relationships at a broad range of biotic organisations and environmental interactions. This session will focus on the latter approach, where scientific diving represents often the solely, way to carry out such studies.

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21 (Session Biology) YOU CAN LEARN A LOT BY JUST LOOKING: DIVING AND MARINE BIOLOGY F. Boero Di.S.Te.B.A., University of Salento, campus Ecotekne, Lecce, Italy In the Fifties Rupert Riedl decided to study marine biology by using SCUBA diving. The director of the Stazione Zoologica di Napoli, where Riedl made a proposal for a research collaboration, told him that they needed scientists and not sport men. So Riedl made the Thyrrenia expedition and studied the biology of the caves of the Gulf of Naples. Only SCUBA diving allowed such studies, and the director of the Stazione changed his mind. The use of SCUBA diving in marine sciences, however, is still far from being universal. It is widely practiced in the Mediterranean Sea and in the tropics, but in other seas and oceans the studies are either focused on the intertidal, or use remote sensing or sampling techniques from the surface. In this way, scientists do not "see" directly the environment they are studying. Now, with ROVs, we can "see" even in the deepest oceanic trenches, but seeing something from a monitor is not the same as being there, and having the possibility of really "being there". Marine scientists that do not dive are deprived of the opportunity of seeing the object of their studies. We have developed fantastic tools to extract information from marine systems, from satellites to submersibles, but the tools separate the scientists from the objects of their science. All marine scientists should know how to dive and, wherever possible, they should use this instrument to perform this research. Giving up this opportunity, delegating others to go in the sea, deprives the scientists of precious opportunities to really understand the objects of their studies. Porto Cesareo (Lecce) Italy, 9-12 November

22 (Session Biology) ECOSYSTEM ENGINEERS IN THE MESOPHOTIC CORALLIGENOUS ASSEMBLAGES C. Cerrano 1, C. G. Di Camillo 2, M. Milanese 2, L. Vezzulli 1 1 Dipartimento per lo studio del Territorio e delle sue Risorse, University of Genoa, Corso Europa 26, Genova, Italy. 2 Dipartimento per la Scienza delle Vita e dell Ambiente, Polytechnic University of Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, Ancona, Italy. The mesophotic zone harbours a significant fraction of coastal biodiversity and, being less subjected to climate- and human-driven changes than the upper ocean, is believed to function as the main biodiversity reservoir for the coastal ecosystem. Limited literature on mesophotic zone refers to tropical seas. However, thanks to the recent use of mixed gas diving techniques (usually Trimix), divers are currently allowed to conduct surveys and manipulative experiments in this areas. In the Mediterranean Sea the mesophotic zone hosts exclusive populations including the gold coral (Savalia savaglia) and the rare hydrozoan Lytocarpia myriophillum. On rocky bottoms S. savaglia can develop intricate forests with a rigid skeleton by substituting elastic gorgonian colonies, while L. myriophillum shows 1 m high colonies growing on soft sediments thanks to a complex rooting system allowing the growth of suckers-like colonies. The biology and ecology of these species are under study in the Marine Protected Area of Portofino highlighting the key role these species have likely been playing as ecosystem engineers, over thousands of years. As a fairly hottopic we currently need to gain more knowledge on life history of species inhabiting this zone in order to fully understand the rich mosaic of marine ecosystems complexity. Understanding mesophotic habitats brings along several implications grounded on the fact that marine ecosystems are continuous and interdependent. Porto Cesareo (Lecce) Italy, 9-12 November

23 (Session Biology) THE APPLICATION OF MIXED GAS CLOSED CIRCUIT REBREATHERS IN EXPERIMENTAL CORAL ECOLOGY L. Bramanti 1, G. Tsounis 1, A. Ferrucci 2 1 Instituo de Ciencias del Mar CM-CSIC. Passeig Maritim de la Barceloneta 37-49, Barcelona, Spain. 2 SDI TDI ERDI ITALIA Via A. Valgoi Genova Experimental marine ecology began with intertidal studies, until the Cousteau- Gagnan Aqualung gave biologists access to the sublittoral. Today, certain areas of coral ecology are advancing further again thanks to diving technology. Studying habitats beyond shallow reefs requires more advanced tools than traditional SCUBA, such as ROVs. However, a modern diving crew operating from a small boat is cost effective while offering several advantages over ROVs.Closed circuit rebreather breathing apparatus (CCRs) have seen a steep development in the recreational sector. They enormously increase efficiency of both shallow and deep diving, and were therefore used to execute a project studying restoration protocols of the Mediterranean red coral (Corallium rubrum). The conservation of overexploited species requires a non-destructive restoration technique to improve recovery of devastated sites. To this end, marble tiles were installed as artificial substrate on which larvae settled prior to being transferred to sites that lack coral or show weak recruitment. The use of CCRs provided flexibility, extended bottom times due to decompression and thermal advantages, as well as improved communication. The lack of bubbles permitted to work under overhanging walls without disturbing coral located above the divers, while also preserving visibility, which improved safety and facilitated the work. The use of helium based gas mixes even in the traditional air depth range of 30-40m allowed more accurate observations and manipulations and sped up the installation of tiles. Despite the need for far more rigorous training, we conclude that CCRs are useful tools in experimental marine ecology. Porto Cesareo (Lecce) Italy, 9-12 November

24 (Session Biology) MANIPULATIVE FIELD EXPERIMENTS TO INVESTIGATE THE ECOLOGY OF THE CORALLIGENOUS ASSEMBLAGES M. Ponti 1, F. Fava 1, R.A. Perlini 1, V. Ventra 1, D. Grech 2, M. Abbiati 1, C. Cerrano 3 1 Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca per le Scienze Ambientali, University of Bologna, Via S. Alberto 163, Ravenna, Italy. 2 Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita e dell Ambiente, Polytechnic University of Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, Ancona, Italy. 3 Dipartimento per lo Studio del Territorio e delle sue Risorse, University of Genoa, Corso Europa 26, Genova, Italy. Manipulative field experiments are the only way that allows investigating complex cause-effect relationships. Nevertheless, this approach is rarely applied to subtidal environments, often because of the difficulties involved. The use of recruitment panels allowed investigating a number of important ecological processes that occur in the Mediterranean coralligenous assemblages. For example, the study of the effects of Eunicella cavolinii and Paramuricea clavata on the settlement and recruitment of epibenthic organisms made it possible to understand the possible impact of gorgonian mass mortality events on coralligenous assemblages. Gorgonians could affect recruited assemblages by modifying micro-scale hydrodynamism and sedimentation rate, intercepting the larvae before their settlement, creating shading that reduces photosynthesis and providing dim light conditions, competing for food with the filter-feeders and/or producing allelochemicals. Similarly, thanks to a long-term study, it was possible to understand the bioconstruction process and the trophic balance of the coralligenous banks in the northern Adriatic Sea. Contrary to what is expected, a large contribution to the construction comes from filter feeding invertebrates, rather than from calcareous algae, and planktonic food web largely controls this process. Porto Cesareo (Lecce) Italy, 9-12 November

25 (Session Biology) EXPERIMENTAL MONITORING OF HUMAN IMPACTS IN SUBTIDAL SYSTEMS A. Terlizzi, S. Bevilacqua, G. Guarnieri, S. Fraschetti Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche ed Ambientali (Di.S.Te.B.A.), University of Salento - CoNISMa, Lecce, Italy. Identifying unambiguously the effects of anthropogenic impact on single response variables (e.g., total number of species or individuals, diversity indices, biomass or abundance of a single species) requires a comparison of the magnitude of change in a putatively impacted location to natural changes in multiple locations not affected by the source of disturbance under examination. Beyond-BACI designs, based on analysis of variance, provide a framework to address these issues and are currently among the most powerful tools available in environmental impact assessment. An important feature of beyond-baci designs is that they can be modified and used to measure differences between a purportedly impacted location and multiple controls when no data have been obtained before the human intervention and thus only after data are available. Such designs, though limited in establishing cause-effect relationships, have been widely used in environmental impact studies. Here, through the analyses of recent case studies, I highlight the potential of newly developed analytical tools in the assessment of the effects of human disturbance on patterns of assemblage diversity. An emphasis is given on how, in subtidal systems, the high level of replication required by sound procedures of experimental monitoring is also to be associated with advanced skills of the divers involved in sampling operations. Thus, the need of well-trained scientific divers is becoming mandatory for future quantitative assessment of biodiversity changes in relation to human impacts. Porto Cesareo (Lecce) Italy, 9-12 November

26 (Session Biology) THREE YEARS OF OBSERVATION ABOUT THE BENTHIC MARINE MACROFAUNA AND FISH COMPOSITION ON THE ARTIFICIAL UNDERWATER BARRIERS OFF THE EMILIA-ROMAGNA COAST (NORTH ADRIATIC SEA) S. Modugno 1, A. Congi 2, A. Rinaldi 1, A. Tasselli 2 1 Marine Research Centre Foundation, Via A. Vespucci 2, Cesenatico (FC), Italy. 2 Emilia-Romagna Region Servizio Economia Ittica, Assessorato Attilità Produttive, Sviluppo Economico, Piano Telematico, Via Aldo Moro 44, 40127, Bologna. Italy Positioning of Submerged Artificial Reefs (SAR), represents a well-known system to increase fisheries productivity, to protect coastal environment and improve marine biodiversity. SARs work like breeding and nursery areas for species of commercial interest. In 2006 some type of SARs have been put down along Emilia-Romagna's coast, thanks to AdriBlu Project (InterregIII North Adriatic Sea). Data are available for Ravenna and Cattolica SAR points both for marine fauna and environmental parameters (water column and sediment analysis). Data have been carried out from 2007 to 2010 trough monitoring planning applying underwater visual census and line intercept transect. 36 surveys were taken simultaneously by biologist scuba divers. Two habitats were sampled: on SARs starting from fix point on the top of submerged structures and on sandy seabed near pyramids (TecnoReef). 4 withdrawals during each year have been made even with fishing nets. The results were compared with data obtained from scuba surveys. Even multibeam analysis was made to prepare a digital cartographic model of the SARs. 35 different species of bone fishes were identified, 24 of which were revealed by scuba observations. 41 fish species were collected using fishing nets. Multivariate and univariate analyses revealed various patterns in the data. Index for community structure were investigated. Finally, the results show that SARs contribute to the regional diversity and marine complexity giving also important implications for conservation of marine coastal assemblages. So SARs functioning, after 5 years, is granted and efficient to give biological and economical advantages for local fishery. Porto Cesareo (Lecce) Italy, 9-12 November

27 (Session Biology) BLACK BREAM (SPONDYLIOSOMA CANTHARUS) NEST STUDIES K.J.Collins, J.J.Mallinson National Oceanography Centre Southampton, University of Southampton Waterfront Campus, European Way, Southampton, SO14 3ZH UK The black bream (Spondyliosoma cantharus) are summer visitors to the south and west coast of the UK, overwintering in deeper waters and migrating inshore to breed from April to June. Bream are demersal spawners, with the eggs laid in a nest excavated by the male as it creates a depression in a sandy gravel substrate. In order to build their nests, male bream expose bedrock and gravel by using their tails to remove the surface layer. The first reported observations of bream nests off the central south coast of the UK were made by the authors in 2000.This study, by side scan sonar and SCUBA diving extends the known occurrence of extensive nesting grounds off the West Sussex coast to the Isle of Wight and Dorset. The nests are typically circular craters 1-2m wide, and 5-30cm in depth which can clearly be seen using side scan sonar as groups of circular depressions. Several hundreds of eggs (1-2mm) are attached to bare rock in the centre of these structures. By July all the eggs have hatched, though adults are still present. The species is valuable and particularly vulnerable to exploitation by both sport and commercial fishermen during the nesting season. With no minimum landing size, no prescription for Total Allowable Catch or ICES stock assessment, they are suitable for protection under spatial planning measures such as through the use of marine protected areas (MPAs). Porto Cesareo (Lecce) Italy, 9-12 November

28 (Session Biology) SEAWEED AND OOMYCETE BENTHIC DIVERSITY IN THE CANADIAN MARINE ARCTIC: MANAGING SCIENTIFIC DIVING OPERATIONS IN A REMOTE LOCATION M.D.J. Sayer 1, F.C. Küpper 2, P. van West 3, H. Brown 1, E. Azzopardi 1 1 UK National Facility for Scientific Diving, Scottish Association for Marine Science, Oban, Argyll, Scotland. 2 Scottish Association for Marine Science, Dunbeg, Oban, Argyll PA37 1QA, Scotland UK 3 University of Aberdeen, College of Life Sciences and Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Foresterhill, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, Scotland UK Knowledge of the diversity of high-arctic macroalgae and their eukaryotic pathogens (fungi, oomycetes, plasmodiophoraleans) is scarce, particularly in the American Arctic. Global climate change is expected to alter the Arctic bioregion markedly in coming decades and the macroalgae of this region are considered to be very sensitive to physico-chemical impacts related to reductions in ice coverage. In 2009, a diving-based multinational research expedition was undertaken with the specific aims of establishing an inventory of the diversity of seaweeds and their pathogens that was broadly representative of a high-arctic marine environment. The expedition obtained a significant range of viable isolates and specimens that are now subject of ongoing investigations. In addition, molecular approaches are being used to characterize the largely unknown diversity of seaweed-associated eukaryotic pathogens. Many of the locations had never been dived before and so, as well as collecting biological, sediment and water samples, the diving team took over ten thousand underwater images and many hours of high-definition underwater video. In total 50 diving operations were completed in 12 different locations around the Cape Hatt area of northern Baffin Island. The diving operations were conducted in locations that were remote from any specialized diving medical intervention with the earliest realistic recompression being over 48 hours away. This presentation will highlight some of the logistical considerations associated with conducting diving operations in the high-arctic and outline the nonrecompression treatment pathway that would have been adopted in the event of a diver suffering decompression illness. Porto Cesareo (Lecce) Italy, 9-12 November

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