Advanced modelling and observing solar radiation of Artic sea-ice-understanding changes and processes (AMORA)

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1 Advanced modelling and observing solar radiation of Artic sea-ice-understanding changes and processes (AMORA) S. Gerland 1, C. Wang 1, M.A. Granskog 1, M. Nicolaus 2, B. Cheng 3, R. Lei 4, N. Li 4, Z. Li 5, S. Liqiong 5, L. Peng 5, D.K. Perovich 6 and L Qun 4 1: Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, Tromsø, Norway 2: Alfred-Wegener-Institut Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung, Bremerhaven, Germany 3: Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland 4: Polar Research Institute of China, Shanghai, China 5: Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, China 6: Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, Hanover, NH, USA

2 Introduction RV Lance AMORA was one of two successful Research Council of Norway CHINOR projects at NPI Aims were related to: Sea ice physics and climate science, initiation of contacts between Chinese and Norwegian institutes, exchange of early career scientists, outreach and education Follow-up projects and collaboration involving Norwegian and Chinese partners Xuelong KV Svalbard

3 AMORA project (NFR-Norklima Norway-China, ) Advancing Modeling and Observing solar Radiation of Arctic sea-ice understanding changes and processes Increase the understanding of the surface energy balance of the ice-covered Arctic Ocean and mechanisms leading to observed changes NPI: Norwegian Polar Institute (Norway) PRIC: Polar Research Institute of China (China) DUT: Dalian University of Technology (China) FMI: Finnish Meteorological Institute (Finland) CRREL: Cold Regions Research Engineering Lab. (USA) AWI: Alfred Wegener Institute (Germany) CRREL DUT PRIC Photo: M. Nicolaus NPI AWI FMI Photo: A.K. Balto

4 Spectral Radiation Buoy Autonomous measurements of spectral radiation, albedo and transmission through snow and sea ice, with real-time satellite data transfer. Above ice frame with surface sensors Photo S. Gerland, NPI. Under-ice arm with sensor prior to installation Data control unit, power supply and Iridium satellite transfer Photo J. Wallenschus, NPI. Wang et al JGR-O

5 Barneo Drift 2012: Autonomous solar radiation monitoring Solar elevation (a), incident (b), reflected (c), transmitted radiation (d), albedo (e) and transmittance (f) Wang et al JGR-O

6 Ice Mass Balance (IMB) buoys and Sea Ice Properties Ultrasonic & sonar Distance meters Thermistor chain Air temp., pressure Control & Iridium transfer Wang et al. 2013, Annals of Glaciology

7 Photo: C. Wang Exchange Guest scientists Seminars and workshops in China and Norway Common Arctic fieldwork

8 AMORA Fieldwork Kongsfjorden (Svalbard), April 2010 Photos: S. Gerland

9 Scientific Publications Polar Research, in press

10 NFR EXPO 2010 brochure Outreach Examples CliC WCRP Ice and Climate News 12/2009 Env. Monitor 2015 NFR Website 2014 NFR conference 2013 skjermskog Aftenposten 3 May 2010 NPI website 2 Nov. 2011

11 Related and Follow-up projects: Satellite Remote Sensing of Atmosphere-Surface Systems and Ground Truth Measurements (RSAS, NFR Norklima): Collect data to construct bio-optical, snow, ice and aerosol optical models; Use these to develop better algorithms for satellite remote sensing of properties of aerosols, ice and snow surfaces, and coastal and fresh water. PIs: Prof. J.J. Stamnes (U Bergen) and Academician D. Lu (Inst. Atm. Phys. CAS). Partners: U Bergen, Stevens Inst. Tech., Nor. Inst. Water Res. (NIVA), Norw. Polar Inst., Tianjin U, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Inst. Atm. Phys.), Inst. Tibetan Plateau Research, Yantai Inst. Coastal Zone Res. Solar Transmittance in the Arctic as a Seasonally Ice Covered Sea (STASIS, NFR FRINATEK): Characterize the seasonal evolution of solar transmittance of the thinner seasonal ice now dominating the Arctic; Use this to quantify the energy available to primary productivity and heating in the Arctic surface waters. Develop and deploy inexpensive autonomous radiation monitoring buoys. Validate and improve models and reanalysis data. PI: S.R. Hudson, NPI. Partners: Norw. Polar Inst., U Bergen, U Manitoba, Dalian U, AWI, CRREL, Stevens Inst. Tech.

12 Conclusions and Outlook Collaboration between Norwegian and Chinese research institutes on sea ice and snow physics established Exchange of early career scientists, outreach, education Follow-up projects with international participation, use of fieldwork opportunties and infrastructures More collaborative research activity thinkable based on established contacts, knowledge on each other s research directions and infrastructures and monitoring programmes

13 Acknowledgements Many scientists, engineers, students, technicians, external project partners, and adventurers contribute to the sea ice and snow scientific work of the Norwegian Polar Institute. We thank crews of the ships RV Lance and KV Svalbard, helicopters from Airlift, research bases and many helpers in the field for their support. We are grateful for funding and support from: In the first place the Research Council of Norway for funding AMORA, but also the EU, Norwegian Space Centre, European Space Agency, ICE Centre of the NPI, Fram Centre, Norwegian Ministries of Environment and Foreign Affairs, CliC/WCRP (World Climate Research Programme), and home institutions of collaborators.

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