1 75 ISSN ALTERATIONS OF THE QUALITY OF SUNFLOWER SEEDS IN THE STORAGE Paulo Carteri Coradi 1, Clayton Cerqueira Peralta 2, Carlos Henrique Portela Fernandes 2, Taísa Lacerda Pereira 3 ABSTRACT The storage of sunflower seeds in an adequate position to guarantee the quality and regulate the supply of raw material for the industries for the production of oils and bran. The objective of this study was to evaluate the yield of sunflower seed oil after drying and during storage in three conditions (25 0 C and 50%, 20% and 60 0 C, 30 0 C and 40%) in different packing (permeable and impermeable). Quality assessments of seed and oil yield were performed in zero, three and six months of storage times and analyzed by the average test were compared by Tukey test at 5 % probability. In storage there were greater reductions in oil, with the increase of storage temperature of 20 C to 30 C and reducing the relative humidity from 60% to 40%. Under these conditions, the yield of oil decreased from 65% to 17%. Waterproof packaging positively influenced the quality of sunflower seeds stored. The conditions of 25 C and 50% RH air storage were more favorable for the quality of the seeds. The increase in time of storage under conditions of 30 C and 40% RH air adversely affecting the quality of seeds. It was concluded that to increase the oil yield of sunflower seeds, the best storage conditions were 25 0 C and 50% RH air. Keywords: biofuel, industry, post-harvest, and production. ALTERAÇÕES DA QUALIDADE DE SEMENTES DE GIRASSOL NO ARMAZENAMENTO RESUMO O armazenamento de sementes de girassol em condições adequadas garante a qualidade e regulam o fornecimento da matéria-prima nas indústrias para produção de óleos e farelos. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o rendimento do óleo de sementes de girassol após secagem e durante o armazenamento, em três condições (25 0 C e 50%, 20 0 C e 60%, 30 0 C e 40%) e em embalagens diferentes (permeáveis e impermeáveis). As avaliações de qualidade das sementes e do rendimento do óleo foram realizadas nos tempos zero, três e seis meses de armazenamento e analisadas pelo teste de média, comparadas pelo teste Tukey a 5% de probabilidade. No armazenamento verificaram-se maiores reduções de óleo, com o aumento da temperatura de armazenamento de 20 C para 30 C e redução da umidade relativa do ar, de 60% para 40%. Nestas condições, o rendimento do óleo reduziu de 65% para 17%. As embalagens impermeáveis influenciaram positivamente na qualidade das sementes de girassol armazenadas. As condições de 25 C e 50% de UR do ar de armazenamento foram mais favoráveis para a qualidade das sementes. O aumento do tempo de armazenamento sob as condições de 30 C e 40% de UR do ar afetaram negativamente a qualidade das sementes. Concluiu-se, que para aumentar o rendimento do óleo das sementes de girassol, as melhores condições de armazenamento foram de 25 0 C e 50% de UR do ar. Palavras-chave: biocombustível, indústria, pós-colheita e produção. Protocolo de 15/03/ Professor Adjunto II, Doutor, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campus de Chapadão do Sul, Chapadão do Sul, MS, (67) Estudante de Graduação em Agronomia, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campus de Chapadão do Sul, Chapadão do Sul, MS. 3 Estudante de Graduação em Engenharia Florestal, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campus de Chapadão do Sul, Chapadão do Sul, MS.
2 76 Alterations of the quality of sunflower seeds in the storage Coradi et al. INTRODUCTION The sunflower crop is in the process of expansion in different regions of Brazil for its major features such as short cycle, crosspollination, increased resistance to drought, cold and heat than most cultivated species, in addition to having extensive adaptability to different environmental conditions and different altitudes and photoperiods. One of the problems for the production and conservation of sunflower seeds is related to the speed of deterioration, since the chemical instability of lipids is one of the main factors in the decrease in performance of the seeds of various species oilseeds during storage (Freitas et al., 2006). Lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress, the main cause of deterioration of sunflower seeds, can promote vigor and viability reductions, with the disintegration of the membrane systems. Despite the favorable conditions, in Brazil the production of seeds is still incipient, being supplied mostly by imports from neighboring countries, such as Argentina, which makes growing demand for quality seeds. Still, sunflower seeds have mostly to domestic industries edible oil and animal feed (Pozzi et al., 2005). Aiming at the growing demand for alternatives to fossil fuels, many plants have been studied with the aim of providing oil for biofuel production. Among these, like sunflower plants are emerging as potential raw material for the production of biofuels for diversifying the Brazilian energy matrix. About 40% of all energy consumed worldwide comes from fossil fuels. These sources are limited and, therefore, the search for alternative energy sources is extremely relevant. Thus, vegetable oils appear as an option for the replacement of traditional fuels derived from petroleum, because it is a renewable energy and have less environmental impact (Ferrari et al., 2005). On the other hand, the fact of sunflower seeds having 48 to 52% oil affects the retention of the seeds in storage, because the speed of deterioration is proportional to the percentage of the same oil (Leite et al., 2007; Fagundes, 2009). Seed quality can be conceptualized as the sum of genetic, physical, physiological and health that affect the ability to give plants with higher productivity and seed storage can influence aspects of these, and yet it is an essential step for seed production (Hussain et al., 2006; Ferreira et al., 2010) program. In Brazil, the store operation is particularly important due to the tropical and subtropical climatic conditions with high temperatures and relative humidity of the air, which is unfavorable for the maintenance of seed quality (Rodrigues et al., 2011). Thus, given the need to reduce energy costs of the process and growing concern to ensure product quality during storage, research on different methods of storing become increasingly relevant day. So the aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of sunflower seed and oil yield, when stored under different conditions of temperature and relative humidity (25% and 50 0 C, 20 0 C and 60%, 30% and 40 0 C) and in different containers (impermeable and permeable) for a period of six nmoths. MATERIAL AND METHODS The experiment was conducted at the South Campus of Plain (CPCS), the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS). The storage of sunflower seeds was performed in paper (porous) and glass bottles (waterproof), placed in BOD chambers with temperature and relative humidity-controlled air (23% and 50 0 C, 20 0 C and 60%, 30 0 C and 40%) with three replicates for each treatment. To assess the quality of the seeds was determined water content tests performed emergency electrical conductivity and oil yield. The physic-chemical analyzes were performed in the Laboratory of Seeds and Soil Science University. The water content of seeds (% w.b.) was determined by weighing 15g of sample. Then, the samples were placed in an oven with air heating and ventilation regulated at 103 C ± 1 C for 24 h, according to the recommendations of (Brazil, 2009). After the samples were removed and placed in desiccators for cooling. The water content (% w.b.) was determined by mass difference between the initial and the final sample. Tests were performed in three replicates. To analyze the yield of oil, sunflower seeds were ground with the aid of a domestic multiprocessor (model PRO, ARNO). After extraction, was weighed 5 g of the sample and then the entire mass was transferred to a paper cartridge. The cartridges were placed in metallic baskets, after which were mixed with 150 ml of hexane PA and connected to a capsule extraction. For the extraction of sunflower oil was used the method of Soxhlet. For this, it was monitored dripping of solvent and oil extraction for 4 hours. After extraction, the flow valve was closed and the solvent was recovered. The beaker containing the micelle was decoupled from the system and led to an oven with air renewal and circulation to
3 Alterations of the quality of sunflower seeds in the storage Coradi et al. 77 evaporate the solvent until the set (becker + oil) is present in constant weight. The oil content was determined gravimetrically. The electrical conductivity test was conducted in sunflower seeds, according to the methodology described by Vieira & Krzyzanowski (1999). It was utilized 50 seeds for 4 replicates of each treatment and weighed to an accuracy of two decimal places (0.01 g). The samples were placed in plastic cups to soak with 75 ml of water and deionized kept refrigerated chamber of type (B.O.D.) with temperature controlled at 25 ± 2 ºC for 24 hours. The solutions containing the seeds were gently stirred to uniformity of leachate, and immediately preceded to the reading on a digital conductivity meter portable model CD-850 "Instrutherm" and the results divided by the mass of 50 seeds and expressed in µs cm -1 g -1 seeds. To test the emergency sowing 25 seeds was made in polystyrene trays with substrate Plantmax, maintained in a greenhouse and irrigated twice daily, with an evaluation performed on the tenth day after sowing, with the results expressed in percentage of normal seedlings emerged. The experimental design was completely randomized (3x3x2), three temperatures of the drying air, three storage and two types of packages, with three replicates per treatment. Analysis of variance and means were compared by Tukey test at 5% probability were made. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The storage of agricultural products is a great alternative to meet the logistics of production and marketing of food. Thus, to understand the behavior of the seeds on different conditions and time of storage is important for management (Coradi et al., 2011). In Tables 1, 2 and 3 are shown the results of water content of sunflower seeds after drying and storage in different conditions of temperature and relative humidity, packaging and storage times. It was observed that at low temperatures and high relative humidities of air, and also with increasing time of storage, there was a significant increase in the water content (P<0.05) from sunflower seeds. The drying air temperature significantly influenced the water content of seeds stored for six months. Among the packaging, it was found that the results presented impermeable higher water contents in the seeds during storage, regardless of the initial conditions of the seeds. When seeds are stored at low temperature the possibility of deterioration is smaller and can counteract the effect of water content in relation to the development of microorganisms that attack stored seeds. When the vital activity (respiration) of seeds is controlled by the content of water, conservation during the storage period is good (Chaves et al., 2012). When quantities of stored seeds are heats becomes moldy, has sprouted grains at the surface and ultimately ensues to rot. Grains stored for years, even in unsuitable conditions, if kept at low water contents have small losses. Seeds can be stored in warm areas but dry (Borba Filho et al., 2009). Seeds are hygroscopic, in other words, the water contents are always in equilibrium with the relative humidity. The high water content, combined with high temperatures accelerates the process of degeneration of biological systems, occurring heavy breathing and consuming your material reservation, so that under these conditions, the seeds lose their vigor and sometime after their ability to germinate. The maximum recommended safe storage of sunflower seed moisture percentage is 9.5%, with relative humidity of approximately 75%. With the growth of microflora weight loss and an increase in moisture content and temperature of stored seeds (Toledo et al., 2009) occurs. Fungi begin to develop in sunflower seeds stored with humidity around 11%. According to Christensen (1972), when stored sunflower seeds with initial moisture contents of 10, 12 and 14% at temperatures of 3-5, 8-10 and C was concluded that the incidence of fungi and decrease in germination were proportionally related with the increase of initial water content, temperature and storage period (Bajehbaj et al., 2010). Tables 4, 5 and 6 are the results emerged from seeds after different drying air temperatures and at different storage conditions and packaging. It was found that the temperature of the drying air significantly influenced the percentage of emerged seeds, and the higher the temperature of the air drying was the most negative effects of seedling emergence. In the storage conditions, it was observed that the higher the temperature and lower the relative humidity, significantly (P<0.05) decreases the percentage of normal seedlings emerged, regardless of the storage time of the drying air temperature. Throughout the storage time increased as the negative effects on seedling emergence. However, there was no longer seedling emergence from the three months of storage conditions of 30 C and 40% RH air. It was also observed that between
4 78 Alterations of the quality of sunflower seeds in the storage Coradi et al. the packs, waterproof had a positive effect for the emergence of normal seedlings compared with the permeable container under conditions of 20 C and 60%, 25 C and 50 % RH air storage. Table 1. Water content of sunflower seeds (%) versus air drying and storage conditions for each type of packaging temperature and storage time time a a a a 20 C / 60% Aa Aa Aa Aa Impermeable 25 C / 50% Aa Aa Aa Aa 3 30 C / 40% Bc Ab Bc Aa 20 C / 60% Aa Aa Aa Aa Permeable 25 C / 50% Aa Aa Aa Aa 30 C / 40% Aa Aa Ba Ba 20 C / 60% Ac Aa Ab Ab Impermeable 25 C / 50% Ba Ba Ba Ba 6 30 C / 40% Ca Ba Ca Ba 20 C / 60% Ab Aa Bb Cc Permeable 25 C / 50% Aa Aa Aa Ab 30 C / 40% Ba Ba Ba Ba Means followed by the capital letter in the column for each storage condition and lower lines for each temperature of the drying air, do not differ at 5% probability. Coefficient of variation (CV) = 5.40%. Table 2. Water content of sunflower seeds (%) according to the drying air temperature and time of storage for each type of packaging and storage conditions time Ba Ca Ca Ca 3 Impermeable 20 C / 60% Aa Ba Ba Ba 6 20 C / 60% Ad Aa Ab Ac Ca Ca Ca Ca 3 Permeable 20 C / 60% Aa Aa Aa Aa 6 20 C / 60% Bb Ba Bb Bc Ca Ca Ca Ca 3 Impermeable 25 C / 50% Aa Aa Aa Aa 6 25 C / 50% Ba Ba Ba Ba Ca Ca Ca Ca 3 Permeable 25 C / 50% Aa Aa Aa Aa 6 25 C / 50% Ba Ba Ba Ba Ca Ca Ca Ca 3 Impermeable 30 C / 40% Ac Ab Ac Aa 6 30 C / 40% Bb Ba Bb Ba Ca Ca Ca Ca 3 Permeable 30 C / 40% Aa Aa Ab Ab 6 30 C / 40% Ba Ba Ba Ba Means followed by the capital letter in the column for each storage time and lower lines for each temperature of the drying air; do not differ at 5% probability. Coefficient of variation (CV) = 4.73%.
5 Alterations of the quality of sunflower seeds in the storage Coradi et al. 79 Table 3. Water content of sunflower seeds (%) versus time of storage and the type of packaging for each of the drying air temperature and storage condition Drying air Time of storage (months) temperature conditions Packing Impermeable Ab Aa Aa 20 C / 60% Permeable Ac Aa Bb 45 C Impermeable Ac Aa Ab 25 C / 50% Permeable Ac Aa Ab Impermeable Ac Ba Ab 30 C / 40% Permeable Ac Aa Bb Impermeable Ac Ab Aa 20 C / 60% Permeable Ac Aa Bb 55 C Impermeable Ac Aa Ab 25 C / 50% Permeable Ac Aa Ab Impermeável Ac Aa 15.09Ab 30 C / 40% Permeable Ac Aa Bb Impermeable Ac Ab Aa 20 C / 60% Permeable Ac Aa Bb 65 C Impermeável Ac Aa Ab 25 C / 50% Permeável Ac Aa Ab Impermeable Ac Aa Ab 30 C / 40% Permeable Ac Aa Bb Impermeable Ac Ab Aa 20 C / 60% Permeable Ac Aa Bb 75 C Impermeable Ac Aa Ab 25 C / 50% Permeable Ac Aa Bb Impermeable Ac Aa Ab 30 C / 40% Permeable Ac Ba Bb Means followed by the capital letter in the column for each package and lower lines for each storage time, do not differ at 5% probability. Coefficient of variation (CV) = 6.20%. Table 4. Emergency sunflower seeds (%) according to the drying air temperature and storage conditions for each type of packaging and storage time time a 95 a 89 b 89 b 20 C / 60% 97 Bb 97 Ab 99 Aa 94 Ac Impermeable 25 C / 50% 99 Aa 93 Bb 92 Bb 94 Ab 3 30 C / 40% 0 Ca 0 Ca 0 Ca 0 Ba 20 C / 60% 95 Ba 96 Aa 86 Bb 89 Bb Permeable 25 C / 50% 97 Aa 96 Aa 92 Ab 91 Ab 30 C / 40% 0 Ca 0 Ba 0 Ca 0 Ca 20 C / 60% 86 Aa 84 Aa 82 Ab 80 Ab Impermeable 25 C / 50% 65 Ba 63 Ba 61 Bb 57 Bc 6 30 C / 40% 0 Ca 0 Ca 0 Ca 0 Ca 20 C / 60% 84 Aa 81 Aa 78 Ab 73 Ac Permeable 25 C / 50% 54 Ba 45 Bb 38 Bc 31 Bd 30 C / 40% 0 Ca 0 Ca 0 Ca 0 Ca Means followed by the capital letter in the column for each storage condition and lower lines for each temperature of the drying air, do not differ at 5% probability. Coefficient of variation (CV) = 4.24%.
6 80 Alterations of the quality of sunflower seeds in the storage Coradi et al. Table 5. Emergency sunflower seeds (%) according to the drying air temperature and time of storage for each type of packaging and storage conditions time 0-94 Ab 95 Aa 89 Bc 89 Bc 3 Impermeable 20 C / 60% 97 Ab 97 Ab 99 Aa 94 Ac 6 20 C / 60% 86 Ba 84 Ba 82 Cb 80 Cb 0-94 Aa 95 Aa 89 Ab 89 Ab 3 Permeable 20 C / 60% 95 Aa 96 Aa 86 Bb 89 Ab 6 20 C / 60% 84 Ba 81 Ba 78 Cb 73 Bc 0-94 Ba 95 Aa 89 Bb 89 Bb 3 Impermeable 25 C / 50% 99 Aa 93 Ab 92 Ab 94 Aa 6 25 C / 50% 65 Ca 63 Ba 61 Cb 57 Cc 0-94 Ba 95 Aa 89 Bb 89 Bb 3 Permeable 25 C / 50% 97 Aa 96 Aa 92 Ab 91 Ab 6 25 C / 50% 54 Ca 45 Bb 38 Cc 31 Cd 0-94 Aa 95 Aa 89 Ab 89 Ab 3 Impermeable 30 C / 40% 0 Ba 0 Ba 0 Ba 0 Ba 6 30 C / 40% 0 Ba 0 Ba 0 Ba 0 Ba 0-94 Aa 95 Aa 89 Ab 89 Ab 3 Permeable 30 C / 40% 0 Ba 0 Ba 0 Ba 0 Ba 6 30 C / 40% 0 Ba 0 Ba 0 Ba 0 Ba Means followed by the capital letter in the column for each storage time and lower lines for each temperature of the drying air; do not differ at 5% probability. Coefficient of variation (CV) = 4.32%. Table 6. Emergency sunflower seeds (%) versus time of storage and the type of packaging for each of the drying air temperature and storage condition Drying air Time of storage (months) temperature conditions Packing Impermeable 94 Ab 97 Aa 86 Ac 20 C / 60% Permeable 94 Aa 95 Ba 84 Bb 45 C Impermeable 94 Ab 99 Aa 65 Ac 25 C / 50% Permeable 94 Ab 97 Ba 54 Bc Impermeable 94 Aa 0 Ab 0 Ab 30 C / 40% Permeable 94 Aa 0 Ab 0 Ab Impermeable 95 Ab 97 Aa 84 Ac 20 C / 60% Permeable 95 Aa 96 Aa 81 Bb 55 C Impermeable 95 Aa 93Bb 63 Ac 25 C / 50% Permeable 95 Aa 96 Aa 45 Bb Impermeável 95 Aa 0 Ab 0 Ab 30 C / 40% Permeable 95 Aa 0 Ab 0 Ab Impermeable 89 Ab 99 Aa 82 Ac 20 C / 60% Permeable 89 Aa 86 Bb 78 Bc 65 C Impermeável 89 Ab 92 Aa 61 Ac 25 C / 50% Permeável 89 Ab 92 Aa 38 Bc Impermeable 89 Aa 0 Ab 0 Ab 30 C / 40% Permeable 89 Aa 0 Ab 0 Ab Impermeable 89 Ab 94 Aa 80 Ac 20 C / 60% Permeable 89 Aa 89 Ba 73 Bb 75 C Impermeable 89 Ab 94 Aa 57 Ac 25 C / 50% Permeable 89 Ab 91 Ba 31 Bc Impermeable 89 Aa 0 Ab 0 Ab 30 C / 40% Permeable 89 Aa 0 Ab 0 Ab Means followed by the capital letter in the column for each package and lower lines for each storage time, do not differ at 5% probability. Coefficient of variation (CV) = 5.10%.
7 Alterations of the quality of sunflower seeds in the storage Coradi et al. 81 The electrolyte leakages of sunflower seeds, measured by electrical conductivity of the soaking water are shown in Tables 7, 8 and 9. It was found in the results that the effect of drying temperature of 55 C and 65 C caused more damage in cellular integrity of the seeds. Among the containers, the seeds stored in glass jar (impermeable) remained with better physical integrity. However, under the conditions of 30 C and 40% RH air had higher seed damage, due to the high amount of ions leached. For all treatments, the increase of storage time negatively influenced (p<0.05) in the physical quality of sunflower seeds. As observed by Pontes et al. (2006), the values of electrical conductivity were constant in sibipiruna seeds (Caesalpinia peltophoroides) stored at 5 C, however, those who remained in ambient 20 C, a significant increase in conductivity during the storage period. In the literature similar results obtained for other oil seeds, soybean (Vieira et al., 2001; Panobianco and Vieira, 2007) indicating that the amount of ions leached by the seeds is affected by storage temperature. As reported by Fessel et al. (2010), storage of soybean seeds at 10 C tended to stabilize membrane integrity, leading to lower leaching of exudates. Sunflower seeds have different morphological structures of soybean seeds, and in some cases cause the failure of the conductivity test features have been associated with the integument, which results in more or less pronounced release of leachates (Marcos Filho & Panobianco, 2001). Brandão Jr et al. (1997) used the conductivity test in the evaluation of whole seeds and sunflower without gumentadas found that destegumentadas seeds, soaked for 18 and 24 hours, were more efficient in detecting differences in quality between batches. Table 7. Determination of electrical conductivity in sunflower seeds (µs cm -1 g -1 ) as a function of drying air temperature and storage conditions for each type of packaging and storage time time c a b c 20 C / 60% Bc Bb Bb Ba Impermeable 25 C / 50% Aa Bc Bb Bb 3 30 C / 40% Bc Aa Ab Aa 20 C / 60% Bb Bb Bc Aa Permeable 25 C / 50% Cc 99.6 Cc Bb Ba 30 C / 40% Aa Aa Aa Aa 20 C / 60% Aa Cc Bb Cb Impermeable 25 C / 50% Bc Bb Aa Bb 6 30 C / 40% Ab Aa Cc Ab 20 C / 60% 99.9 Cb bb Cb Ba Permeable 25 C / 50% Ba Bc Bb 0.0 Cd 30 C / 40% Ac Ab Aa Ac Means followed by the capital letter in the column for each storage condition and lower lines for each temperature of the drying air, do not differ at 5% probability. Coefficient of variation (CV) = 6.78%.
8 82 Alterations of the quality of sunflower seeds in the storage Coradi et al. Table 8. Determination of electrical conductivity in sunflower seeds (µs cm -1 g -1 ) as a function of drying air temperature and storage time for each type of packaging and storage condition time (months) Packing conditions 45 C 55 C 65 C 75 C Bc Aa Ab Ac 3 Impermeable 20 C / 60% Cc Bb Cb Aa 6 20 C / 60% Aa Bd bc Ab Bc Aa Ab Cc 3 Permeable 20 C / 60% Ab Bb Bc Aa 6 20 C / 60% 99.9 Cc Cb Cc Ba Ac Aa Ab Bc 3 Impermeable 25 C / 50% Aa Cc Cc Ba 6 25 C / 50% Cc Bb Aa Ab Bc Aa Ab Bc 3 Permeable 25 C / 50% Cb 99.6 Cc Cb Aa 6 25 C / 50% Aa Bc Bb 0.0 Cd Bc Ca Bb Cc 3 Impermeable 30 C / 40% Cc Ba Ab Ab 6 30 C / 40% Ab Aa Cc Ab Cc Ca Cb Cc 3 Permeable 30 C / 40% Ba Ba Ba Ba 6 30 C / 40% Ac Ab Aa Ac Means followed by the capital letter in the column for each storage time and lower lines for each temperature of the drying air; do not differ at 5% probability. Coefficient of variation (CV) = 4.35%. Table 9. Determination of electrical conductivity in sunflower seeds (µs cm -1 g -1 ) as a function of storage time and type of packaging for each air temperature drying and storage condition Drying air Time of storage (months) temperature conditions Packing Impermeable Ab Bc Aa 20 C / 60% Permeable Ab Aa 99.9 Bc 45 C Impermeable Aa Aa Bb 25 C / 50% Permeable Ab Bb Aa Impermeable Ab Bc Ba 30 C / 40% Permeable Ac Ab Aa Impermeable Aa Bb Ab 20 C / 60% Permeable Aa Ab Ac 55 C Impermeable Aa Ac Ab 25 C / 50% Permeable Aa 99.6 Ac Bb Impermeável Ac Bb Ba 30 C / 40% Permeable Ac Ab Aa Impermeable Aa Ac Ab 20 C / 60% Permeable Aa Ab Bc 65 C Impermeável Ab Bc Aa 25 C / 50% Permeável Aa Ac Bb Impermeable Ab Ba Bc 30 C / 40% Permeable Ac Ab Aa Impermeable Ab Ba Aa 20 C / 60% Permeable Ac Aa Ab 75 C Impermeable Ab Bb Aa 25 C / 50% Permeable Ab Aa 0.0 Bc Impermeable Ab Ba Ba 30 C / 40% Permeable Ac Ab Aa Means followed by the capital letter in the column for each package and lower lines for each storage time, do not differ at 5% probability. Coefficient of variation (CV) = 7.45%.
9 Alterations of the quality of sunflower seeds in the storage Coradi et al. 83 The results in Table 10, 11 and 12 for the oil yield of sunflower seeds represent significant difference (P<0.05) between treatments and no significant storage for the temperatures of the drying air. It was observed that the yield of oil was higher for seeds stored in airtight containers at a lower temperature and relative humidity higher air, agreeing with the results of seedling emergence and electrical conductivity. The storage time reduced the oil content in the seeds for all treatments. Thus, it was found that storage also was greater reductions in oil content with increasing storage temperature of 20 C to 30 C and reducing the relative humidity from 60% to 40%. Under these conditions, the yield of oil decreased from 65% to 17% on average, depending on the type of treatment. Table 10. Measured of sunflower oil (%) versus temperature air drying and storage conditions for each type of packaging and storage time time a b a a 20 C / 60% Cb Ba Aa Ba Impermeable 25 C / 50% Aa Aa Bb Cb 3 30 C / 40% Bb Aa Cb Aa 20 C / 60% Ab Ac Aa Ba Permeable 25 C / 50% Ab Ab Ab Aa 30 C / 40% Ba Bb Bc Cc 20 C / 60% Aa Bc Bb Aa Impermeable 25 C / 50% Bb Aa Ab Cb 6 30 C / 40% Aa Bc Ab Bb 20 C / 60% Aa Bc Ab Ba Permeable 25 C / 50% Bb Aa Ab Aa 30 C / 40% Cb Bb Ca Cb Means followed by the capital letter in the column for each storage condition and lower lines for each temperature of the drying air, do not differ at 5% probability. Coefficient of variation (CV) = 6.55%. Table 11. Measured of sunflower oil (%) according to the drying air temperature and time of storage for each type of packaging and storage conditions time Ba Bb Ba Ba 3 Impermeable 20 C / 60% Bb Aa Aa Aa 6 20 C / 60% Aa Cc Cb Aa Ba Bb Ba Ba 3 Permeable 20 C / 60% Ab Ac Aa Aa 6 20 C / 60% Ca Cb Ca Ca Ba Bb Ba Aa 3 Impermeable 25 C / 50% Aa Aa Ab Ac 6 25 C / 50% Bb Aa Bb Ab Aa Bb Aa Ba 3 Permeable 25 C / 50% Ac Ab Ac Aa 6 25 C / 50% Bb Ba Bb Ba Ca Bb Aa Ba 3 Impermeable 30 C / 40% Ab Aa Ac Aa 6 30 C / 40% Ba Cc Ab Bb Aa Ab Aa Aa 3 Permeable 30 C / 40% Ba Bb Cb Bb 6 30 C / 40% Cb Cb Ba Bb Means followed by the capital letter in the column for each storage time and lower lines for each temperature of the drying air; do not differ at 5% probability. Coefficient of variation (CV) = 5.25%.
10 84 Alterations of the quality of sunflower seeds in the storage Coradi et al. Table 12. Measured of sunflower seeds (%) versus time oil storage and the type of packaging for each of the drying air temperature and storage condition Drying air temperature 45 C 55 C 65 C conditions 20 C / 60% 25 C / 50% 30 C / 40% 20 C / 60% 25 C / 50% 30 C / 40% 20 C / 60% 25 C / 50% 30 C / 40% Packing Time of storage (months) Impermeable Ab Ab Aa Permeable Ab Aa 41.91Bc Impermeable Ab Aa Ab Permeable Aa Ba Bb Impermeable Ac Aa Ab Permeable Aa Bb Bb Impermeable Ab Aa Ab Permeable Ab Ba Bc Impermeable Ab Aa Aa Permeable Ab Aa Ab Impermeável Ab Aa Ac Permeable Aa Ab Bb Impermeable Ab Aa Ac Permeable Ab Aa Ac Impermeável Ab Aa Ab Permeável Aa Aa Ab Impermeable Aa Aa Aa Permeable Aa Bc Bb Impermeable Ab Aa Aa 20 C / 60% Permeable Ab Aa Bc 75 C Impermeable Aa Bb Ab 25 C / 50% Permeable Ab Aa Ab Impermeable Ab Aa Ab 30 C / 40% Permeable Aa Bb Bb Means followed by the capital letter in the column for each package and lower lines for each storage time, do not differ at 5% probability. Coefficient of variation (CV) = 5.30%. Among the systems evaluated, it can be said that the drying temperature of 45 C, the impermeable packaging and storage conditions of 25 C and 50% RH in the air that were obtained better results concerning the percentage of oil. When compared with other seed cultures, sunflower are relatively easy to be stored, they have a low density. A feature of the sunflower seed, when stored according to Freitas et al. (2006) is the acidification of oils, which occurs gradually, being faster the higher the humidity and temperature of the seeds, the environmental conditions of the site, the amount of foreign material, stones, crushed and peeled grains. Another important aspect to consider during storage and is associated with the oil yield are the changes of lipids, which are attributed to enzymatic hydrolysis, peroxidation and autoxidation (Freitas et al., 2006). Oil seeds should be stored with moisture contents lower than recommended for starch. Accordingly, an increase in temperature as a result of breathing process is sufficient for the decomposition of lipids and increased rate of deterioration (Rodrigues et al., 2011). Among the theories proposed to elucidate the process of deterioration in oilseeds such as sunflower, degeneration of enzyme inactivation and membrane have been the most studied. This loss of integrity is associated with the action of free radicals, causing biochemical changes, tipping the osmotic regulation of solutes across cell membranes and organelles at the cellular level. Unstructured the membrane system, as shown in Tables 7, 8 and 9, structural lipids present react with molecular oxygen resulting in the formation of free radicals and peroxides with relative instability of fatty acids, which also causes a reduction in the yield of oils (Tables 10, 11 and 12). Along with the process of deterioration of lipids also occurs the leakage of oil with physical damage to the cell membranes of the seed as the one observed in the electrical conductivity.
11 Alterations of the quality of sunflower seeds in the storage Coradi et al. 85 CONCLUSIONS It was concluded that the waterproof packing positively influenced the quality of sunflower seeds stored. The conditions of 25 C and 50% RH air storage were more favorable for the quality of the seeds. The increase in time of storage under conditions of 30 C and 40% RH air adversely affecting the quality of seeds. To increase the yield of oil from sunflower seeds the best storage conditions were 25 0 C and 50% RH air. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors thank FUNDECT - MS for financial support for the development of research. BIBLIOGRAFIC REFERENCES Bajehbaj, A.A. The effects of NaCl priming on the salt tolerance in sunflower germination and seedling growth under salinity conditions. African Journal Biotechnology, v. 9, n. 12, p , Borba Filho, A.B.; Perez, S.C. J.G.A. Armazenamento de sementes de ipê-branco e ipê-roxo em diferentes embalagens e ambientes. Revista Brasileira de Sementes, v. 31, n. 1, p , Brasil. Ministério da Agricultura e Reforma Agrária. Regras para análise de sementes. Brasília: SNDA/DNDV/CLAV, 2009, 365p. Brandão JR., D.S.; Ribeiro, D.C.A.; Bernardino Filho, J.R.; Vieira, M.G.G.C. Adequação do teste de condutividade elétrica para determinar a qualidade fisiológica de sementes. Informativo ABRATES, v. 7, n. 2, p. 184, Chaves, T.H.; Resende, O.; Siqueira, V.C.; Ullman, R. Qualidade das sementes de pinhão manso durante o armazenamento em três ambientes. Revista Semina, v. 33, n. 5, p , Christensen, C. M. Microflora and seed deterioration. In: Roberts, E.H. (ed.). Viability of seeds. Syracuse, Syracuse University Press, 1972, p Coradi, P.C.; Lacerda Filho, A.F.; Melo, E.C. Quality of raw materials from different regions of Minas Gerais State utilized in ration industry. Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental, v. 15, p , Fagundes, M.H. Sementes de girassol: alguns comentários. Brasília: MAPA/ CONAB/ SUGOF, Disponível em: <http://www. conab.gov.br/download/cas/especiais/sement e-de-girassol. Ferreira, R.L.; Sá, M.E. Contribuição de etapas de beneficiamento na qualidade fisiológica de sementes de dois híbridos de milho. Revista Brasileira de Sementes, Brasília, v. 32, n. 4, p , Ferrari, R.A.; Oliveira, V.S.; Scabio, A. Biodiesel de soja - taxa de conversão em ésteres etílicos, caracterização físicoquímica e consumo em gerador de energia. Química Nova, São Paulo, v. 28, n.1, p , Fessel, S.A.; Panobianco, M.; Souza, C.R.; Vieira, R.D. Teste de condutividade elétrica em sementes de soja armazenadas sob diferentes temperaturas. Bragantia, v. 69, n. 1, p , Freitas, R.A.; Dias, D.C.F.; Dias, L.A.S.; Oliveira, M.G.A.; Josse, I.CH. Alterações fisiológicas e bioquímicas em sementes de algodão submetidas ao envelhecimento artifical. Bioscience Journal, v. 22, n. 1, p , Hussain, M. Influence of seed priming techniques on the seedling establishment, yield and quality of hybrid sunflower. International Journal of Agriculture & Biology, Faisalabad, v. 8, n. 1, p , Leite, R.M.B.C. Girassol no Brasil. Londrina: EMBRAPA Soja, 2007, 641 p. Maguire, J.D. Speed of germination in selection and evolution for seedling emergence and vigor. Crop Science, n. 2, p , Panobianco, M.; Marcos Filho, J. Evaluation of the physiological potential tomato seeds.
12 86 Alterations of the quality of sunflower seeds in the storage Coradi et al. Seed Technology, v. 23, n. 2, p , Panobianco, M.; Vieira, R.D. Electrical conductivity and deterioration of soybean seeds exposed to different storage conditions. Revista Brasileira de Sementes, v. 29, n. 2, p , Pontes, C.A.; Corte, V.B.; Borges, E.E.L.; Silva, A.G. Influência da temperatura de armazenamento na qualidade das sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (sibipiruna). Revista Árvore, v. 30, n. 1, p , Pozzi, C.R.; Braghini, R.; Braghini, R.; Arcaro, R.P.; Zorzete, P.; Israel, A.L.M.; Pozar, I.O.; Denucci, S.; Corrêa, B. Mycoflora and occurrence of alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether in Brazilian sunflower from sowing to harvest. Journal of Agricultural and food Chemistry, Washington, v. 53, p , Rodrigues, A.P.D.C. Armazenamento de sementes de salsa osmocondicionadas. Ciência Rural. Santa Maria, v. 41, n. 6, p , Toledo, M.Z., Fonseca, M.Z.; César, M.L.; Soratto, R.P.; Cavariani, C.; Crusciol, C.A.C. Qualidade fisiológica e armazenamento de sementes de feijão em função da aplicação tardia de nitrogênio em cobertura. Pesquisa Agropecuária Tropical, v. 39, n. 2, p , Vieira, R.D.; Krzyzanowski, F.C. Teste de condutividade elétrica. In: Krzyzanowski, F.C.; Vieira, R.D.; França Neto, J.B. (Eds.). Vigor de sementes: conceitos e testes. Londrina, PR: ABRATES, 1999, p Vieira, R.D.; Tekrony, D.M.; Egli, D.B.; Rucker, M. Electrical conductivity of soybean seeds after storage in several environments. Seed Science and Technology, v. 29, p , 2001.
21 Physiological quality of physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) seeds during storage 1 Márcio Dias Pereira 2 *, Denise Cunha Fernandes dos Santos Dias 3, Eduardo Euclydes de Lima e Borges 4, Sebastião Martins
9 th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection PS1-3 6207 Influence of different storage conditions on soybean grain quality E.R. de Alencar, L.R.D A. Faroni, A.F. de Lacerda Filho,
American Journal of Plant Sciences, 2014, 5, 2716-2725 Published Online August 2014 in SciRes. http://www.scirp.org/journal/ajps http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ajps.2014.518287 Quality of Jatropha curcas L.
The Role of Quality Evaluation in Seed Production as Exemplified by Soybean Seed Production Francisco Carlos Krzyzanowski, Ph.D. Embrapa Soybean SEED CERTIFICATION SYSTEM STANDARDS To reach them, several
ID 02 11 ALLELOPATHY OF Panicum maximum Jacq. CULTIVARS ON TREE AND SHRUB FORAGE LEGUMES: Greenhouse Estimate A.R.P. Almeida 1 and T.J.D. Rodrigues 2 1 Instituto de Zootecnia, Sertãozinho, SP - Brazil.
97 ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY AND DETERIORATION OF SOYBEAN SEEDS EXPOSED TO DIFFERENT STORAGE CONDITIONS 1 MARISTELA PANOBIANCO 2, ROBERVAL DAITON VIEIRA 3 ABSTRACT Research with soybean seeds has revealed
Improving the yield of soybean oil extraction process by using of microwave system M. Ghazvehi, M. Nasiri* School of Chemical, Gas and Petroleum Engineering, Semnan University,Semnan, Iran The increasing
PS1-7 - 6121 Influence of storage condition on seed quality of maize, soybean and sunflower B. Šimic 1,*, A. Sudaric 1, I. Liovic 1, I. Kalinovic 2, V. Rozman 2, J. Cosic 2 Abstract The study was aimed
Changes in Viability, Vigour and Chemical Composition of Soybean Seeds Stored Under the Humid Tropical Conditions V. Arulnandhy and Y.D.A. Senanayake Postgraduate Institute of Agriculture University of
Introduction to Seed Testing (Methodology and Terminology) The main purposes of seed testing are to: Study the physiological quality of seed Study seed procurement of the species Seed tests are based on
UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS DIVISION OF AGRICULTURE RESEARCH AND EXTENSION COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE Media Contact: Dr. Sammy Sadaka, PE Assistant Professor & Extension Engineer Phone: 501-671-2298 Fax:
Latin American Feedstocks Professor: Márcia Miguel Castro Ferreira. PhD Student: Magale Rambo. University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Institue of Chemistry, Labor for Theoretical and Applied Chemometrics LQTA
SUITABILITY OF RELATIVE HUMIDITY AS AN ESTIMATOR OF LEAF WETNESS DURATION PAULO C. SENTELHAS 1, ANNA DALLA MARTA 2, SIMONE ORLANDINI 2, EDUARDO A. SANTOS 3, TERRY J. GILLESPIE 3, MARK L. GLEASON 4 1 Departamento
Model SOPs for EC measurement Acid Deposition and Oxidant Research Center Electric Conductivity (1) Applicable samples (2) Principles and summary of the measurement method (3) References (4) Major instruments
International Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources 2015; 2(4): 90-94 Published online July 20, 2015 (http://www.aascit.org/journal/ijasnr) ISSN: 2375-3773 Effects of Storage Materials
DOE Office of Biological & Environmental Research: Biofuels Strategic Plan I. Current Situation The vast majority of liquid transportation fuel used in the United States is derived from fossil fuels. In
RICE QUALITY AND PROCESSING Comparison of Milling Characteristics of Hybrid and Pureline Rice Cultivars S.B. Lanning and T.J. Siebenmorgen ABSTRACT Milling characteristics of two long-grain pureline and
Committing Science to Global Development Award for Best Science Paper Ana Ribeiro Abstracts Biodiversity and Agricultural Research Pre-selected by the local cientific commitee: LE + IPAD Award: CGIAR SC
117 ISSN 1517-8595 MATHEMATICAL MODELING Of THE DRYING KINETICS OF SUGARCANE SLICES Nahia Agote Goyalde 1, Evandro de Castro Melo 2, Ronicely Pereira Rocha 3, André Luis Duarte Goneli 4, Fabiana Lana Araújo
1 FORECASTING MODEL FOR THE PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION OF COTTON FIBER VERSUS POLYESTER Elisa Mauro Gomes Otávio Lemos de Melo Celidonio Daniel Latorraca Ferreira Leandro Gustavo Alves Johnnattann Pimenta
Q uiz for week 3 readings: 1. The database on the Organic Weed management Website contains the following sections except: A. Picture B. Ecology C. Management D. Description 2. The weed quackgrass can reproduce
Effects of Climate Change in Brazilian Agriculture: Mitigation and Adaptation CepagriI/Unicamp Hilton Silveira Pinto (IB-CNPq) Jurandir Zullo Jr (CNPq) Ana M. H. de Avila Embrapa Informática Agropecuária
144 PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE OF COWPEA SEEDS TO SALINITY STRESS 1 BÁRBARA FRANÇA DANTAS², LUCIANA DE SÁ RIBEIRO³, CARLOS ALBERTO ARAGÃO 4 ABSTRACT- This work aimed to evoluate physiological response of cowpea
ENERGETIC EFFICIENCY OF AN AGRICULTURAL TRACTOR IN FUNCTION OF TIRE INFLATION PRESSURE LEONARDO DE A. MONTEIRO 1, DANIEL ALBIERO 2, KLEBER P. LANÇAS 3, ANDRÉ V. BUENO 4, FABRICIO C. MASIERO 5 ABSTRACT:
Challenges in On farm Drying and Storage of Soybean for Seed in Modern Bin Systems Griffiths G. Atungulu University of Arkansas Division of Agriculture Introduction Commercial practice allows seed to dry
Acta Scientiarum. Agronomy ISSN: 1679-9275 email@example.com Universidade Estadual de Maringá Brasil de Fátima Sales, Juliana; Brasil Pereira Pinto, José Eduardo; Almir de Oliveira, João; Pereira Botrel, Priscila;
Effect Of Amino Acids On Plants Agriculture production is a very intensive business and is related to better quality and better yield leading to better profitability Every farmer s dreams to achieve this
Production of biodiesel from jatropha curcas oil by using pilot biodiesel plant D.RAMESH*, A.SAMAPATHRAJAN, P.VENKATACHALAM Agrl. Engg. College & Research Institute Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India Introduction
Environmental Monitoring and Modeling of the Genetic Potential of Sugarcane Cultivars under Appropriate Water Availability in the Soil Eduardo Machado, Glauco Rolim, Leonardo B. Oliveira, Marcos Landell,
Journal of Stress Physiology & Biochemistry, Vol. 9 No. 4 2013, pp. 289-298 ISSN 1997-0838 Original Text Copyright 2013 by Azadi, Younesi ORIGINAL ARTICLE The Effects of Storage on Germination Characteristics
45 ISSN 1517-8595 INFLUENCE OF AIR PARAMETERS ON SPRAY DRYING ENERGY CONSUMPTION Tatumi Kajiyama 1, Kil Jin Park 2 ABSTRACT The objective of this present research was to simulate and evaluate the performance
Vigor and Seed Performance Mark A. Bennett Seed Biology Program Dept. of Horticulture and Crop Science Ohio State University Columbus, OH 43210-1086 firstname.lastname@example.org Seed vigor introduction and history
1. SAFE STORAGE CONDITIONS 1.1. INTRODUCTION From the moment of harvest to the moment of its use in processing for human food or animal feed, grain should be stored so as to prevent quality deterioration.
Artigo Original Revista Brasileira de Física Médica.2011;5(1):57-62. Reproducibility of radiant energy measurements inside light scattering liquids Reprodutibilidade de medidas de energia radiante dentro
CORN CORN (MAIZE) & BIOFUEL CORN NaanDanJain has many years experience with corn irrigation. Modern irrigation can increase the productivity of the crop for higher yields, using less water and fertilizers.
INVENTORY ANALYSIS FOR THE LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF PACKAGINGS FOR SOFT DRINKS ANÁLISE DO INVENTÁRIO PARA AVALIAÇÃO DO CICLO DE VIDA DE EMBALAGENS PARA REFRIGERANTES Marcelo Real Prado Georges Kaskantzis
February 27, 2014 Informa Economics South American Crop Reporting Service Brazil February Production Update and Weekly Crop Condition Report The Informa Economics staff in Brazil conducted its survey between
NOT AN OFFICIAL UNCTAD DOCUMENT JATROPHA: A CATALYST FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH IN AFRICA Onua Amoah (CEO, Anuanom Industrial Bio Products Ltd., Ghana) Order of presentation Introduction Which feedstock for biodiesel
Effect of Soil Amendment with Alfalfa Pellets and Glycerol on Nutrition and Growth of Wheat P. Qian, J.J. Schoenau, T.King and C. Fatteicher Department of Soil Science, University of Saskatchewan KEY WORDS
Int. J. Chem. Sci.: 9(4), 2011, 1746-1750 ISSN 0972-768X www.sadgurupublications.com EXTRACTION OF OIL FROM ALGAE BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION AND OIL EXPELLER METHOD NIRAJ S. TOPARE a, SUNITA J. RAUT a, V. C.
The AquaLab TrueDry CV9: Moisture Content Analysis Meets Good Science by Brady Carter Moisture content is a measure of the quantity of water in a product reported on either a wet or dry basis. Moisture
Curriculum Policy of the Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Graduate Program Agricultural Science plans to conserve natural and artificial ecosystems and its ideal of "Sustainable coexistence science"
Cover crops and crop rotation Exercise 1 Looking at the roots of cover crops Crop roots are important to take up nutrients and water for the plants. Besides this they are very important to keep the soil
III. THE MICROBIAL BIOMASS Required Readings: Ley, R.E., D.A. Lipson and S.K. Schmidt. 2001. Microbial biomass levels in barren and vegetated high altitude talus soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 65:111 117.
Chemistry 1215 Experiment #10 The Reaction of Zinc and Iodine: The Combination of Two Elements Objective The objective of this experiment is to perform a combination reaction by reacting elemental zinc
Ochandio D, Bartosik R, Yommi A, Cardoso L (2012) Carbon dioxide concentration in hermetic storage of soybean (Glycine max) in small glass jars. In: Navarro S, Banks HJ, Jayas DS, Bell CH, Noyes RT, Ferizli
Page 1 of 5 Rev: 02 1. INTRODUCTION Botanically a sweet potato is a swollen root to act as a storage organ. Sweet potatoes are becoming a more important export commodity fetching good prices during certain
Measuring Soil Respiration Background Decomposition in forest soils is a key ecosystem function that in part determines the productivity and health of the trees growing there. The process of decomposition
Revista Ciência Agronômica, v. 46, n. 2, p. 319-328, abr-jun, 2015 Centro de Ciências Agrárias - Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE Artigo Científico www.ccarevista.ufc.br ISSN 1806-6690 Image
A Novel Continuous Oil Seed Extraction Method for Jet Fuel Production Kasiviswanathan (Muthu) Muthukumarappan Distinguished Professor and Graduate Coordinator Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Department
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology, v. 1, n. 3, p. 245-254, 2001 245 Genotype x environment interaction and correlation among technological traits of soybean grains Lizz Kezzy de Morais 1 ; Deonisio
PHYSICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF BIOMASS BRIQUETTED FUEL * V. R. Birwatkar, Y. P. Khandetod, A. G. Mohod and K. G. Dhande 2 Department of Electrical and Other Energy Source, College of Agricultural Engineering
THE ADAPTATION OF SUGARCANE TO CLIMATE CHANGES: OBSERVATIONS ABOUT THE BRAZILIAN BREEDING. Silvia Angélica D. de Carvalho, PhD André T. Furtado, PhD Departament of Science and Technology Policy Geoscience
International Journal of Agriculture and Food Science Technology. ISSN 2249-3050 Volume 5, Number 3 (2014), pp. 171-178 Research India Publications http://www.ripublication.com Design of Cold Storage Structure
Quality Assurance in Germination Testing Anny van Pijlen Rasha El-Khadem Control of equipment Germinator Control of supplies Gowing media Water Monitoring Agenda Control of Equipment Temperature control
MODULE 7: DEMONSTRATION 2 A POT EXPERIMENT TO DEMONSTRATE THE YIELD RESPONSE TO LEGUME INOCULATION PURPOSE Demonstrate that rhizobial inoculation can increase the yield of legumes. Demonstrate the effect
EFFECT OF A MICROBIAL INOCULANT ON GROWTH AND CHLOROPHYLL LEVEL OF LETTUCE AND RADISH SEEDLINGS: A PRELIMINARY STUDY Susan Carrodus Lincoln University 2002 INTRODUCTION Microorganisms are often used in
1. The diagram below represents a biological process 5. The chart below indicates the elements contained in four different molecules and the number of atoms of each element in those molecules. Which set
Chapter II Literature Review Grain sorghum lab performance and field emergence Field establishment is often lower than that predicted from the standard laboratory germination test. Vanderlip et al. (1973)
FAPESP Bioenergy Research Program BIOEN http://bioenfapesp.org FAPESP Bioenergy Research Program BIOEN Fundamental knowledge and new technologies Academic Basic and Applied Research Since 2009, 152 grants,
100% natural safe to use Power up your plants. B I O L O G I C A L S Y S T E M S panoramix.com The very best that you can give your seeds Panoramix A new seed dressing by Koppert Biological Systems The
Communication International Journal of Marine, Atmospheric & Earth Sciences, 2014, 2(2): 58-64 International Journal of Marine, Atmospheric & Earth Sciences Journal homepage: www.modernscientificpress.com/journals/ijmaes.aspx
Lipids (Biologie Woche 1 und 2; Pages 81 and 82) Lipids Features Have oily, greasy or waxy consistency Relatively insoluble in water Protein and carbohydrates may be converted into lipids by enzymes an
HORTSCIENCE 43(5):1544 1548. 2008. Controlled Deterioration and Accelerated Aging Tests to Estimate the Relative Storage Potential of Cucurbit Seed Lots Ibrahim Demir 1 and Kaim Mavi Department of Horticulture,
POTENTIALS FOR JOINT EFFORTS OF FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF VIÇOSA AND JAPANESE UNIVERSITIES AND RESEARCH INSTITUTES FOR TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE TO DEVELOPING COUNTRIES Universidade Federal de Viçosa Carlos Sigueyuki
A South American point of view Roberto Campos Pura Natura, Argentina EUSTAS 6 th Stevia Symposium Leuven, July 3 rd and 4 th I. Area of cultivation II. Environment III. Production of seedlings IV. Planting
Impacts of Demand and Technology in Brazilian Economic Growth of 2000-2009 Elcio Cordeiro da Silva 1, Daniel Lelis de Oliveira 2, José Tarocco Filho 3 and Umberto Antonio SessoFilho 4 Abstract: The objective
Chemistry B11 Chapter 4 Chemical reactions Chemical reactions are classified into five groups: A + B AB Synthesis reactions (Combination) H + O H O AB A + B Decomposition reactions (Analysis) NaCl Na +Cl
TECHNICAL REPORT STUDY CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF RATTAN SHOOT FROM PLANTATION IN THAILAND by Assistant Professor Dr. Noojaree Prasitpan Chemist Analyzer of the ITTO Project on PD 24/00 Rev.1 (I): Promotion
Management system of an active genebank of common bean Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology 10: 95-100, 2010 Brazilian Society of Plant Breeding. Printed in Brazil Management system of an active genebank
BEHAVIOR OF ASPHALTS in the PRODUCTION OF ASPHALTIC CONCRETE Project HR-107 Iowa Highway Research Board Project 540-S Engineering Experiment Station Iowa State University by Ladis H. Csanyi Professor in
Phyton (Austria) Special issue: "Root-soil interactions" Vol. 40 Fasc. 4 (143)-(148) 25.7.2000 Water Relations, Root Growth Potential and Plant Survival of Cold Stored Pinus radiata D. Don Seedlings By
CHAPTER 7: REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER There are a number of technologies that are being use to remediate contaminated groundwater. The choice of a certain remediation technology
DRIED VEGETABLES Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations DRIED VEGETABLES 1.- Dried Vegetable Processing - General Information The vegetable dehydration technique is reasonably simple and
Lab #5: Cellular Respiration Ananya, Bonnie, Jiaqi, Neha, and Susie Purpose of this Lab The purpose of this lab was to determine the rate of cellular respiration in germinating peas by measuring the consumption
Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems, 2013, 3, 260-264 Published Online December 2013 (http://www.scirp.org/journal/jsbs) http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jsbs.2013.34035 Availability of Information about
The Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens How Sweet It Is: Enzyme Action in Seed Germination Overview This experiment is intended to familiarize students with the macromolecule starch,
ECONOMICAL EVALUATION THROUGH GROSS PROFIT AND CASH FLOW IN DIFFERENT BEEF CATTLE SYSTEMS IN RIO GRANDE DO SUL SUMMARY Vicente Celestino Pires Silveira 1 João Garibaldi Viana 2 Carolina Balbé de Oliveira
Lab. Composting The first part of this week s lab will take place at Cornell s Compost Facility on Stevenson Road. We will tour the facility and collect samples of compost at different stages of decomposition.