Charles A. Nelson III Children s Hospital Boston/Harvard Medical School Harvard Center on the Developing Child

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Charles A. Nelson III Children s Hospital Boston/Harvard Medical School Harvard Center on the Developing Child"

Transcription

1 Charles A. Nelson III Children s Hospital Boston/Harvard Medical School Harvard Center on the Developing Child Presented at NICHD Cognition Workshop, March 2011, Bethesda, MD

2 Outline I. Declaration of Bias II. Brain Development III. Typical and atypical cognitive development

3 I. A Declaration of Bias Study of typical and atypical cognitive development should co-exist Study of typical development essential to establishment of road map Study of atypical development essential for obvious reasons but also because such study may shed light on typical development

4 A Declaration of Bias (Con t) Cognitive development does not exist in isolation from development in other domains (e.g., social, emotional, language) The study of cognitive development should not be brainless imperative to ground such study in knowledge of the brain As appropriate, and within limits of experimental design and methods, study of cognitive development should also be informed by genetics

5 A Declaration of Bias (Con t) It is generally unhelpful and often biologically naïve to ascribe the term innate to cognitive development There should be an attempt to adopt a true developmental framework.moving on

6 II. Brain Development The Brain is the organ that drives cognitive development and is responsible for deviations in typical development Next slide

7 15 1/2 wks 22 weeks 23 weeks ~25 weeks 27 weeks Full term brain Adult

8 Correspondence between Brain and Cognitive Development

9 III. Select Domains of Cognitive Development Speech, Language, Reading Face processing Object concept Numerical Competence Memory Attention Theory of Mind Conceptual development Executive functions/cognitive Control/Functions subserved by the PFC Reasoning, planning, problem solving, working memory, inhibitory control, future-oriented behavior, cognitive flexibility etc.

10 A. Reading builds on speech and language Ability to co-localize sounds and sights (e.g., letters) Typically begins to emerge late preschool and is fully on line by age 8-9

11 11 Reading development Sound and Language Processing Phonological Processing/ Letter recognition Graphemephoneme Mapping Single word/ Connected text reading Lexical Access/ Comprehension/ Fluency

12 12 Reading is learned through explicit training, and many factors contribute to its successful acquisition and development Skilled readers utilize three main brain networks for decoding text: Anterior System Posterior dorsal System Posterior ventral System Modified after Pugh et al., 2001

13 Deviations in Speech, Language and Reading Pure speech delays and disorders Phonological difficulties, verbal dyspraxia Language delays and disorders Specific language impairment Autism Developmental Dyslexia

14 B. Face Processing Comes on-line within first weeks of life, but develops gradually over first year (due to built in constrains on visual development), with continued elaboration through Visual Development: Acuity adolescence 3 weeks Infant color sensitivity and acuity increase during the first year. 6 weeks 3 months 6 months

15 Face Processing (Con t) Newborns have rudimentary knowledge of faces By 3-4 months, have concept of faces Between 4-7 months, processing of facial emotion begins to accelerate rapidly Similar to speech perception, face processing undergoes perceptual narrowing with development, such that expertise develops gradually (next slide)

16 Pascalis, de Haan, & Nelson, Proportion of Looking Familiar Novel Proportion of Looking Familiar Novel 0 6-month 9-month Adult 0 6-month 9-month Adult * Pascalis, O., de Haan, M., & Nelson, C.A. (2002). Science, 296,

17 Face Processing, Con t Building blocks of face processing established in infancy but Recognition of identity, age, gender, and race continues to be refined through childhood These changes driven by specialization of cortical circuits in inferior temporal lobe (e.g., fusiform) Recognition of emotion (essential for social communication) also established in childhood, although ability to process fear continues to develop into adolescence These changes driven by amygdala and OFC

18 Deviations in Face Processing Autism Prosopagnosia common manifestation adulthood but developmental variant typically observed in childhood and adolescence Children experiencing early neglect or abuse Schizophrenia Adolescence/young adulthood Bipolar Late childhood/adolescence

19 C. Memory Two types Declarative (explicit) Non-declarative Declarative memory subserved by structures in the medial temporal lobe; Non-declarative subserved by nontemporal lobe structures (e.g., striatum)

20 Typical development of declarative memory functions birth Young adulthood Recognition memory Relational memory Flexibility Episodic per se Memory functions Improvement

21 Recognition memory An early emerging memory function, already present in 3-4-day old infants impacted after hippocampal lesion but more severe after perirhinal lesion.

22 Relational memory Seems to emerge later than recognition memory during postnatal development between 6 and 12-month-old, as assessed by a deferred imitation task present at 9 months of age, as assessed by a VPC task impacted by hippocampal lesion in adult individuals

23 Flexibility Relational memory evolves during the first two years of life to become more elaborate with age. extremely specific to the context in which learning occurs and gradually becomes more and more flexible flexibility is a fundamental component of relational memory, which is thought to depend on the integrity of the hippocampal formation

24 Episodic memory per se Emerge around 3-5 years of age most adults are unable to recall events that happened before this age, a phenomenon called infantile amnesia Dependent on the integrity of the hippocampal formation A key role for the dentate gyrus, and postnatal neurogenesis in DG continues through mid-life

25 Memory improvement Development of other cognitive function impact memory, leading to additional qualitative changes in the different memory functions subsequent to their emergence Memory functions continue to improve between 4 and 6 years of age and even until young adulthood (although by 9-10 years, memory quite good) PFC is implicated in episodic memory in adults and seems to be involved in the cognitive control of memory and specifically in the formation of detailed representations of experiences

26 Summary Early emergence of recognition memory might be subserved by early maturing circuits in perirhinal and hippocampal formation Gradual emergence of episodic functions subserve by the gradual maturation of the hippocampal formation (including dentate gyrus) Gradual maturation of existing episodic memory functions subserve by the protracted maturation of the frontal lobe.

27 Atypical Memory Development Learning disabilities Pure memory disorder (e.g., developmental amnesia ), such as children who experienced hypoxic-ischemic injury at birth, or children born to diabetic mothers Both typically emerge preschool and later But sensitive assays may be able to detect in infancy

28 28 Numerical development Tracking and comparing quantities (e.g., 8 vs. 16 sounds) Counting; One-to-one correspondence; Cardinality (i.e., that each count word refers to an exact quantity) Manipulating numbers (e.g., addition and subtraction); Fractions; Negative numbers Algebra, geometry, calculus, and beyond

29 Neural basis of numerical competence A meta-analysis of fmri studies of number processing points to parietal activation in adults Dehaene et al., 2003 Recent infant work also points to parietal regions responding to changes in quantity using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)

30 Deficits in numerical competence Dyscalculia As prevalent as dyslexia Frequent in preterm infants despite normal IQ and reading scores reduced gray matter in IPS Numerical deficits and genetic disorders (e.g. Williams syndrome, Fragile X, Turner syndrome) Reduced activation in IPS in these populations Isaacs et al., 2001 Molko et al., 2003

31 Executive Functions Typically taken to include a collection of functions subserved disproportionately by the prefrontal cortex; includes Working memory Inhibitory control Planning/sequencing Resulting in: Future-oriented behavior Reasoning Problem solving

32 32 Executive Function Development rudiments of working memory Emerging inhibitory control and working memory Inhibitory control increases and working memory span; increases Emerging Cognitive Flexibility Continued development within EF domains and integration of these abilities to do long term / complex planning behavior

33 What Drives development of EFs? Assumption has been that pruning of synapses in PFC, which continues through late adolescence, coupled with changes in myelination (same time frame), make possible changes in EFs Presumably experience is what drives these changes although both genetic factors and experiential factors can undermine development of PFC and EFs (examples next slide)

34 Experiential factors to deviations in EFs Early Psychosocial Deprivation Children experiencing early institutionalization experience long-term deficits in executive functions (cf. Bucharest Early Intervention Project) and correspondingly, problems regulating attention Enhancement Several studies have identified computerized and classroom training programs that improve working memory in children (see work by Neville, Diamond, among others)

35 Non Experiential Factors Executive functions have strong heritability estimates in behavior genetics studies Disorders of executive functioning (ADHD) are among the most heritable and variation in genes that code for dopamine function have been identified as different in these disorders.

36 Developmental Time frame for emergence and elaboration of EFs Not surprisingly, given neural architecture, Efs have long developmental trajectory Although see rudiments of working memory in infancy, this develops most through preschool and elementary school In contrast, inhibitory control isn t clearly present till preschool and continues well through adolelence Planning and cognitive flexibility develop most through middle childhood and continue through late adolescence.

37 Behaviors affected by poor executive functions Learning disabilities (e.g., planning, problem solving) Externalizing disorders ADHD Conduct disorder Disruptive behavior disorder

38 The Future Understand how genes and experience contribute singly or interactively to drive changes in cognitive development Identification of sensitive periods in acquisition of cognitive skills Development of methods of early identification of children at risk for developing x,y,z disorder Improved methods for studying these functions from infancy through childhood (next slide)

39 The Future (con t) Develop/refine tools that permit one to examine neural mechanisms underlying changes in cognitive development. Recording Brain Activity from 128 electrodes (from children)

40

Child Development. Caseworker Core Training Module VII: Child Development: Implications for Family-Centered Child Protective Services

Child Development. Caseworker Core Training Module VII: Child Development: Implications for Family-Centered Child Protective Services Child Development P R E - T R A I N I N G A S S I G N M E N T Caseworker Core Training Module VII: Child Development: Implications for Family-Centered Child Protective Services Developed by the Institute

More information

Attention, memory and learning and acquired brain injury. Vicki Anderson. Jamie M. Attention & learning: an information processing model

Attention, memory and learning and acquired brain injury. Vicki Anderson. Jamie M. Attention & learning: an information processing model Attention, memory and learning and acquired brain injury Vicki Anderson Jamie M. Childhood acquired amnesia Attention & learning: an information processing model MANAGEMENT Organising, problem solving

More information

Structural brain imaging is a window on postnatal brain development in children. Terry Jernigan

Structural brain imaging is a window on postnatal brain development in children. Terry Jernigan Structural brain imaging is a window on postnatal brain development in children Terry Jernigan Old (but still widely held) View of Human Brain Structure All neurons are present at birth. Myelination of

More information

Brain Structures That are Involved with Memory

Brain Structures That are Involved with Memory Early Theories of Brain Structures That are Involved with Psychology 372 Sensation Sensory Attention Rehearsal STM Storage Retrieval Physiological Psychology Steven E. Meier, Ph.D. Listen to the audio

More information

EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY. effectiveness of, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as

EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY. effectiveness of, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Educational psychology is the study of how humans learn in, the effectiveness of, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations. Educational psychology

More information

Mind, Brain, and Education: Neuroscience Implications for the Classroom. Study Guide

Mind, Brain, and Education: Neuroscience Implications for the Classroom. Study Guide Mind, Brain, and Education: Neuroscience Implications for the Classroom Edited by David A. Sousa This study guide is a companion to Mind, Brain, and Education: Neuroscience Implications for the Classroom.

More information

Education and the Brain: A Bridge Too Far John T. Bruer. Key Concept: the Human Brain and Learning

Education and the Brain: A Bridge Too Far John T. Bruer. Key Concept: the Human Brain and Learning Education and the Brain: A Bridge Too Far John T. Bruer Key Concept: the Human Brain and Learning John T. Bruer Scholar in cognitivist approaches to human learning and instruction. His argument refers

More information

Understanding the functional development of the human

Understanding the functional development of the human NEUROSCIENCE PERSPECTIVES Development of Human Brain Functions Mark H. Johnson Aspects of postnatal human brain development are reviewed. The development of brain function has commonly been characterized

More information

Objectives. Cortical thickness over time. Cortical thickness over time. ADHD neurobiology

Objectives. Cortical thickness over time. Cortical thickness over time. ADHD neurobiology The Neuroscience of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Implications for Treatment Steven R., M.D. Professor and Chief Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry UTHSCSA Source Purdue Disclosures

More information

Learning with Your Brain. Teaching With the Brain in Mind

Learning with Your Brain. Teaching With the Brain in Mind Learning with Your Brain Should what (and how) we teach be associated with what we know about the brain and the nervous system? Jonathan Karp, Ph.D. Dept of Biology 5/20/2004 Teaching With the Brain in

More information

The Core Story of Human Development 2.0

The Core Story of Human Development 2.0 The Core Story of Human Development 2.0 Megan R. Gunnar, Ph.D. Regents Professor and Distinguished McKnight University Professor Director, Institute of Child Development Institute of Child Development

More information

Neurodevelopmental Disorders, Disruptive, Impulse Control and Conduct Disorder (DSM 5)

Neurodevelopmental Disorders, Disruptive, Impulse Control and Conduct Disorder (DSM 5) Neurodevelopmental Disorders, Disruptive, Impulse Control and Conduct Disorder (DSM 5) Matthew Soulier, MD Paula Wadell, MD Scott Summers, MD, PhD UC Davis Department of Psychiatry CONCENTRATION IRRITABILITY

More information

FIVE NUMBERS TO REMEMBER ABOUT EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT

FIVE NUMBERS TO REMEMBER ABOUT EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT This feature highlights five numbers to remember about the development of young children. Learn how the numbers illustrate such concepts as the importance of early childhood to the learning, behavior,

More information

The Thirteen Special Education Classifications. Part 200 Regulations of the Commissioner of Education, Section 4401(1)

The Thirteen Special Education Classifications. Part 200 Regulations of the Commissioner of Education, Section 4401(1) The Thirteen Special Education Classifications Part 200 Regulations of the Commissioner of Education, Section 4401(1) Student With a Disability: A student as defined in section 4401(1), who has not attained

More information

The Teen Brain: Still Under ConStrUCtion NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF MENTAL HEALTH

The Teen Brain: Still Under ConStrUCtion NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF MENTAL HEALTH The Teen Brain: Still Under ConStrUCtion NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF MENTAL HEALTH One of the ways that scientists have searched for the causes of mental illness is by studying the development of the brain from

More information

Autism and Intellectual Disabilities

Autism and Intellectual Disabilities Autism and Intellectual Disabilities (DSM IV & V) Accessibility Politecnico di Milano Autism (I) A total of six (or more) items from (A), (B), and (C), with at least two from (A), and one each from (B)

More information

3030. Eligibility Criteria.

3030. Eligibility Criteria. 3030. Eligibility Criteria. 5 CA ADC 3030BARCLAYS OFFICIAL CALIFORNIA CODE OF REGULATIONS Barclays Official California Code of Regulations Currentness Title 5. Education Division 1. California Department

More information

Infancy: Cognitive Development

Infancy: Cognitive Development Infancy: Cognitive Development Chapter 6 Child Psychology Make sure you understand these concepts : Piaget s Stage Theory Schemas: assimilation & accommodation Developments in Sensorimotor Stage Sub-stages

More information

MSc Applied Child Psychology

MSc Applied Child Psychology MSc Applied Child Psychology Module list Modules may include: The Child in Context: Understanding Disability This module aims to challenge understandings of child development that have emerged within the

More information

Chapter 4: Eligibility Categories

Chapter 4: Eligibility Categories 23 Chapter 4: Eligibility Categories In this chapter you will: learn the different special education categories 24 IDEA lists different disability categories under which children may be eligible for services.

More information

Review Paper Cognitive Neuroscience and Education: Understanding the Teaching Learning Strategies, Learning Disabilities and Neuromyths

Review Paper Cognitive Neuroscience and Education: Understanding the Teaching Learning Strategies, Learning Disabilities and Neuromyths Research Journal of Educational Sciences ISSN 2321-0508 Review Paper Cognitive Neuroscience and Education: Understanding the Teaching Learning Strategies, Learning Disabilities and Neuromyths Abstract

More information

Intellectual functions of the brain: Learning, Memory and higher order functions

Intellectual functions of the brain: Learning, Memory and higher order functions Intellectual functions of the brain: Learning, Memory and higher order functions Sinan Canan,PhD sinancanan@gmail.com www.sinancanan.net Learning&Memory Learning: Neural mechanisms that modifes behavior

More information

Memory Rehabilitation in Early Dementia. Diana Golvers Clinical Psychologist Central Dementia Service

Memory Rehabilitation in Early Dementia. Diana Golvers Clinical Psychologist Central Dementia Service Memory Rehabilitation in Early Dementia Diana Golvers Clinical Psychologist Central Dementia Service Loss of Memory in AD Memory impairment earliest manifestation of AD and other dementias Major impact

More information

By Dr. Mindy Aisen CEO and Director United Cerebral Palsy Research and Educational Foundation www.ucpresearch.org CEREBRAL PALSY RESEARCH

By Dr. Mindy Aisen CEO and Director United Cerebral Palsy Research and Educational Foundation www.ucpresearch.org CEREBRAL PALSY RESEARCH By Dr. Mindy Aisen CEO and Director United Cerebral Palsy Research and Educational Foundation www.ucpresearch.org CEREBRAL PALSY RESEARCH Main Sources of Federal Funding for Cerebral Palsy and Disability

More information

A Primer on Brain Development or/and. Children of Northern California

A Primer on Brain Development or/and. Children of Northern California A Primer on Brain Development or/and Why First 5 is Very Important to the Children of Northern California Heidi M Feldman MD PhD Professor. Stanford University Proud Grantee of First 5 San Mateo Learning

More information

Brain Function, Spell Reading, and Sweep-Sweep-Spell by Abigail Marshall, March 2005

Brain Function, Spell Reading, and Sweep-Sweep-Spell by Abigail Marshall, March 2005 Brain Function, Spell Reading, and Sweep-Sweep-Spell by Abigail Marshall, March 2005 This is not phonics or a phonetic process; it is simply letter and word recognition. Ronald D. Davis T wo of the most

More information

SPECIAL EDUCATION AND DISABILITY POLICY (SEDP)

SPECIAL EDUCATION AND DISABILITY POLICY (SEDP) VCU 1 SPECIAL EDUCATION AND DISABILITY POLICY (SEDP) SEDP 330. Survey of Special Education. 3 Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Presents an overview of the historical basis and regulatory requirements

More information

Drugs PSYCHOSIS. Depression. Stress Medical Illness. Mania. Schizophrenia

Drugs PSYCHOSIS. Depression. Stress Medical Illness. Mania. Schizophrenia Drugs Stress Medical Illness PSYCHOSIS Depression Schizophrenia Mania Disorders In preschool children imaginary friends and belief in monsters under the bed is normal (it may be normal in older developmentally

More information

Handout: Risk. Predisposing factors in children include: Genetic Influences

Handout: Risk. Predisposing factors in children include: Genetic Influences Handout: Risk The more risk factors to which a child is exposed the greater their vulnerability to mental health problems. Risk does not cause mental health problems but it is cumulative and does predispose

More information

DSM-5. Presented by CCESC School Psychologist Interns: Kayla Dodson, M.Ed. Ellen Doll, M.S. Rich Marsicano, Ph.D. Elaine Wahl, Ph.D.

DSM-5. Presented by CCESC School Psychologist Interns: Kayla Dodson, M.Ed. Ellen Doll, M.S. Rich Marsicano, Ph.D. Elaine Wahl, Ph.D. DSM-5 Presented by CCESC School Psychologist Interns: Kayla Dodson, M.Ed. Ellen Doll, M.S. Rich Marsicano, Ph.D. Elaine Wahl, Ph.D. Introduction Lifespan approach to diagnosis Diagnoses occurring in children

More information

Putting Science to Action

Putting Science to Action Putting Science to Action Mary Eming Young, MD, DrPH International Consultant, Global Health and Child Development Senior Advisor, Center on the Developing Child, Harvard University Co-leader, Early Childhood

More information

How Does Memory Change With Age? Class Objectives. Think about the importance of your memory 3/22/2011. The retention of information over time

How Does Memory Change With Age? Class Objectives. Think about the importance of your memory 3/22/2011. The retention of information over time How Does Memory Change With Age? The retention of information over time Class Objectives What is memory? What factors influence our memory? Think about the importance of your memory It s hard to even attempt

More information

43 243.1. Criteria for Entry into Programs of Special Education for Students with Disabilities

43 243.1. Criteria for Entry into Programs of Special Education for Students with Disabilities Document No. STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION CHAPTER 43 Statutory Authority: Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004, 20 U.S.C. 1400 et seq. (2004) 43 243.1. Criteria for Entry into Programs

More information

An overview of Intellectual Developmental Disability Functioning levels of Mental Retardation/Intellectual Disability Autism

An overview of Intellectual Developmental Disability Functioning levels of Mental Retardation/Intellectual Disability Autism An overview of Intellectual Developmental Disability Functioning levels of Mental Retardation/Intellectual Disability Autism Intellectual/Developmental Disability (IDD) - indicates an overall intellectual

More information

Executive Function Capacities:

Executive Function Capacities: Executive Function Capacities: It s not not knowing what to do; it s knowing to do what you know. Lisa A. Perkins, Psy. D. Westport Public Schools Questions about Your Executive Function Capacities? How

More information

Unravelling Autism. Preston Wiles M.D. Professor, UTSWMC Senior Attending, Autism Center

Unravelling Autism. Preston Wiles M.D. Professor, UTSWMC Senior Attending, Autism Center Unravelling Autism Preston Wiles M.D. Professor, UTSWMC Senior Attending, Autism Center Learning Objectives Describe essential features of autism spectrum disorders Overview of genetic factors in the disorder

More information

Running Head: DYSLEXIA: CAUSES, PERFORMANCE DIFFERENCES Dyslexia 1

Running Head: DYSLEXIA: CAUSES, PERFORMANCE DIFFERENCES Dyslexia 1 Running Head: DYSLEXIA: CAUSES, PERFORMANCE DIFFERENCES Dyslexia 1 Dyslexia: Causes, Performance Differences, and Treatment Jordan L. Walker Angelo State University 1 Dec 2014 Dyslexia 2 Introduction Dyslexia

More information

The Role of Executive Functions in Childhood Learning and Behavior

The Role of Executive Functions in Childhood Learning and Behavior The Role of Executive Functions in Childhood Learning and Behavior George McCloskey, Ph.D. Associate Professor Psychology Department Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine 1 What are Executive Functions?

More information

2 Neurons. 4 The Brain: Cortex

2 Neurons. 4 The Brain: Cortex 1 Neuroscience 2 Neurons output integration axon cell body, membrane potential Frontal planning control auditory episodes soma motor Temporal Parietal action language objects space vision Occipital inputs

More information

SPECIFIC LEARNING DISABILITIES (SLD)

SPECIFIC LEARNING DISABILITIES (SLD) Together, We Can Make A Difference Office 770-577-7771 Toll Free1-800-322-7065 www.peppinc.org SPECIFIC LEARNING DISABILITIES (SLD) Definition (1) Specific learning disability is defined as a disorder

More information

Bachelor of Arts in Early Childhood Degree Offerings through the 2010-2012 Catalog*

Bachelor of Arts in Early Childhood Degree Offerings through the 2010-2012 Catalog* Bachelor of Arts in Early Childhood Degree Offerings through the 2010- Catalog* Catalog Number Class Name Course Description Semester Credits Prerequisites Semesters Offered Mode of Delivery EC 210 INTRODUCTION

More information

DEPARTMENT OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND DISABILITY POLICY

DEPARTMENT OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND DISABILITY POLICY VCU 1 DEPARTMENT OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND DISABILITY POLICY Colleen Thoma, Ph.D. Professor and chair The mission of the Department of Special Education and Disability Policy is to prepare skilled, effective

More information

Therapy software for enhancing numerical cognition

Therapy software for enhancing numerical cognition Therapy software for enhancing numerical cognition T. Käser 1, K. Kucian 2,3, M. Ringwald 5, G. Baschera 1, M. von Aster 3,4, M. Gross 1 1 Computer Graphics Laboratory, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland

More information

Accommodations STUDENTS WITH DISABILTITES SERVICES

Accommodations STUDENTS WITH DISABILTITES SERVICES Accommodations Otis College of Art and Design is committed to providing equality of education opportunity to all students. To assist in increasing the student s learning outcome, Students with Disabilities

More information

ARLINGTON PUBLIC SCHOOLS SPECIAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS AND SERVICES

ARLINGTON PUBLIC SCHOOLS SPECIAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS AND SERVICES ARLINGTON PUBLIC SCHOOLS SPECIAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS AND SERVICES Introduction The Arlington Public Schools provides a comprehensive array of programs and services from pre-school through grades 12 designed

More information

The Parietal Lobes. Functions of the Parietal Lobes

The Parietal Lobes. Functions of the Parietal Lobes The Parietal Lobes Functions of the Parietal Lobes The Parietal Lobes develop at about the age of 5 years. They function to give the individual perspective and to help them understand space, touch, and

More information

Neurobiology of Depression in Relation to ECT. PJ Cowen Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford

Neurobiology of Depression in Relation to ECT. PJ Cowen Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford Neurobiology of Depression in Relation to ECT PJ Cowen Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford Causes of Depression Genetic Childhood experience Life Events (particularly losses) Life Difficulties

More information

Social inclusion. What are the roots of social exclusion? Children s development. The neuroscience of brain development

Social inclusion. What are the roots of social exclusion? Children s development. The neuroscience of brain development Engaging all families and children: the role of early childhood education and care in supporting vulnerable children and their families Professor Frank berklaid Director, Royal Children s Hospital Melbourne

More information

CORE CONCEPTS IN THE SCIENCE OF EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT Healthy Development Builds a Strong Foundation For Kids and For Society

CORE CONCEPTS IN THE SCIENCE OF EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT Healthy Development Builds a Strong Foundation For Kids and For Society Healthy Development Builds a Strong Foundation For Kids and For Society 1 Child development is a critical foundation for community development and economic development, as capable children become the foundation

More information

Frequently Asked Questions about Making Specific Learning Disability (SLD) Eligibility Decisions

Frequently Asked Questions about Making Specific Learning Disability (SLD) Eligibility Decisions Frequently Asked Questions about Making Specific Learning Disability (SLD) Eligibility Decisions This document is part of the department s guidance on implementing Wisconsin SLD criteria. It provides answers

More information

Auditory memory and cerebral reorganization in post-linguistically deaf adults

Auditory memory and cerebral reorganization in post-linguistically deaf adults Auditory memory and cerebral reorganization in post-linguistically deaf adults Implications for cochlear implantation outcome D Lazard, HJ Lee, E Truy, AL Giraud Ecole Normale Supérieure, Inserm U960,

More information

Master of Arts, Counseling Psychology Course Descriptions

Master of Arts, Counseling Psychology Course Descriptions Master of Arts, Counseling Psychology Course Descriptions Advanced Theories of Counseling & Intervention (3 credits) This course addresses the theoretical approaches used in counseling, therapy and intervention.

More information

Irritability and DSM-5 Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD): Correlates, predictors, and outcome in children

Irritability and DSM-5 Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD): Correlates, predictors, and outcome in children Irritability and DSM-5 Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD): Correlates, predictors, and outcome in children Ellen Leibenluft, M.D. Chief, Section on Bipolar Spectrum Disorders National Institute

More information

Metacognitive Strategies for Adolescents with an FASD Marnie Hutchison, MEd Jacqueline Pei, PhD Kimberly Kerns, PhD Carmen Rasmussen, PhD Kennedy

Metacognitive Strategies for Adolescents with an FASD Marnie Hutchison, MEd Jacqueline Pei, PhD Kimberly Kerns, PhD Carmen Rasmussen, PhD Kennedy Metacognitive Strategies for Adolescents with an FASD Marnie Hutchison, MEd Jacqueline Pei, PhD Kimberly Kerns, PhD Carmen Rasmussen, PhD Kennedy Denys Jennifer MacSween Learning Objectives 1. Gain an

More information

5/28/2015. Medhat Bassiony Samar Abdelgayed Usama M. Youssef

5/28/2015. Medhat Bassiony Samar Abdelgayed Usama M. Youssef Medhat Bassiony Samar Abdelgayed Usama M. Youssef The adolescent is biased by functionally mature subcortical relative to less mature cortical circuitry. With development, the functional connectivity between

More information

Psychology. Administered by the Department of Psychology within the College of Arts and Sciences.

Psychology. Administered by the Department of Psychology within the College of Arts and Sciences. Psychology Dr. Spencer Thompson, Professor, is the Chair of Psychology and Coordinator of Child and Family Studies. After receiving his Ph.D. in Developmental Psychology at the University of California,

More information

The core symptoms of ADHD, as the name implies, are inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsivity. These are excessive and long-term and

The core symptoms of ADHD, as the name implies, are inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsivity. These are excessive and long-term and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder What is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder? The core symptoms of ADHD, as the name implies, are inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsivity. These are

More information

Memory and its Learning Implications

Memory and its Learning Implications Memory and its Learning Implications Asociación Educar Presented by: Catalina Norato Tutor: Denise Toiw Country: Bogotá, Colombia Living things exist in a world where conditions, behaviors, relations and

More information

M.A. DEGREE EXAMINATION, DECEMBER 2009. First Year. Psychology. Answer any FIVE of the following questions. Each question carries 15 marks.

M.A. DEGREE EXAMINATION, DECEMBER 2009. First Year. Psychology. Answer any FIVE of the following questions. Each question carries 15 marks. (DPSY 01) First Year Paper I GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY 1. Explain the definition and scope of psychology. 2. Explain the patterns of brain and behavior in human psychology? 3. Write about perceptual constancy

More information

The Developing Person Through the Life Span 8e by Kathleen Stassen Berger

The Developing Person Through the Life Span 8e by Kathleen Stassen Berger The Developing Person Through the Life Span 8e by Kathleen Stassen Berger Chapter 6- The First Two Years: Cognitive Development PowerPoint Slides developed by Martin Wolfger and Michael James Ivy Tech

More information

MPI Literature Review - Marijuana s effects on the adolescent brain

MPI Literature Review - Marijuana s effects on the adolescent brain General Summary: - Marijuana use appears to have a significant effect on adolescents brain structure and development. In particular, heavy marijuana use is associated with attention, memory, and planning

More information

Early Proposal. The Biopsychology of Memory. Early Research (1920) Neurosurgeon Wilder Penfield. Early Research 4/29/2013

Early Proposal. The Biopsychology of Memory. Early Research (1920) Neurosurgeon Wilder Penfield. Early Research 4/29/2013 Early Proposal The Biopsychology of Memory Module 13.1 Different methodologies have been used to try to figure out what regions of the brain are involved in memory functions. Pavlov learning (such as classical

More information

www.projectlearnet.org WHAT IS COGNITIVE INTERVENTION/REHABILITATION?

www.projectlearnet.org WHAT IS COGNITIVE INTERVENTION/REHABILITATION? Tutorial: Cognitive Intervention/Rehabilitation (See Tutorials on Cognition; Transfer/Generalization; Instructional Routines; Attention; Memory and Memory Problems; Organization; Problem Solving; Concrete

More information

Psychology: Course Descriptions

Psychology: Course Descriptions Psychology Courses-1 Psychology: Course Descriptions PSY 096/Orientation to Psychology PSY 097/Exploring the Psychology Major PSY 098/Exploring the Psychology Profession PSY 099/Psychology Professional

More information

Cognitive Development in Infancy and Childhood

Cognitive Development in Infancy and Childhood Chapter 4, The Developing Person 1 Prenatal Development and the Newborn Prenatal Development Developmental psychologists examine how we develop physically, cognitively, and socially, from conception to

More information

ADHD and Executive Functions: Emerging Concepts

ADHD and Executive Functions: Emerging Concepts ADHD and Executive Functions: Emerging Concepts Thomas E. Brown, PhD Associate Director, Yale Clinic for Attention and Related Disorders Department of Psychiatry Yale Medical School Shifts in Conceptualizing

More information

Course Syllabus College of Education Winona State University. Department: Special Education Date: August 2011

Course Syllabus College of Education Winona State University. Department: Special Education Date: August 2011 Course Syllabus College of Education Winona State University Department: Special Education Date: August 2011 Course Number: 451/551 Course Title: ECSE Assessment, Planning, and Placement Number of Credits:

More information

Oregon Association of Vocational Special Needs Personnel

Oregon Association of Vocational Special Needs Personnel Oregon Association of Vocational Special Needs Personnel Brain Development and Traumainformed Services for Emerging Adults Hood River, OR February 21, 2015 2015 Conference: Making Connections Julie M.

More information

The Role of Executive Functions in Childhood Learning and Behavior. George McCloskey. Plain Talk About Reading February 9-11, 2015 New Orleans

The Role of Executive Functions in Childhood Learning and Behavior. George McCloskey. Plain Talk About Reading February 9-11, 2015 New Orleans The Role of in Childhood Learning and Behavior George McCloskey Plain Talk About Reading February 9-11, 2015 New Orleans About the Presenter George McCloskey George McCloskey, Ph.D., is a professor and

More information

Sarah Levin Allen, Ph.D., CBIS Executive Director, Brain Behavior Bridge Assistant Professor, Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine Pediatric

Sarah Levin Allen, Ph.D., CBIS Executive Director, Brain Behavior Bridge Assistant Professor, Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine Pediatric Sarah Levin Allen, Ph.D., CBIS Executive Director, Brain Behavior Bridge Assistant Professor, Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine Pediatric & NJ School Neuropsychologist www.brainbehaviorbridge.com

More information

Joseph K. Torgesen, Department of Psychology, Florida State University

Joseph K. Torgesen, Department of Psychology, Florida State University EMPIRICAL AND THEORETICAL SUPPORT FOR DIRECT DIAGNOSIS OF LEARNING DISABILITIES BY ASSESSMENT OF INTRINSIC PROCESSING WEAKNESSES Author Joseph K. Torgesen, Department of Psychology, Florida State University

More information

Outline Chapter 1 Child Psychology 211 Dr. Robert Frank. 1 What is child development, and how has its study evolved?

Outline Chapter 1 Child Psychology 211 Dr. Robert Frank. 1 What is child development, and how has its study evolved? Outline Chapter 1 Chapter 1: GUIDEPOSTS FOR STUDY 1 What is child development, and how has its study evolved? 2 What are six fundamental points about child development on which consensus has emerged? 3

More information

Learning Disabilities, Behavioral/Emotional Disorders, and Other Brain Disorders: What We Know

Learning Disabilities, Behavioral/Emotional Disorders, and Other Brain Disorders: What We Know Learning Disabilities, Behavioral/Emotional Disorders, and Other Brain Disorders: What We Know by Ted Schettler, MD There are many ways that something can go awry in the brain, which can impair our ability

More information

WHAT IS CEREBRAL PALSY?

WHAT IS CEREBRAL PALSY? WHAT IS CEREBRAL PALSY? Cerebral Palsy is a dysfunction in movement resulting from injury to or poor development of the brain prior to birth or in early childhood. Generally speaking, any injury or disease

More information

Effects of Age and Experience on the Development of Neurocognitive Systems

Effects of Age and Experience on the Development of Neurocognitive Systems C H A P T E R 9 Effects of Age and Experience on the Development of Neurocognitive Systems Teresa V. Mitchell and Helen J. Neville INTRODUCTION Progress in cognitive science and the development of noninvasive

More information

Spina Bifida Over The Lifespan: Challenges and Competencies

Spina Bifida Over The Lifespan: Challenges and Competencies Spina Bifida Over The Lifespan: Challenges and Competencies Maureen Dennis 23 rd International Conference for Spina Bifida and Hydrocephalus, Stockholm, 15-16 June 2012 Outline 1. Neurocognitive challenges

More information

Miller-Executive Function 1

Miller-Executive Function 1 Miller-Executive Function 1 Karen J. Miller, MD: disclosure slide Executive Function Dysfunction: The Newest Learning Disability No financial disclosures No conflicts of interest Karen J. Miller, MD Boston,

More information

How are Parts of the Brain Related to Brain Function?

How are Parts of the Brain Related to Brain Function? How are Parts of the Brain Related to Brain Function? Scientists have found That the basic anatomical components of brain function are related to brain size and shape. The brain is composed of two hemispheres.

More information

Psychology Courses-1

Psychology Courses-1 Psychology Courses-1 PSY 096/Orientation to Psychology 0 course units phis advising seminar is required for all freshman and external transfer students enrolled as Psychology majors (all double majors

More information

Brain and Memory. By: Pamela L. Washbourne

Brain and Memory. By: Pamela L. Washbourne Brain and Memory By: Pamela L. Washbourne Neurocognitive Networks Recent advances in basic and cognitive neurosciences now allow a more detailed analysis of networks Memory and Learning can be dissociated

More information

Children with Down Syndrome Attending Mainstream Schools

Children with Down Syndrome Attending Mainstream Schools Children with Down Syndrome Attending Mainstream Schools Background Down syndrome is a chromosomal anomaly caused by the presence of all or part of an extra 21st chromosome. It is a complex, low incidence

More information

Executive functions: Stuss model

Executive functions: Stuss model Executive functions: Stuss model The model refers to frontal lobe functioning rather than executive functions; apologies to Don for interchanging the terms. Four functional domains Action regulation Executive

More information

PSYC PSYCHOLOGY. 2011-2012 Calendar Proof

PSYC PSYCHOLOGY. 2011-2012 Calendar Proof PSYC PSYCHOLOGY PSYC1003 is a prerequisite for PSYC1004 and PSYC1004 is a prerequisite for all remaining Psychology courses. Note: See beginning of Section F for abbreviations, course numbers and coding.

More information

Executive Function in Context: The Role of Stress and Vulnerability and Opportunities for Intervention. Stephanie M. Jones

Executive Function in Context: The Role of Stress and Vulnerability and Opportunities for Intervention. Stephanie M. Jones Ending Poverty: Integrating Behavioral and Social Sciences Executive Function in Context: The Role of Stress and Vulnerability and Opportunities for Intervention Stephanie M. Jones Harvard Graduate School

More information

Personalized Integrative Markers for Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents

Personalized Integrative Markers for Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents University Press Scholarship Online You are looking at 1-10 of 26 items for: keywords : attention deficit Personalized Integrative Markers for Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and

More information

WMS III to WMS IV: Rationale for Change

WMS III to WMS IV: Rationale for Change Pearson Clinical Assessment 19500 Bulverde Rd San Antonio, TX, 28759 Telephone: 800 627 7271 www.pearsonassessments.com WMS III to WMS IV: Rationale for Change Since the publication of the Wechsler Memory

More information

Standards for Certification in Early Childhood Education [26.110-26.270]

Standards for Certification in Early Childhood Education [26.110-26.270] I.B. SPECIFIC TEACHING FIELDS Standards for Certification in Early Childhood Education [26.110-26.270] STANDARD 1 Curriculum The competent early childhood teacher understands and demonstrates the central

More information

School Psychologist PK 12 Section 36

School Psychologist PK 12 Section 36 School Psychologist PK 12 Section 36 1 Knowledge of measurement theory, test construction, research, and statistics 1. Identify theories of measurement and test construction. 2. Demonstrate knowledge of

More information

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: a pharmacological treatment approach

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: a pharmacological treatment approach Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: a pharmacological treatment approach Professor Alasdair Vance Head, Academic Child Psychiatry Department of Paediatrics University of Melbourne Royal Children s Hospital

More information

Objectives 11/25/2014. Promoting safety, justice and healing by recognizing and responding to the Brain s Response to Trauma and Abuse

Objectives 11/25/2014. Promoting safety, justice and healing by recognizing and responding to the Brain s Response to Trauma and Abuse Promoting safety, justice and healing by recognizing and responding to the Brain s Response to Trauma and Abuse Kim Day, RN, SANE A, SANE P SAFta Project Director Jennifer Pierce Weeks, RN, SANE A, SANE

More information

Admissions Requirements

Admissions Requirements Special Education Dickinson Hall, Rooms 300F, 304 (501) 569-3124, (501) 569-8710, (501) 569-8922 Master of Education in Special Education The Master of Education in Special Education (SPED) prepares candidates

More information

Children with Executive Functioning Deficits

Children with Executive Functioning Deficits Children with Executive Functioning Deficits Cat Samson MS, MPH, PMHNP-BC 2008 ONA/NPO Annual Education Conference October 19, 2008 catsamson@gmail.com http://www.pdxfamilywellness.com Objectives Define

More information

Department of Education Learners first, connected and inspired

Department of Education Learners first, connected and inspired Department of Education Learners first, connected and inspired Frequently Asked Questions about Early Entry to Kindergarten (Cross Sectoral Information for Parents) Frequently Asked Questions about Early

More information

Brain Behaviour and Environmental Match Mismatch Considerations for Optimal Socio Emotional Functioning and Intervention In Children and Youth

Brain Behaviour and Environmental Match Mismatch Considerations for Optimal Socio Emotional Functioning and Intervention In Children and Youth Brain Behaviour and Environmental Match Mismatch Considerations for Optimal Socio Emotional Functioning and Intervention In Children and Youth John D. Strang, Ph.D., C. Psych. Clinical Neuropsychologist

More information

Neuroimaging Studies of Memory John Jonides Tor D. Wager David T. Badre. University of Michigan

Neuroimaging Studies of Memory John Jonides Tor D. Wager David T. Badre. University of Michigan Neuroimaging Studies of Memory John Jonides Tor D. Wager David T. Badre University of Michigan Address correspondence to: Dr. John Jonides Department of Psychology University of Michigan 525 E. University

More information

Virtual Child Written Project Assignment. Four-Assignment Version of Reflective Questions

Virtual Child Written Project Assignment. Four-Assignment Version of Reflective Questions Virtual Child Written Project Assignment Four-Assignment Version of Reflective Questions Virtual Child Report (Assignment) 1: Infants and Toddlers (20 points) Choose 7 or 8 questions whose total point

More information

Please bear in mind the following when finalising your choices: You must have an even balance of Autumn and Spring Term modules.

Please bear in mind the following when finalising your choices: You must have an even balance of Autumn and Spring Term modules. FINAL YEAR MODULE OPTIONS FOR 2015/2016 Dear Students FINAL YEAR MODULE OPTIONS 2015-16 Now that you have had the briefing session, here are the guidelines to assist you with choosing your final year modules.

More information

Infant-Toddler Alignment. Preschool Alignment. HighScope Educational Research Foundation

Infant-Toddler Alignment. Preschool Alignment. HighScope Educational Research Foundation COR Advantage HighScope s newest research-based assessment tool is highly compatible with many national and state early learning standards, including those of the state of Arizona. This document shows

More information

MSc Courses in the Department of Psychology

MSc Courses in the Department of Psychology School of Psychology and Clinical Language Sciences - MSc Courses in the Department of Psychology This brochure is designed to tell you about the MSc courses available in the Department of Psychology at

More information

GENERAL SEMANTICS. The Key To Understanding The Brain. Charles E Bailey MD

GENERAL SEMANTICS. The Key To Understanding The Brain. Charles E Bailey MD GENERAL SEMANTICS The Key To Understanding The Brain Charles E Bailey MD 1 5/29/2006 Agenda Normal Brain Anatomy and Function Relationship Between Rodent and Human Brain Semantics and the Frontal Lobes

More information