THE LEGACY OF EDVARD MUNCH, SOCIAL DEMOCRACY, OLD MYTHS, ANARCHY AND DEATH LONGINGS.

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1 N O R S E S O U L THE LEGACY OF EDVARD MUNCH, SOCIAL DEMOCRACY, OLD MYTHS, ANARCHY AND DEATH LONGINGS.

2 THE LEGACY N O R S E OF S O U L EDVARD MUNCH, SOCIAL DEMOCRACY, OLD MYTHS, ANARCHY AND DEATH LONGINGS. JUNE 12-OCTOBER 17, Massachusetts Avenue, NW Washington, D.C

3 FOREWORD Left: Arne Ekeland I kabyssen / In the Galley, 1935 Oil on canvas, 39 x 47.5 inches. American University, located at the top of Embassy Row in our Nation s Capital, Washington, D.C., takes its location seriously. It has an international mission, and a commitment to social, political, and artistic engagement. These aspirations are well-served by the Museum s hosting of Norse Soul The Legacy of Edvard Munch, Social Democracy, Old Myths, Anarchy and Death Longings. In a city of museums and governmental institutions that preserve and protect the received view, our job is to question authority and imagine the present. Norse Soul does both. Norse Soul began eighteen months ago as an inquiry from the Royal Norwegian Embassy about our interest in participating in Norway Comes to Washington, D.C., a major festival of Norwegian music and culture. The National Gallery of Art was committed to showing Edvard Munch: Master Prints, accompanied by concerts of music composed by Edvard Grieg. We were asked to consider organizing an exhibition of Norwegian artists working since Munch, and I replied yes without hesitation. The opportunity to compare and contrast established masters and contemporary practitioners with the National Gallery of Art was a privilege and a challenge. I flew to Norway for a week to explore the artistic landscape. I was overwhelmed by the beauty of the country and the power of the artists, but clearly floundering in my attempts to grasp the complexities of its culture and recognize its key contributors. Then, I traveled to Moss, a small industrial town an hour s train ride from Oslo, and visited Momentum 2009, the 5th Nordic Biennial of Contemporary Art, directed by Dag Aak Sveinar. I quickly realized that Dag would be the ideal collaborator for this project, and the Royal Norwegian Embassy graciously provided the resources to make this possible. Dag selected the individual artworks for Norse Soul, and negotiated for their loan. The exhibition is dark and extraordinary, as it would have to be if it is to represent the legacy of Edvard Munch and the succeeding generations of artists who carried on a great figurative tradition, but in their own distinctive styles and choices of media. My only regret is we could not bring a black metal band to American University. A variety of logistical, spatial, and financial considerations prevented us from presenting this genre perfectly contrasted to the music of Edvard Grieg. I know there are some out there breathing sighs of relief. Exhibitions are always a collaborative venture, but bringing an exhibition of the scale and quality of Norse Soul from Oslo to Washington in eighteen months, from inquiry to opening reception, required smooth, exceptional coordination led by Jannicke Jæger and Pia Ulrikke Dahl of the Royal Norwegian Embassy. I must also thank Mette Michelsen of the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Stephen Ackert and Andrew Robison of the National Gallery of Art, the American University s outstanding and forgiving senior museum staff members Stefanie Fedor and Bruce Wick, and the whole College of Arts and Sciences team. Finally, I thank the private and public lenders to the exhibition, including Ole S. Steen, Rolf Millidahl (Ekelandsstiftelsen), Engebret O. Fekene, Greene Naftali Gallery, the Norwegian National Museum of Art, Architecture and Design, the Astrup Fearnley Museum of Modern Art, and Punkt Ø. Jack Rasmussen, director and curator American University Museum 3

4 NORSE SOUL THE LEGACY OF EDVARD MUNCH, SOCIAL DEMOCRACY, OLD MYTHS, ANARCHY AND DEATH LONGINGS. When I was asked to mount an exhibition for the American University Museum at the Katzen Art Center on Norwegian art from Edvard Munch ( ) to the present day, the task seemed overwhelming. Which indeed it was. Both because Munch is undoubtedly Norway s most significant artist so far and because he has been succeeded by so many interesting artists. One approach taken by Norwegian art historians and presenters to explain Norwegian culture in the decades after the Second World War was to trace the development from Munch to the lyrical abstract art of the younger generation of Norwegian artists. This approach was appropriate in the 1950s and 60s but it would not be so today because the field has become so much more complex and pluralistic. There have been a great many new developments in Norwegian art since the war and, parallel with the rest of the western world, especially in the 1960s and 70s. A representative exhibition covering these years that would be worthy of the public would have required a great deal more exhibition space and a large team of curators specialised in different time periods and art movements. However, since none of these conditions apply, I decided not to attempt to trace any kind of development from Munch to a specific artistic position but to take the more drastic step of focusing on just four artists to train a shifting, kaleidoscopic perspective on some distinctive features of Norwegian art. I have also chosen not to include abstract art. Not because Munch s art was not linked with modernism but because my chosen focus required it. That particular exhibition will be the next one. Norse Soul The word Norse refers to Scandinavia and the northwestern part of the Nordic region the Faeroes, Iceland and Norway. The Norsemen were of Norwegian stock, and Norse is one facet of what we today regard as particular to Norway, an aspect that may also have spiritual expression, as a mood or temperament. The fact that there are certain distinctive features that are specifically Norwegian is self-evident, but for us, who live and breath the Norwegian air, it is difficult to put into words what we mean by Norwegian. It is always much easier to define what distinguishes another culture than one s own. (This was illustrated by a survey conducted in 2004 by by:larm entitled Finnes det norske?... og i så fall hvordan kan det beskrives? [Does Norwegianness exist? And if so, can it be described?].) What is it that is so unique to the Norwegian spirit, and why have we chosen such a bold title for the exhibition? A bird s-eye view of the history of Norwegian art reveals several distinctive features: we have an unbroken tradition of painting that dates back to the 19th-century artist I.C. Dahl and that still runs through the work of many of our artists a deeply felt relationship with nature, and a propensity for figurative art. A parallel search for the distinctively Norwegian soul in architecture can be found in the architectural theory of Christian Norberg-Schulz, whose many publications include Nightlands, Nordic Building (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1997). Norberg- Schulz maintains that the genius loci, or the spirit of place, is an integrated state because the same traits are inherent in people, buildings and the landscape. Architecture is experienced as recognizable and intimate; in architectural forms we perceive both ourselves and the nature surrounding us. Exhibiting Norwegian art in the US, the home of abstract expressionism, pop art and minimalism, is a challenge to communication: none of these American movements made an impression on the work of Norwegian artists, at any rate not during the period covered by this exhibition (the 1950s, 60s and 70s). Today both American and Norwegian art are influenced by everything from the more performative, actionist and experimental expressions of social processes to the more classical forms of expression and the art of art institutions. So we can but try. Norse Soul contains a limited selection of artworks. Only four artists are represented, three of whom are still living. The work of Arne Ekeland ( ) is well represented, with paintings ranging from the 1930s to what was probably his last painting, in 1992, and a number of superb drawings. The three living artists occupy a special position in Norwegian art today. Marianne Heske (1946) is one of Norway s most well-known artists and is recognised internationally for her installations and video-manipulated landscapes. Shown here is the installation Voyage Pittoresque of 1986, in which she takes the public with her along her own mental journey through her childhood landscape in northwestern Norway. Bjarne Melgaard (1967) made his breakthrough in the 1990s, with his expressive paintings, drawings, video and installations. He is represented by drawings, groups of drawings that suggest installations, and paintings with clear references to various subcultures. Marthe Thorshaug (1977) is exhibiting her most recent video work, The Legend of Ygg, which was produced for the opening of the Nordic contemporary biennale Momentum 2009 Favoured Nations. We decided to heighten the public s experience of the Norse Soul and enhance the elegant premises of the American University Museum at Katzen Arts Center with a selection of chairs and tables of Norwegian design. For this purpose we borrowed some of Aksel Hansson s 1930s prototypes and new adaptations of jærstolen, Peter Opsvik s innovative chairs from Håg, which have revolutionised the concept of seating comfort, and Varier s chairs designed by Per Øie, Olav Eldøy and Opsvik, with their combined rational and emotional appeal. The long title of the exhibition is Norse Soul The Legacy of Edvard Munch, Social Democracy, Old Myths, Anarchy and Death Longings. The references to ideologies, inheritance and longing will become gradually apparent as the works of the various artists are presented below. The exhibition and the individual works can be interpreted in many ways and viewed from many different angles. The all-embracing title is intended to reflect the wide range of possible interpretations of the artworks, while at the same time pointing specifically to what we are seeing and how we perceive it. 4 5

5 THE ARTISTS Arne Ekeland (Born 1908 and died 1994 at Bøn, Eidsvoll, Norway) Arne Ekeland s talent, like that of so many Norwegian artists right back to the time of I.C. Dahl, was discovered and further developed thanks to the efforts of his family, friends, teachers and those wealthy enough to provide support for his education and travels. Many Norwegian painters with artistic talent but little eloquence were helped in this way to make the journey from the depths of the country or over the mountains to the capital, where they were able to learn from more established artists. Depicting the development of society and its citizens was in those days considered an important task for artists. Ekeland himself acquired his knowledge in stages during his youth. He also learnt much from his travels, where he absorbed new impressions that he later transformed into his own aesthetic expression. In 1935, at the age of 27, he achieved a breakthrough and confirmed his position in Norwegian art with his first solo exhibition at Kunstnerforbundet i Oslo. In the Galley was painted for this exhibition and was characteristic of his style: colours based on a triad of intense red yellow blue that seem to strike sparks from the canvas, the claustrophobic room and the figures with their large heads, slim bodies and expressive hands. An important aspect of Ekeland s art was its references to the well-defined class distinctions in Norwegian society and his strong solidarity with the working class, which lasted throughout his life. In an article on major figures in Norwegian art, the critic Helge Neumann called him a follower of Edvard Munch in that his human figures were rigidly bound by instincts, ravaged by instincts in happiness and despair (Ord & Bilde 1945). Even in this first exhibition, many of Ekeland s projects reflected the concerns and styles of his contemporaries. These works show a triad of influences from classical art, revolutionary modernism and efforts to break down the barriers of the establishment, modified by a suggestion of French cubism and with subjects illustrating strong social engagement of a somewhat moralistic and normative character. At that time the aspiration of every artist was to be commissioned to decorate a public building that would for ever enhance the architectural symbols of Norwegian society, in the same way as the Mexican muralistas wall paintings of the 1930s. Ekeland participated in many such competitions, and although he only ever received a mention, he continued all his life to paint on large-scale canvases. Unfortunately we are not able to show any of his large works such as Meneskekjøperen/ Trafficker in Humans of 1963, which measures 3 x 5 metres. Ekeland s drawings, sketches and paintings were always aimed at mastering the large format required for buildings. Ekeland was an artist who went his own idiosyncratic way, on the one hand remaining true to his communist principles while on the other engaging in a continuous search for new forms of expression. This interchange stimulated his exploration of the possibilities of painting and his work with contemporary expression. In the two paintings shown here, Machinery Parts in Snow and Outside the Factory, which date from , the style is figurative and based on perspective. In both the horizon has been raised almost to the upper edge of the painting and curved, so that the painting seems to incorporate the horizon of the whole earth. This results in an overwhelming sense of perspective and opens up possibilities for the remaining available surface. Here Ekeland has used simplified facades alluding to factory buildings to further emphasise the perspective and convey an impression of the threatening, empty, wings of a stage. The figures in Machinery Parts in Snow have become ghosts that float upwards and outwards as they are emptied of what spiritual life they still retain. They give the painting a dynamic rhythm, which someone raised above and outside the painting seems to be conducting as if the movements were an orchestra. The figures movements suggest the metamorphosis of snow from solid to liquid form. In Outside the factory the individuals positions are so closely linked with the world of the factory that this world infiltrates their bodies or strings them along an assembly line. The figures are deprived of all individuality. The rows of human figures on the bottom right of the painting are being pushed over the edge of an abyss, falling being their last movement before annihilation. The use of colour in both these paintings is bold, with a blue violet white background enlivened by touches of strong orange, yellow and red. The bold composition is characteristic of Ekeland s continual efforts to set himself and overcome fresh challenges. This tendency is carried further in the 1972 painting Black Sun, where the human figures have merged even further with the machines, while the background dissolves into a monochrome yellow. Machine fragments, and machinery and human parts hang or float in an open, limitless space. The movements of the human figures and the objects suggest that they are being drawn upwards and out of the painting as part of a single larger movement. The atmosphere of doom is mitigated by a vision of a future in which human machine combinations create new, hybrid forms. Many of the paintings feature the female figure which is a central motif in Ekeland s art, from the early Girl by the Bridge to the late Ave Maria. The women suffer loss and sorrow, but at the same time they represent hope and give a higher meaning to life, as in Spring of 1942, where the two female figures seem engaged in a graceful dance. Much more could be said about Ekeland s art his many different styles; his superb mastery of drawing; his strong attachment to the natural landscape of his childhood, with its river, its small hills and its industrial buildings; his relationship to French, Italian and Russian art history and artistic expressions; and the inspiration he gained from paintings of the Renaissance and up to his own time. Nevertheless, we hope this brief introduction will aid the viewer as he makes his own voyage of discovery through Ekeland s world. Marianne Heske (b. 1946, Ålesund, Norway) is represented by her video installation Voyage Pittoresque. The work leads the viewer on a half-hour journey from the shore of the fjord to the peak of the mountain. Voyage Pittoresque takes a fresh look at a traditional art form that dates back to the 18th and 19th centuries. Journeys to exotic places had become popular among the wealthy, and it was customary to document the tour by noting down not only every new discovery but also every detail of how the travellers spent their time, including what and when they ate, the places they passed through and the people they met. Special emphasis was given to the landscape, and northwestern Norway with its spectacular fjords and mountains, where Heske grew up, was considered a particularly attractive destination. These landscapes were also powerfully depicted by I.C. Dahl and other 19th-century Norwegian painters whose work had achieved iconic status as expressions of the real Norway. Heske made the journey from fjord to mountain peak in the 1960s in the back of a lorry with four video cameras, pointing forwards, backwards and to each side. In this work she uses a modern 6 7

6 medium to take the viewer on a journey where he sees the landscape changing as it winds in and out along the fjord and rises higher and higher up the mountain. Under Heske s direction, these curves and twists allow us to make our own mental journey through the landscape, until our external and internal impressions are woven together to form a life world in which we are vividly present. Bjarne Melgaard (b. 1967, Sydney, Australia) is the second artist to be represented by paintings and drawings. Melgaard s work was becoming known towards the end of Ekeland s life, and the two artists represent two quite different worlds. Ekeland was the socially aware artist who believed that his work should deal with major social issues and who did not allow himself to be distracted from his purpose by his own feelings and dreams. Melgaard s work is the explosion of an inner chaos of instincts and desires. He has to feel untrammelled. He has to leave nothing untried. He imparts his inner world live, and imprints it directly on his surroundings. Melgaard is unplugged. Melgaard s drawings make us feel that they were made under enormous emotional pressure but at the same time they give the impression that the effect is deliberate. Existence has no safety net; what we face is pain and angst, we are a prey to primitive instincts. Chemical Diary of 2002 consists of 50 or so drawings that have been more or less flung at the wall; one of them is a prescription with a knife through it. The artist is reeling in a druginduced state, while his hand acts as a seismograph registering every sudden impulse as it arises. And what is then revealed? An anarchistic mind longing for death, an aversion to the institution of art and to art itself, a vulnerability to existence. In this exhibition Melgaard s paintings show how he works with simplified compositions that are not afraid to seem banal or stylised, and that blatantly quote other, more conventionally artistic, works as and when he chooses. Marthe Thorshaug (b. 1977, Hamar, Norway) is the fourth and youngest artist in the exhibition, and like Heske she is represented by a single video installation. Thorshaug describes The Legend of Ygg in her own words. A modern legend of death riders in Norway. Narrow is the path where there is only room for one. Old legends tell of riders following mountain paths so steep and narrow that there was only room for one. When two riders met one of them had to jump off the cliff. It was always the most fearless rider who could continue on her way. The Legend of Ygg is about a group of girl riders who drive each other to extremes. Under the influence of a charismatic riding instructor, the girls develop a bizarre riding technique, and based on old Norse legends, they use roads to test their own and their horse s courage. Their aim is to become fearless. They go riding in the dead of the night dressed in black. By their use of the road as a ritual arena, they cause mysterious car accidents in the Norwegian countryside. The survival, rebirth and construction of modern myths and legends is a recurring theme in Thorshaug s films. In Thorshaug s work it is difficult to know when fiction veers into the realm of documentary and vice versa. The blurred boundary can be seen as a reflection of the power of images and of how the writing of history, truth and fiction are all interwoven. In The Legend of Ygg Thorshaug continues in the road movie vein, but shifts her focus to the Icelandic horse. The opening sequence of the film is a journey into a Norwegian landscape in the national romantic style dotted with ancient burial mounds. Here we are introduced to the Icelandic horse, the Viking horse that the Norwegians took with them to Iceland in the 9th century. The Norse word ygg can be translated as cruel, and Ygg was one of the Norse god Odin s many names. As both the god of war and the source of wisdom, Odin was the chief god of Norse mythology. Odin s pursuit of knowledge involved personal sacrifice, and he frequently appeared in disguise. He travelled on his eightlegged horse, Sleipnir, who could gallop through the air and over the sea. To acquire his runic wisdom, Odin hung himself from the tree Yggdrasil, the world tree. He hung there for nine nights, pierced by his own spear, before reaching down in agony to pick up the rune staves, which imparted wisdom. The purpose of this strange ritual, in which a god sacrifices himself to himself because there is nothing higher to sacrifice to, was to obtain mystical insight through mortification of the flesh. In The Legend of Ygg, the girls are constantly seeking knowledge that can help them become invincible riders. As Hulga, the leading girl, says in the film: There are insights in instincts, but the deepest mysteries will never be given away. The group is a closed sisterhood where the members will stop at nothing to be one with their horses. They continually demonstrate their courage to the other members of the group, and encourage each other to push moral boundaries, which finally results in death. In the storybooks the night riders are associated with evil, fixated on death and intoxicated by victory. Thorshaug has moved these literary and historical characters into our time and has created a modern legend of death riders for contemporary Norwegian society. It is a story of cruelty that has its roots in today s pursuit of spiritual needs; a search for belonging that ends in extremism. Nature itself is the girls strongest weapon, the tapetum lucidum in their horse s eyes. The tapetum lucidum (Latin meaning bright tapestry ) is a layer of tissue in the eye of many animals, which reflects light back through the retina, improving vision in low-light conditions. When light is shone into the eye, the pupil appears to glow. This gave them the courage and strength to win. The musician Dan Persson has composed and performed the music for the film s soundtrack, which is entitled Skiss till en gravplats (Sketch for a Graveyard). The music has references to the Icelandic cult song Á Sprengisandi, which is about being careful when riding into the Icelandic moors at night, since you never know what dangers lurk in the darkness. We hope that this exhibition, which is a contribution to the project Norway Comes To Washington, D.C., will challenge and provoke the public, provide a set of philosophical and ideological keys to understanding the artworks, appeal the aesthetic sense and satisfy the body through a new seating experience all elements of the contemporary Norse Soul. Moss 20 May 2010 Dag Aak Sveinar 8 9

7 Arne Ekeland Pike ved broen / Girl by the Bridge, Oil on cardboard x inches. Lasterampe / Loading the Truck. Oil on canvas in x 25.5 inches. Vårbilde / Spring, Oil on canvas. 58 x 51 inches. Okkupasjon / Occupation, Oil on hardboard. 39 x 31.8 inches

8 Straffen / The Penalty. Pencil on paper x inches. Europas byer / Europe s Cities, Watercolour and pencil on paper x inches. Offer / Victim, Watercolour on paper x inches. Legende / Legend. Pencil on paper x 25.6 inches

9 Maskindeler i sne / Machinery Parts in Snow, Oil on canvas x inches. Right: Utenfor fabrikken / Outside the Factory, Oil on canvas. 40 x 54 inches. 14

10 Figurstudie, kvinne / Figure Study, Woman. Black chalk on paper x 8.26 inches. Ansikt / Face, Black chalk on paper x 8.26 inches. I katedralens kjeller er det våpen / There are Weapons in the Crypt of the Cathedral, Pencil on paper x inches. Morgen / Morning, Pencil on paper x inches. Svart Sol / Black Sun, Oil on canvas x 68 inches

11 Marianne Heske Stills from Voyage Pittoresque, 1983/84. Video installation

12 21

13 Bjarne Melgaard Teenage Jesus and the Jerks NY 80 s, Photo projection on canvas, inked over x 27.5 inches. Slayer, Watercolour and collage on paper. 52 x 39.4 inches. Che Guevara Ape, Watercolour and collage on paper x 43.3 inches. Uten tittel (A Jack Smith Penguin Floating ) / Untitled (A Jack Smith Penguin Floating ), Watercolour and collage on paper x 59 inches

14 Black Metal Series (1-10), Oil on canvas x 24.8 inches

15 Uten tittel / Untitled, Watercolour and collage on paper x 30.7 inches. Uten tittel / Untitled, (Norwegian Black Metal Angel), Watercolour on paper x 47.6 inches. Chemical Diary, Installation (selected works)

16 Marthe Thorshaug Pages Stills from the film The Legend of Ygg,

17 Nightrider (Series), X inches. 31

18 LIST OF WORKS Arne Ekeland, I kabyssen / In the Galley, Oil on canvas. 39 x 47.5 inches. Arne Ekeland, Pike ved broen / Girl by the Bridge, Oil on cardboard x inches. Arne Ekeland, Okkupasjon / Occupation, Oil on hardboard. 39 x 31.8 inches. Arne Ekeland, Lasterampe / Loading the Truck. Oil on canvas in x 25.5 inches. Arne Ekeland, Maskindeler i sne / Machinery Parts in Snow, Oil on canvas x inches. Arne Ekeland, Utenfor fabrikken / Outside the Factory, Oil on canvas. 40 x 54 inches. Arne Ekeland, Figurstudie, kvinne / Figure Study, Woman. Black chalk on paper x 8.26 inches. Arne Ekeland, Straffen / The Penalty. Pencil on paper x inches. Arne Ekeland, Legende / Legend. Pencil on paper x inches. Arne Ekeland, Fabrikkbilde, Broen til melkeveien / Factory, Bridge to the Milky Way. Watercolour on paper x inches. Arne Ekeland, Europas byer / Europe s Cities, Watercolour and pencil on paper x inches. Arne Ekeland, Offer / Victim, Watercolour on paper x inches. Arne Ekeland, Morgen / Morning, Pencil on paper x inches. Bjarne Melgaard, Uten tittel / Untitled, (Norwegian Black Metal Angel), Watercolour on paper x 47.6 inches. Bjarne Melgaard, Black Metal Series (1-10), Oil on canvas x 24.8 inches. Bjarne Melgaard, Slayer, Watercolour and collage on paper. 52 x 39.4 inches. Bjarne Melgaard, Chemical Diary, 2002 Installation (selected works). Marianne Heske, Voyage Pittoresque, 1983/84. Video installation. Marthe Thorshaug, Legenden om Ygg / The Legend of Ygg, HDV 1080i / stereo sound film. 17 minutes. ARNE EKELAND Born 1908 and died 1994 at Bøn in Eidsvoll, Norway EDUCATION: Mainly self-taught. Spent a brief period as a pupil of Professor Axel Revold at the Academy of Art in Oslo. TRAVELS ABROAD: 1931 Paris, 1934 Germany and Italy, 1946 the US, 1948 Russia, 1966 China, 1972 Italy. SOLO EXHIBITIONS (selection): Kunstnerforbundet, Oslo, Norway 1935, 1978 Färg och Form, Stockholm, Sweden 1937 Kunstnernes hus, Oslo 1940, 1963, 1970 Kunstforeningen, Copenhagen, Denmark 1946 Bergen Kunstforening, Bergen, Norway th Venice Biennale 1972 City Art Centre, Edinburgh 1986 Henie Onstad Art Centre, Norway 1986, 1996 Arne Ekeland, Vårbilde/Spring, Oil on canvas. 58 x 51 inches. Arne Ekeland, Svart Sol/Black Sun, Oil on canvas x 68 inches. Arne Ekeland, Solnedgang / Sunset. Oil on canvas x 49.2 inches. Arne Ekeland, Granatplukker /Gathering Grenades. Oil on canvas x 33 inches. Arne Ekeland, Landskap / Landscape, ca Oil on canvas x inches. Arne Ekeland, Ave Maria. Oil on canvas x inches. Arne Ekeland, I katedralens kjeller er det våpen / There are Weapons in the Crypt of the Cathedral, Pencil on paper x inches. Bjarne Melgaard, Teenage Jesus and the Jerks NY 80 s, Photo projection on canvas, inked over x 27.5 inches. Bjarne Melgaard, Che Guevara Ape, Watercolour and collage on paper x 43.3 inches. Bjarne Melgaard, Uten tittel (A Jack Smith Penguin Floating ) / Untitled (A Jack Smith Penguin Floating ), Watercolour and collage on paper x 59 inches. GROUP EXHIBITIONS (selected): International Art Center, New York 1935 Exposicão de Pintura e Gravura Norueguesa, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 1952 São Paulo International Biennial, Brazil 1957 Norwegische Malerei der Gegenwart, Kiel 1974 Munch Museum, Oslo, Norway National Gallery of Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark 1980 Public collections (selected): National Museum of Art, Architecture and Design, Oslo, Norway Moderna Museet, Stockholm, Sweden The Storting, Oslo, Norway Arne Ekeland, Ansikt / Face, Black chalk on paper x 8.25 inches. Bjarne Melgaard, Uten tittel / Untitled, Watercolour and collage on paper, 41.3 x 30.7 inches

19 MARIANNE HESKE BJARNE MELGAARD Born 1946, Ålesund, Norway Born 1967, Sydney, Australia Lives and works in Oslo, Norway. Lives and works in New York City. EDUCATION: National College of Art and Design, Bergen, Norway École Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts, Paris, France Royal College of Art, London, UK Jan van Eyck Academie, Maastricht, Holland SOLO EXHIBITIONS (selected): Illuminations, National Library of Norway 2005 A Doll s House, Gallery Kaare Berntsen, Oslo, Norway/ Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo, Norway 2006 Leo the Lion, Bollywood Film Festival, Mumbai, India Hå Gamle Prestegård, Stavanger Capital of Culture 2008, Norway 2008 Peer Gynt Festival, Vinstra, Norway Fort Jesus, National Museums of Kenya, Mombasa, Kenya 2009 GROUP EXHIBITIONS (selected): KUBE Museum, Ålesund, Norway 2005 Norway: Contemporary Landscapes from the Collection of Her Majesty Queen Sonja of Norway, Scandinavia House, New York, USA The Basic Exhibition, National Museum of Art, Architecture and Design, Oslo Two Asias, Two Europes, Shanghai Duolun Museum of Modern Art, Shanghai, China Icebreaker, Galleri GAD, Oslo, Norway 2006 Post Nora, Ibsen Year 2006, Bejing, China Touring exhibition, Nicht nur Lachs und Würstchen, Norwegian Museum of Science and Technology, Oslo, Bergen, Trondheim, Berlin, Leipzig To Live with Contemporary Art, Galleri F15, Moss, Norway 2007 Talking about Painting, National Museum of Art, Architecture and Design, Oslo, Norway Art 4, National Museum of Art, Architecture and Design, Oslo, Norway 5th Uiwang International Placard Art Festival, Korea Only Colour, Chateau La Roche-Vernaise, France Lofoten International Art Festival, Svolvær, Norway 2008 North Norwegian Arts Festival, Harstad Kulturhus Biennale des Couvets, Galerie Le Lieu, Quebec, Canada Norwegian Short Film Festival in Grimstad, Norway Whatever Happened to Sex in Scandinavia?, 2008/09 Office for Contemporary Art (OCA), Oslo, Norway BIENNALES AND WORLD EXHIBITIONS: Biennale de Paris, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, France 1980 Biennale di Venezia, Nordic Pavilion, Venice, Italy rd São Paulo International Biennial, Brazil 1996 Norwegian Pavilion, World Exhibition EXPO 2000, 2000 Hanover, Germany PUBLIC COLLECTIONS (selected): Shanghai City Art Collection, China Bonnefantenmuseum, Maastricht, Netherlands National Museum of Art, Architecture and Design, Oslo, Norway Henie Onstad Art Centre, Oslo, Norway Bibliothéque Nationale de Paris, France Museum of Modern Art, Novi Sad, Yugoslavia Nordic Graphical Union Oslo, Norway Nordisk konstsentrum, Helsinki, Finland Arts Council Norway Bergen Art Gallery, Norway City of Oslo Art Collections, Norway Malmo Museum of Modern Art, Sweden Shanghai Duolun Museum of M odern Art, China Parc de la Villette, Paris, France University of Oslo, Norway Astrup Fearnley Museum of Modern Art, Oslo, Norway EDUCATION: Academy of Fine Arts, Warsaw, Poland 1990 Academy of Fine Arts, Oslo, Norway 1991 Jan van Eyck Academy, Maastricht, Netherlands 1993 SOLO EXHIBITIONS (selected): Fin de Copenhagen, Galleri Faurschou, Copenhagen, Denmark 2005 Galeria Senda, Barcelona, Spain Hello Maybe, Haugar Vestfold Kunstmuseum, Tønsberg, Norway Jasmin la nuit, Horse Hospital, London, UK Life is a Lonely Buffalo, Niels Borsch Jensen Galerie, Berlin, Germany Not a Painting Show, Stella Lohaus Gallery, Antwerp, Belgium A Weekend of Painting: A Novel by Les Super, 2006 Leo Koenig Inc., New York, USA Les Super, Galerie Guido W. Baudach, Berlin, Germany Minipigs in Space, Galerie Krinzinger, Vienna, Austria Galeri Senda, Barcelona, Spain 2007 Mommy s Boy and Daddy s Girl, Patricia Low Contemporary, Gstaad, Switzerland The Glamour Chase, Galleri Faurschou, Copenhagen, Denmark Reena Spaulings Fine Art, New York, USA 2008 Chickenhauk, Galerie Krinzinger, Vienna, Austria A Kidwhore in Manhattan, a Novel, Galerie Guido W. Baudach, Berlin, Germany Greenland, a Novel, Greene Naftali Gallery, New York, USA Bjarne Melgaard Jealous, Astrup Fearnley Museum of 2009 Modern Art, Oslo, Norway De Appel Museum, Amsterdam, Netherlands GROUP EXHIBITIONS (selected): Papier, Galerie Guido W. Baudach, Berlin, Germany 2005 Goetz meets Falckenberg, Phoenix Kunststiftung, Hamburg, Germany Superstar, Kunsthalle Wien, Vienna, Austria With US against Reality, or against US!, Willy Wonka Inc., Oslo & Galleri SE, Bergen, Norway Bjarne Melgaard Introducing Andy Warhol TV, Marie-Louise Ekman / Bjarne Melgaard, Malmö Konstmuseum, 2006 Malmö, Sweden Helter, Galerie Anna de Villepoix, Paris, France Reflections, Galleri Faurschou, Copenhagen, Denmark After Munch: Norwegian Contemporary Art, Pollock Fine Art, London, UK Euro-Centric, Part 1: New European Art from the 2007 Rubell Family Collection, Miami, USA 25 Years, Anniversary Exhibition, Galerie Crone, Berlin, Germany Off the Wall, with Patricia Low Contemporary, Rental Gallery, New York, USA Destroy Athens, First Athens Biennial, Athens, Greece Beneath the Underdog, Gagosian Gallery (Madison Avenue), New York, USA Rock N Roll Vol. 1, Sørlandets Kunstmuseum, Kristiansand, Norway The Agression of Beaty II, Arndt & Partner, Berlin, Germany Gallery swap, with Galerie Guido W. Baudauch, Hotel, London, UK Works on Paper by Gallery Artists and Ricci Albenda, 2008 Greene Naftali Gallery, New York, USA Works on Paper, Patricia Low Contemporary, Gstaad, Switzerland Accrohage, Galleri Faurschou, Copenhagen, Denmark Painting Now and Forever, Part II, Greene Naftali Gallery and Matthew Marks, New York, USA That s The Way It Is, Galerie Guido W. Baudauch, Berlin, Germany Peeps/Pistoletto, Graduate Center, City University of 2009 New York, USA PUBLIC COLLECTIONS (selected): Astrup Fearnley Museum of Modern Art, Oslo, Norway Kunstmuseene i Bergen, Norway Magasin 3, Konsthall, Stockholm, Sweden Malmö Konstmuseum, Malmö, Sweden Moderna Museet, Stockholm, Sweden Stedelijk Museum voor Actuele Kunst, Ghent, Belgium Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, Netherlands Museum Het Domein, Sittard, Netherlands National Museum of Art, Architecture and Design, Oslo, Norway Horse Hospital, London, UK 34 35

20 MARTHE THORSHAUG Born 1977, Hamar, Norway. Lives and works in Vang, Norway. EDUCATION: National Academy of Fine Arts, Oslo SOLO EXHIBITIONS (selection): The Wild, Kunstbanken Hedmark Kunstsenter, Norway 2005 Comancheria, Fotogalleriet, Oslo 2007 PHOTO CREDITS GROUP EXHIBITIONS (selected): The Wild: Predators, People and Nature, Virserums Konsthall, 2003 Virserum, Sweden Degree Show, National Academy of Fine Arts, 2003 Stenersen Museum, Oslo Unizone, National Touring Exhibitions, Norway 2005 Momentum 2009 Favoured Nations, 5th Nordic Biennial of 2009 Contemporary Art, Punkt Ø, Norway FILM FESTIVALS AND SCREENINGS (selected): D-art, Bergen Kunsthall, Norway 2003 Norwegian Shortcuts Festival, Grimstad, Norway 2005 Beyond Documentary, Rum46, Aarhus, Denmark 2005 John Skis or Sally Swims, Galleri UKS, Oslo, Norway 2006 Sequences Art Festival, Reykjavik, Iceland 2007 PUBLIC COLLECTIONS: National Museum of Art, Architecture and Design, Oslo, Norway Museum of Cultural History, University of Oslo, Norway Punkt Ø, Norway BJARNE MELGAARD Uten tittel / Untitled, (Norwegian Black Metal Angel). Photographer: Thomas Widerberg. Teenage Jesus and the Jerks NY 80 s. Uten tittel (A Jack Smith Penguin Floating ) / Untitled (A Jack Smith Penguin Floating ). Uten tittel / Untitled. Photographer: Børre Høstland. Black Metal Series. Photographer: Anders Valde. Chemical Diary. Photographer: Morten Thorkildsen. ARNE EKELAND Vårbilde/Spring. Svart Sol/Black Sun. Photographer: Greg Staley. Norway Comes to Washington, D.C. is a celebration of Norwegian visual art, music, opera, film and literature. The Festival, which runs from June 2010 to January 2011, is a collaboration between the Royal Norwegian Embassy and some of Washington s most prestigious cultural institutions. The Festival, intentionally coincides with the National Gallery of Art s 2010 exhibit of prints by Edvard Munch. The Norse Soul exhibit at the American University Museum at the Katzen Art Center is a unique collection of art work since Munch, made possible by loans from the Norwegian National Museum, the Astrup Fearnley Museum, Punkt Ø and private lenders in Norway and the United States. The Munch and Norse Soul exhibits represent the best visual art Norway has to offer. But Norway Comes to Washington, D.C. encompasses so much more. This is your opportunity to sample Norwegian music, from the classics to contemporary opera and jazz, as well as literature and design. For more details, go to Pike ved broen / Girl by the Bridge. Okkupasjon / Occupation. Utenfor fabrikken / Outside the Factory. Maskindeler i sne / Machinery Parts in Snow. I kabyssen / In the Galley. Photographer: Jacques Lathion. Lasterampe / Loading the Truck. Photographer: Børre Høstland. 36 Cover and inside front cover: Marthe Thorshaug, Stills from Legenden om Ygg/The Legend of Ygg, Video Installation.

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