Proceedings of the Fifth AWWARF / JWWA Water System Seismic Conference August 15 17, 2007

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1 Proceedings of the Fifth AWWARF / JWWA Water System Seismic Conference August 15 17, 2007

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3 Proceedings of the Fifth Water System Seismic Conference August 15-17, 2007 East Bay Municipal Utility District Oakland, California Co-Sponsored by American Water Works Association Research Foundation East Bay Municipal Utility District Japan Water Works Association Taiwan Water Works Association Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research

4 American Water Works Association Research Foundation All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Copies of this report may be obtained from: American Water Works Research Foundation 6666 West Quincy Avenue Denver, CO Telephone: Fax: Web site:

5 Table of Contents Overview...1 Participants List...5 Agenda...17 KEYNOTE SPEECH Prof. Yosihiko Hosoi Tottori University, Japan, "Earthquake Countermeasures for Water Supply Systems from Standpoint of Residents"... Prof. Thomas O Rourke Cornell University, US "Recent Advances in Research and Practice for the Seismic Performance of Water Supplies"...25 SESSION 1 SEISMIC MITIGATION MEASURES Mr. Masaru Oneda Tokyo Metropolitan Waterworks Bureau, Tokyo, Japan Seismic Measures and its Emergency Plan of Tokyo Waterworks Bureau...31 Ms. Chandrika Winston Memphis Light Gas and Water, Memphis, TN, US Seismic Performance Objectives for MLGW Water Facilities Past, Present and Future...43 Mr. Shigeru Hataya Chiba Perfectural Waterworks Bureau, Chiba Perfecture, Japan Anti-earthquake Measures of Chiba Perfectural Waterworks Bureau...55 Ms. Elizabeth Bialek and Mr. Atta Yiadom, East Bay Municipal Utility District, Oakland, CA, US A New Solution for a Hydraulic Fill Dam The Case of San Pablo Dam...65 Mr. Nobuhiro Hasegawa JFE Engineering Corporation (Japanese Water Steel Pipes Association), Yokohama, Japan Manual for Improvement of Over Aged Reservoirs with Steel Plate...77 SESSION 2 SEISMIC MEASURES FOR PIPELINES Mr. Hiroaki Miyazaki Osaka Municipal Waterworks Bureau, Osaka, Japan

6 Seismic Damage Estimation of Distribution Pipes...91 Mr. David Tsztoo East Bay Municipal Utility District, Oakland, CA, US Challenges of the Claremont Tunnel Seismic Upgrade Project Mr. Yukio Mabuchi Waterworks & Sewerage Bureau, City of Nagoya, Japan Earthquake Countermeasures in Nagoya Mr. Ahmed Nisar MMI Engineering, Oakland, CA, US Fault Crossing Design of a Critical Large Diameter Pipeline SESSION 3 OUTREACH, EDUCATION AND COMMUNICATIONS FOR EARTHQUAKE RISKS Mr. Kazuhiko Mizuguchi Kobe Municipal Waterworks, Kobe, Japan Seismic Practices and Strategies of Public Relations in Kobe City Prof. Adam Rose University of Southern California, US Regional Economic Analysis of Earthquake Losses, Mitigation and Resilience Dr. Nagahisa Hirayama Disaster Reduction and Human Renovation Institute, Kobe, Japan Participatory Planning in Development of Comprehensive Crisis Management Plan for Water Supply Authorities Mr. Luke Cheng San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA, US Seismic Aspects of the SFPUC Water System Improvement Program Mr. Shinji Nakayasu Hanshin Water Supply Authority, Hyogo, Japan Information Provision to Residents on Construction of Regulating Reservoir at Landslide Site Caused by an Earthquake SESSION 4 SEISMIC SYSTEM EVALUATIONS Mr. Kazutomo Nakamura Japan Water Works Association, Tokyo, Japan A Case Study on How PIs Should Be Applied in Evaluating Seismic Performance Along with the Water Works Guidelines...203

7 Mr. Yasuhiko Sato Japan Water Research Center, Tokyo, Japan Function Diagnosis Method to Improve Earthquake Resistance of Water Supply Facilities Mr. Noboru Murakami Hachinohe Water Supply Authority, Hachinohe, Japan Nejo Purification Plant Water System Facilities Today Mr. Hidehiko Aihara Yokohama City Waterworks Bureau, Japan The Quakeproof Diagnosis of Waterworks Facilities in Yokohama City Ms. Crystal Yezman Santa Clara Valley Water District, San Jose, CA, US Santa Clara Valley Water District Reliability Program, Implementing Improvements for Seismic Response SESSION 5 EARTHQUAKE STUDIES AND EVALUATIONS Prof. Masanobu Shinozuka University of California, Irvine, US A Sensor Network for Real-Time Damage Location and Assessment Mr. Munetaka Abe Japan Water Works Association, Tokyo, Japan Damages to Water Supply Facilities by the Noto Peninsula Earthquake in 2007 and Restoration Works and Issues Mr. Jianping Hu Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, Los Angeles, CA, US Seismic Performance Evaluation of LADWP Water Supply System Using GIRAFFE Dr. Gee-Yu Liu National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering, TAIWAN Seismic Repair Rate Analysis and Risk Assessment of Water Pipelines Mr. Kuniaki Nakamura Fukuoka City Waterworks Bureau, Fukuoka, Japan Emergency Measures - A Study of the Fukuoka West Offshore Earthquake...315

8 SESSION 6 EMERGENCY RESPONSE Mr. Ken-ichi Koike Kanagawa Water Supply Authority, Yokohama, Japan Water Supply Control and Management in Emergency in the Wide Area Water Supply Using the Mutual Communication Raw Water Conveyance Facilities Mr. Mike Ambrose East Bay Municipal Utility District, Oakland, CA, US Multi-Hazard Emergency Preparedness at East Bay Municipal Utility District Dr. Siao-Syun Ke National Science & Technology Center for Disaster Reduction, TAIWAN The Emergency Response Plan and Preparedness of Water Supply System in Taipei City under Earthquake Mr. Steve Welch Contra Costa Water District, Concord, CA, US Earthquake Response Planning Gaining Control of Disaster Prof. Tatsuo Ohmachi Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama, Japan Near-field Earthquake Displacements of the Non-liquefiable Ground Relevant to Damage to Buried Pipelines Discussion Session and Closing Remarks Technical Tour...457

9 5 th AWWARF/JWWA Water Seismic Conference Overview Experiences from past earthquakes have highlighted the vulnerability of water systems in seismic regions in the world. Earthquakes have resulted in catastrophic water service interruptions and millions of dollars in damages. Differing seismic mitigations practices are being developed by a wide variety of organizations in the United States, Japan and Taiwan. Each practice attempts to address specific observations from past earthquakes. Seismic mitigation measures can best be improved if these practices are gathered, critically examined and disseminated to the international seismic community. Through this process we can all learn from one another. The AWWARF/JWWA Water Seismic Conference were a series of joint workshops convened by the American Water Works Association Research Foundation (AwwaRF) and the Japan Water Works Association (JWWA). They brought together experts from utilities along with consultants and academicians from the United Sates, Japan and Taiwan to discuss both the differences and similarities of the seismic practices for water systems. Participation was strongly emphasized to focus on practical and useful information generated from experience and research. The workshops further promote the corporation and collaboration among the participating organizations in developing the state-of-the-art technologies of improving earthquake preparedness and response. Results from each workshop are documented in proceedings which are available from AWWARF and JWWA. The US/Japan/Taiwan interchange on water system seismic practices was initially conceived in 1997 after JWWA visited East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD) and received information on the EBMUD s Seismic Improvement Program. The past history of the interchange is: Informal Interchange during JWWA visit to EBMUD EBMUD was invited to International Water Supply Association Conference (IWSA), Tokyo, Japan Proposals to AWWARF and JWWA for Joint Workshops st Workshop at EBMUD in Oakland, California, USA nd Workshop in JWWA in Tokyo, Japan rd Workshop in LADWP in Los Angeles, California USA th Workshop in Kobe City in Kobe, Japan This conference (the 5th workshop) was held at EBMUD in Oakland, California from August 15 through 17, The first day and a half of the workshop was for presentations. The afternoon of the second day was devoted entirely to questions and answers, and discussions among the participants. The third day was for a technical tour of EBMUD Walnut Creek Water Treatment Plant, San Pablo Reservoir and the construction site of the San Francisco PUC seismic isolation valve. There were 65 attendees who participated in the workshop with 19 from Japan, 2 from Taiwan, and the balance from the U. S. 1

10 Mr. Dennis Diemer, the General Manager of EBMUD, welcomed the participants at the opening ceremony for the conference. Mr. Roy Martinez of AwwaRF, Prof. Hiroshi Nagaoka of Musashi Institute of Technology and Mr. Donald Goralski of MCCER also delivered the opening remarks. Two keynote speeches were given by Prof. Yosihiko Hosoi of Tottori University and Prof. Thomas O Rourke of Cornell University. 29 technical papers were presented in the following six sessions: 1. Seismic Mitigation Measures 2. Seismic measures for Pipelines 3. Outreach, Education and Communications for Earthquake Risks 4. Seismic System Evaluations 5. Earthquake Studies and Evaluations 6. Emergency Response During the discussion session, the participants expressed strong interests in continuing and expanding the workshop in the future. The organizing committee with members from the U.S., Japan and Taiwan also discussed the possible dates and locations of the next workshop. It was agreed among the committee members that the next workshop will be held in either Japan or Taiwan within 24 months from the completion of the fifth workshop. The conference proceedings include the technical papers, presentation slides, summary of the discussion session and the survey results from the participating water agencies. Roy Martinez Conference Co-Chair American Water Works Association Research Foundation David Lee Conference Co-Chair East Bay Municipal Utility District 2

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13 1. REGISTRATION AGENDA 5 th AWWARF/JWWA Water System Seismic Conference August 15-17, Eleventh Street Oakland, CA DAY 1 Wednesday, August 15, :30-9:00 East Bay Municipal Utility District Large Training Center 2 nd Floor 2. OPENING CEREMONY 9:00-9:10 Mr. Dennis Diemer, General Manager East Bay Municipal Utility District 9:10-9:20 Mr. Roy Martinez, Senior Account Manager American Water Works Association Research Foundation 9:20-9:30 Prof. Hiroshi Nagaoka, Musashi Institute of Technology Japan Water Works Association 9:30-9:40 Mr. Donald Goralski, Senior Program Officer Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research Earthquake Engineering to Extreme Events 3. KEYNOTE SPEECH 9:40-10:10 Prof. Yosihiko Hosoi, Tottori University, Japan, "Earthquake Countermeasures for Water Supply Systems from Standpoint of Residents" 10:10-10:40 Prof. Thomas O Rourke, Cornell University, US, "Recent Advances in Research and Practice for the Seismic Performance of Water Supplies" 10:40-10:50 Break (10 minutes) 4. PRESENTATION PART I (15 minutes including questions & answers) SESSION 1 Seismic Mitigation Measures Chairpersons: Mr. Kazutomo Nakamura Japan Dr. Fred von Hofe US 10:50-11:05 Mr. Masaru Oneda, Tokyo Metropolitan Waterworks Bureau, Tokyo, Japan Seismic Measures and its Emergency Plan of Tokyo Waterworks Bureau 11:05-11:20 Ms. Chandrika Winston, Memphis Light Gas and Water, Memphis, TN, US Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division Seismic Performance Objectives for Water Facilities Past, Present and Future JWWA-AWWARF 5 th Water System Seismic Conference Page 1 of 6 Conference Agenda 17

14 11:20-11:35 Mr. Shigeru Hataya, Chiba Perfectural Waterworks Bureau, Chiba Perfecture, Japan Anti-earthquake Measures of Chiba Perfectural Waterworks Bureau 11:35-11:50 Ms. Elizabeth Bialek and Mr. Atta Yiadom, East Bay Municipal Utility District, Oakland, CA, US A New Solution for a Hydraulic Fill Dam The Case of San Pablo Dam 11:50-12:05 Mr. Nobuhiro Hasegawa, JFE Engineering Corporation (Japanese Water Steel Pipes Association), Yokohama, Japan Manual for Improvement of Over Aged Reservoirs with Steel Plate 12:05-13:30 Lunch Sponsor: East Bay Municipal Utility District SESSION 2 Seismic Measures for Pipelines Chairpersons: Dr. Gee-Yu Liu Taiwan Mr. Xavier Irias US 13:30-13:45 Mr. Hiroaki Miyazaki, Osaka Municipal Waterworks Bureau, Osaka, Japan Seismic Damage Estimation of Distribution Pipes 13:45-14:00 Mr. David Tsztoo, East Bay Municipal Utility District, Oakland, CA, US Challenges of the Claremont Tunnel Seismic Upgrade Project 14:00-14:15 Mr. Yukio Mabuchi, Waterworks & Sewerage Bureau, City of Nagoya, Japan Earthquake Countermeasures in Nagoya 14:15-14:30 Mr. Ahmed Nisar, MMI Engineering, Oakland, CA, US Fault Crossing Design of a Critical Large Diameter Pipeline 14:30-14:45 Break (15 minutes) SESSION 3 Outreach, Education and Communications for Earthquake Risks Chairpersons: Mr. Munetaka Abe Japan Mr. Brian Sadden US 14:45-15:00 Mr. Kazuhiko Mizuguchi, Kobe Municipal Waterworks, Kobe, Japan Seismic Practices and Strategies of Public Relations in Kobe City 15:00-15:15 Prof. Adam Rose, University of Southern California, US Regional Economic Analysis of Earthquake Losses, Mitigation and Resilience 15:15-15:30 Dr. Nagahisa Hirayama, Disaster Reduction and Human Renovation Institute, Kobe, Japan Participatory Planning in Development of Comprehensive Crisis Management Plan for Water Supply Authorities JWWA-AWWARF 5 th Water System Seismic Conference Page 2 of 6 Conference Agenda 18

15 15:30-15:45 Mr. Luke Cheng, San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA, US Seismic Aspects of the SFPUC Water System Improvement Program 15:45-16:00 Mr. Shinji Nakayasu, Hanshin Water Supply Authority, Hyogo, Japan Information Provision to Residents on Construction of Regulating Reservoir at Landslide Site Caused by an Earthquake 16:00-16:10 Break (10 minutes) SESSION 4 Seismic System Evaluations Chairpersons: Prof. Tatsuo Ohmachi Japan Prof. Adam Rose US 16:10-16:25 Mr. Kazutomo Nakamura, Japan Water Works Association, Tokyo, Japan A Case Study on How PIs Should Be Applied in Evaluating Seismic Performance Along with the Water Works Guidelines 16:25-16:40 Mr. Yasuhiko Sato, Japan Water Research Center, Tokyo, Japan Function Diagnosis Method to Improve Earthquake Resistance of Water Supply Facilities 16:40-16:55 Mr. Noboru Murakami, Hachinohe Water Supply Authority, Hachinohe, Japan Nejo Purification Plant Water System Facilities Today 16:55-17:10 Mr. Hidehiko Aihara, Yokohama City Waterworks Bureau, Japan The Quakeproof Diagnosis of Waterworks Facilities in Yokohama City 17:10-17:25 Ms. Crystal Yezman, Santa Clara Valley Water District, San Jose, CA, US Santa Clara Valley Water District Reliability Program, Implementing Improvements for Seismic Response 5. GROUP PHOTO 17:30-18:00 East Bay Municipal Utility District 1 st Floor Lobby 6. CONFERENCE DINNER AT SCOTT S SEAFOOD, Jack London Square Sponsor: American Water Works Association Research Foundation 18:30-21:00 Dinner JWWA-AWWARF 5 th Water System Seismic Conference Page 3 of 6 Conference Agenda 19

16 DAY 2 Thursday, August 16, PRESENTATION PART II (15 minutes including questions and answers) SESSION 5 Earthquake Studies and Evaluations Chairpersons: Prof. Hiroshi Nagaoka Japan Mr. David Pratt US 9:00-9:15 Prof. Masanobu Shinozuka, University of California, Irvine, US A Sensor Network for Real-Time Damage Location and Assessment 9:15-9:30 Mr. Munetaka Abe, Japan Water Works Association, Tokyo, Japan Damages to Water Supply Facilities by the Noto Peninsula Earthquake in 2007 and Restoration Works and Issues 9:30-9:45 Mr. Jianping Hu, Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, Los Angeles, CA, US Seismic Performance Evaluation of LADWP Water Supply System Using GIRAFFE 9:45-10:00 Dr. Gee-Yu Liu, National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering, TAIWAN Seismic Repair Rate Analysis and Risk Assessment of Water Pipelines 10:00-10:15 Mr. Kuniaki Nakamura, Fukuoka City Waterworks Bureau, Fukuoka, Japan Emergency Measures - A Study of the Fukuoka West Offshore Earthquake 10:15-10:40 Break (25 minutes) SESSION 6 EMERGENCY RESPONSE Chairpersons: Mr. Yasuhiko Sato Japan Mr. John Vrymoed US 10:40-10:55 Mr. Ken-ichi Koike, Kanagawa Water Supply Authority, Yokohama, Japan Water Supply Control and Management in Emergency in the Wide Area Water Supply Using the Mutual Communication Raw Water Conveyance Facilities 10:55-11:10 Mr. Mike Ambrose, East Bay Municipal Utility District, Oakland, CA, US Multi-Hazard Emergency Preparedness at East Bay Municipal Utility District JWWA-AWWARF 5 th Water System Seismic Conference Page 4 of 6 Conference Agenda 20

17 11:10-11:25 Dr. Siao-Syun Ke, National Science & Technology Center for Disaster Reduction, TAIWAN The Emergency Response Plan and Preparedness of Water Supply System in Taipei City under Earthquake 11:25-11:40 Mr. Steve Welch, Contra Costa Water District, Concord, CA, US Earthquake Response Planning Gaining Control of Disaster 11:40-11:55 Prof. Tatsuo Ohmachi, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama, Japan Near-field Earthquake Displacements of the Non-liquefiable Ground Relevant to Damage to Buried Pipelines 12:00-13:30 Lunch Sponsor: East Bay Municipal Utility District 8. DISCUSSION (With English Japanese Translation) Chairpersons: Prof. Masanobu Shinozuka US Prof. Yoshihiko Hosoi Japan Dr. Craig Davis US Prof. Hiroshi Nagaoka Japan 13:30-14:50 Discussions 14:50-15:10 Break (20 minutes) 15:10-17:00 Discussions 9. CONCLUDING REMARKS 17:00-17:10 Mr. Roy Martinez American Water Works Association Research Foundation 17:10-17:20 Prof. Hiroshi Nagaoka Japan Water Works Association 10. RECEPTION AT PACIFIC COAST BREWERY Sponsors: Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research and American Water Works Association Research Foundation 17:30-19:00 Reception JWWA-AWWARF 5 th Water System Seismic Conference Page 5 of 6 Conference Agenda 21

18 DAY 3 Friday, August 17, TECHNICAL TOUR Tour Coordinator Mr. Chieh Wang, East Bay Municipal Utility District 8:30-9:30 Tour EBMUD Emergency Operations and Oakland Control Centers 9:30-10:15 Departure by bus and travel 10:15-11:45 Tour EBMUD Walnut Creek Water Treatment Plant 12:15-13:45 Lunch at San Pablo Reservoir Picnic Area 14:45-16:00 Tour of SFPUC 96-inch Isolation Valve Project (Fremont) 17:00 Arrive at EBMUD Administration Building 17:30 Arrive at Pickwick Hotel (San Francisco) JWWA-AWWARF 5 th Water System Seismic Conference Page 6 of 6 Conference Agenda 22

19 5 th AWWARF/JWWA Water System Seismic Conference KEYNOTE SPEECH Prof. Yosihiko Hosoi, Tottori University, JAPAN, "Earthquake countermeasures for water supply systems from standpoint of residents" Prof. Thomas O Rourke, Cornell University, US, "Recent Advances in Research and Practice for the Seismic Performance of Water Supplies" 23

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21 RECENT ADVANCES IN RESEARCH AND PRACTICE FOR THE SEISMIC PERFORMANCE OF WATER SUPPLIES T.D. O Rourke Thomas R. Briggs Professor of Engineering Cornell University ABSTRACT Some of the most important recent advances in research and practice for the seismic performance of water supply systems have been associated with the 1) development and application of models for complex water supply system performance during earthquakes, and 2) large scale soil-structure interaction experiments. Numerical simulations of water supply performance during and after earthquakes has been facilitated by the development of programs that account for water flow under conditions of heavy damage after an earthquake, multi-scale modeling techniques to represent the network behavior of trunk and distribution pipelines, and visualization through geographical information systems (GIS). In the US, large scale soil-structure interaction experiments have been facilitated through the George E. Brown, Jr Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES) which is a nation-wide network of test sites supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) interconnected through high performance internet for real-time physical and numerical interactive modeling. Research supported by MCEER at Cornell University and the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) has focused on the development of a decision support system to plan operations, emergency response, and new system facilities and configurations to optimize water supply performance during and after earthquakes. The system is generic, and the architecture of its computer programs is adaptable to any water supply. The system works in conjunction with an easily accessible hydraulic network model, EPANET, and a special program for damaged network flow modeling, known as Graphical Iterative Response Analysis for Flow Following Earthquakes (GIRAFFE). The decision support system was developed using the LADWP water supply as a test bed. As applied to the LADWP network, the computer model simulates all 12,000 km of water trunk and distribution pipelines and related facilities (e.g., tanks, reservoirs, pressure regulation stations, etc.) in the LADWP system. The decision support system accounts for the aggregated seismic hazard in Los Angeles through an ensemble of 59 scenario earthquakes. The 59 scenario earthquakes also provide a library of seismic scenarios, from which engineers can select specific scenarios or combinations of scenarios to assess system performance. The decision support system works with risk and reliability assessment tools to provide metrics of system performance. The computer simulations account for the interaction of the water and electric power supplies, and model output can be used to evaluate the regional economic and community impacts of water losses. All system input and output can be visualized through GIS with advanced query logic and web-based features. The simulations are dynamic in time, and can account for loss of 25

22 service as tanks and local reservoirs lose water over time through leaks and breaks in pipelines. System simulations have been performed to show the aggregated effects during an earthquake of loss in functionality of transmission pipelines (Los Angeles Aqueducts 1 and 2), loss of electric power due to earthquake effects, damage from local, permanent ground deformation to trunk and distribution pipelines, system-wide damage from transient ground deformation effects, and damage to facilities. The damage can also be de-aggregated to show the most important sources and quantify their ramifications on the system. System performance is expressed in terms of system serviceability index, SSI, which is the ratio of flow at demand nodes before and after the earthquake. There are 1,052 demand nodes that are geographically distributed throughout the system. The SSI can be determined for the entire system or for any part of the system so that the spatial variability of SSI can be evaluated. Studies for LADWP with the decision support system to date have focused on a repeat Northridge earthquake scenario. The studies show the great importance of dynamic behavior over time, especially during the first 24 hrs after the earthquake when leaking water through damaged pipelines diminishes local tank and reservoir levels, thereby reducing SSI. The studies show the importance of disruption in flow from the Los Angeles Aqueducts and electric power losses. Each of these effects has similar consequences for the system, resulting in low SSI for water service areas in the northern part of the system. The studies also show the effects of lost storage capacity. Over the past 10 years several large reservoirs have been taken out of service because of water quality concerns, resulting in a reduction of approximately 30 X 10 6 m 3 of readily available water and placing greater dependence on the Los Angeles Reservoir. For peak summer demands, the SSI for the entire network 24 hrs after the earthquake is increased by 30% if the out-of-service reservoirs are restored on an emergency basis. The decision support simulations demonstrate explicitly where the locally most important effects are and indicate what pipelines and facilities are most critical for effective performance. Collaborative research on ground rupture effects on underground pipelines is in progress with the NEES equipment sites at Cornell University and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) The Cornell facility provides for full-scale testing that concentrates on detailed soil-structure interaction. It permits accurate representation of both the soil and buried lifeline in the vicinity of ground rupture. The RPI facility provides an excellent complement. Through multi-g scaling, larger prototype dimensions and rates of loading can be tested. Large scale and centrifuge tests have focused on steel and high density polyethylene (HDPE) pipelines. The large-scale experiments at Cornell are the largest tests ever performed on ground rupture effects on pipelines in the laboratory. The tests involve 1.2 m of left lateral strike-slip fault movement of approximately 60 m 3 of partially saturated sand with pipelines embedded at a depth of 1m to top of pipe at a fault crossing angle of

23 The pipeline orientation with respect to the ground rupture plane generated tension and bending in the first series of tests. A second series is currently under way in which right lateral strike-slip fault movement will generate compression and bending in the pipelines. Four large scale experiments on 400-mm-diameter HDPE pipelines, both without internal water pressure and with 500 kpa of internal water pressure, have been performed. The research program has been used to develop advanced sensor technology. A pipeline robot equipped with a laser profiling device was used to obtain continuous digital images of the interior shape of the pipeline both before and after ground rupture. The digital images provide 3-D data on the degree of ovaling experienced by the pipeline and the cross-sectional flexural strains in the pipe. Tactile force sensors were used to measure the distribution of pressure around the pipe circumference due to soil-pipe reactions during ground rupture. A tactile force sensor is a fabric in which is embedded a matrix of polymeric resistive contacts. Over 2000 restive contacts were involved in the 500 mm x 400 mm sheets that were used in the experiments. A protective Teflon sheet was used to isolate the tactile force sensors from shear cross-sensitivity effects. The experiments have demonstrated that the HDPE pipelines are capable of sustaining large deformation without loss of service during ground rupture, on the order of several meters, depending of fault crossing angle. The experimental evidence and analytical modeling of lateral soil forces imposed on the pipelines have resulted in the development of a design chart to predict horizontal forces on the pipeline from ground rupture as a function of soil properties, pipe diameter, and depth of pipe burial. Equations accounting for force-displacement interaction during relative pipeline movement in the soil have also been developed. 27

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25 5 th AWWARF/JWWA Water System Seismic Conference SESSION 1 Seismic Mitigation Measures Mr. Masaru Oneda, Tokyo Metropolitan Waterworks Bureau, Tokyo, JAPAN Seismic Measures and its Emergency Plan of Tokyo Waterworks Bureau Ms. Chandrika Winston, Memphis Light Gas and Water, Memphis, TN, US Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division Seismic Performance Objectives for Water Facilities Past, Present and Future Mr. Shigeru Hataya, Chiba Perfectural Waterworks Bureau, Chiba Perfecture, JAPAN Anti-earthquake Measures of Chiba Perfectural Waterworks Bureau Ms. Elizabeth Bialek and Mr. Atta Yiadom, East Bay Municipal Utility District, Oakland, CA, US A New Solution for a Hydraulic Fill Dam The Case of San Pablo Dam Mr. Nobuhiro Hasegawa, JFE Engineering Corporation (Japanese Water Steel Pipes Association), Yokohama, JAPAN Manual for Improvement of Over Aged Reservoirs with Steel Plate 29

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27 Seismic Measures and its Emergency Plan of Tokyo Waterworks Bureau Masaru ONEDA ABSTRACT Tokyo Waterworks Bureau ranks the seismic resistance measures as one of the most important problems, so we have tried for the measures from both sides of facilities improvement and system of emergency restoration up to now. Tokyo Waterworks Bureau settles on The Plan of Projects for Seismic Measures for the facilities improvement. The purposes of this plan are to reduce the damage of the water supply facilities by the earthquake, and to secure the water supply to the customers as much as possible. Up to now, we have promoted strengthening of the water service system such as making earthquake-proof of the Yamaguchi Reservoir and water distribution reservoirs. And we have constructed emergency water tanks to secure the drinking water against the earthquake disaster. Moreover, The Plan of Emergency Seismic Measures is settled to restore the water supply facilities and to do emergency water supply to the customers smoothly when the earthquake disaster occurs. On the other hand, the Central Disaster Prevention Council of Japanese government made public Measures outline of the Earthquake with an Epicenter in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area in September When the water supply facilities to the capital center organizations, etc. are damaged, this outline requests to restore the facilities within three days after the earthquake occurs. Therefore, Tokyo Waterworks Bureau settled on New Facilities Improvement Long Term Conception in November In this plan, we decided that we make the water supply routes to the capital center organizations, etc. earthquake-proof by priority. Masaru ONEDA, Director for Construction Division, Construction Section, Bureau of Waterworks, Tokyo Metropolitan Government, 8-1 Nishi-Shinjuku 2-Chome, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo Japan 31

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