1 **** 1 Computer networks, data communication and Internet Introduction **** Computer networks: summary 2 The following gives an overview of computer networks and data communication:»the basic principles»local area networks»national computers networks»international computer networks»the Internet»Future impact of digital communication networks
2 **** Computer networks: prerequisites 3 Before using computer networks, you should ideally have some knowledge and skills related to computer hardware computer software **** Data communication: a definition 4 Interpersonal communication»telecommunication Broadcast Telephone Data communication Remote login File transfer Hypertext transfer Electronic mail
3 **** Data communication: which types of data? 5 Linear text Hypertext Sound Static images Video Multimedia / Hypermedia Programs for computers Digital information 01 **** Data communication: which types of data? 6 The same types of data (information) that can be stored and managed on a computer can be transferred over computer networks to one or several other computers. So the networks form an important extension of the stand-alone computers. The network is the computer
4 **** Data communication: applications (Part 1) 7 Hard-copy transfer (Fax) Online use of the processing power of a remote computer Online access to information sources!»library catalogues,»bookshop catalogues,»publisher s catalogues,»campus-wide and community information systems,»(text or multimedia) databases,»network-based journals,... **** Data communication: applications (Part 2) 8 Software-downloading Electronic mail from a person to one or several persons Computer-network based interest groups Online talking / chatting (IRC,...) Video conferencing (Cu-seeme,...) Selling, shopping, buying,.....
5 Computer network applications: information and communication 9 1-way = information transfer = almost no interaction publications by / Internet radio file transfer (gopher) / core WWW based on http and static html pages network services based on databases (input or searches) communication / Usenet News chat / telephony / video conferencing N-way = communication = highly interactive Data communication: problems, difficulties, limitations 10 Low transfer speed Technical complexity
6 Data communication: maximum transfer rate over dial-up lines bits/s = bps **** Data communication: modems 12 description: MODulator-DEModulator: device to convert digital data signals into a suitable form for transmission along a telecommunications channel, and to convert them back upon receipt into machine readable form. types»(acoustic coupler)»free standing box»board/card to plug-in microcomputer
7 Data communication: trade offs 13 Cost LAN (short distance) Dial-up/PAD (low speed) Speed High volume (high cost) Distance **** Computer network protocols: definition 14 When 2 computer systems communicate via network, they do that by exchanging messages. The structure of network messages varies from network to network. Thus the message structure in a particular network is agreed upon a priori and is described in a set of rules, each defined in a protocol.
8 **** 15 Computer networks, data communication and Internet Local Area Networks **** Data communication with a server in a Local Area Network 16 (Terminal) Microcomputer with serial line communications software / terminal emulation software Network server Microcomputer with network card and network software
9 ?? Question?? 17 Which applications do do you know of of server computers in in a Local Area Network (=LAN)? Applications of server computers in a LAN 18 Extra personal disk space for the users Common files with programs and/or data for many users (e.g. an intranet) Making files available from the institute to external users over the Internet (e.g. using ftp, gopher, or http/www!) Executing programs on a server in the LAN (e.g. using Unix or Windows NT or Windows 2000, in multi-tasking / multi-user mode) Electronic mail servers; Usenet servers;...
10 ?? Question?? 19 Do Do you have access to to a LAN in in your organisation // institute // school // university? ****Examples LAN software packages: examples 20 Based on TCP/IP (protocol suite used in Internet) For DOS: NCSA (= National Center for Supercomputing Applications) CUTCP, PC/NFS,... For Windows 3.x: PC/NFS, PC/TCP, Trumpet TCP Manager,... For Windows 95, 98,...: included! For Windows NT, 2000, XP, Vista...: included!
11 ?? Question?? 21 Which basic network software can you use in in your institute? 22 Computer networks, data communication and Internet Packet switching
12 Packet switching in data communication networks: definition 23 Communication is not through a continuous stream of bits, but in small packets. Routing, the followed route, may change during communication session. Packet switching in data communication networks: scheme 24 = Computer = "Packet Switching Exchange"
13 ?? Question?? 25 Which are the benefits offered by by packet switching? Packet switching in communications: advantages 26 Economic usage/exploitation of existing communication lines in the network, resulting in»less network congestion»higher data communication speed»lower cost Less risk of interruptions due to breaks in a link of 2 nodes = higher reliability = less vulnerable Possibility of error correction of individual packets
14 Packet switching protocols: examples 27 TCP/IP in the Internet X-25 in OSI networks... **** 28 Computer networks, data communication and Internet National Wide Area Networks
15 **** National Wide Area Networks 29 Public access national packet switching networks Research computer networks Public access made available by Internet Service Providers... ****Examples National research computer networks: examples 30 Belgium: Finland: Germany: The Netherlands: United Kingdom:... BELNET FUNET DFN Surfnet JANET (Joint Academic Network)
16 **** 31 Computer networks, data communication and Internet International computer networks ****Examples International computer networks: examples 32 National public data communication networks linked together FidoNet Bitnet / EARN Usenet Internet!...
17 **** 33 Computer networks, data communication and Internet The Internet data communication network ****?? Question?? 34 What is is the Internet?
18 **** The Internet data communications network (Part 1) 35 Internet is not well-defined. A network of smaller networks: The global collection of interconnected local area, regional and wide-area (national backbone) networks which use the TCP/IP suite of data communication **** The Internet data communications network (Part 2) 36 Links computers of various types. Is constantly growing. The analogy of a superhighway has been used to describe the emerging system of networked computers. The Internet has no owner, and is not managed by one
19 **** The Internet: access from your Local Area Network 37 Your microcomputer Local Area Network (LAN) One of the national networks The global Internet **** Host computers in the Internet: definition 38 A host (computer) is a domain name that has a unique IP address record associated with it. Could be any computer connected to the Internet by any means. For instance:
20 39 Data communication layer architecture User Application layer Transport layer Network layer Link layer 40 Internet data communication layers and protocols (Part 1) USER Application programs, using application protocols such as smtp, pop, imap, nntp, telnet, ftp, gopher, http... TCP = host to host transfer control protocol IP = Internet protocol different physical nets
21 Internet data communication layers and protocols (Part 2) 41 USER Client Server Computer Computer Client application programs Server application programs Application protocols Application protocols TCP TCP IP IP different physical nets?? Question?? 42 Why are most models/architectures for data communication networks named layer models/architectures?
22 ?? Question?? 43 Which advantages are offered by by a layer architecture in in a computer system??? Question?? 44 Give some examples of of layer = onion skin architectures/models in in the area of of information and communication technology, and describe each layer briefly.
23 **** Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) 45 the main suite of transport protocols used on the Internet for connectivity and transmission of data across heterogeneous systems glue that holds the Internet together an open standard available on most Unix systems, VMS and other minicomputer systems, many mainframe and supercomputing systems and some microcomputer and PC systems!! Task - Assignment!! 46 You can learn the basics of of digital data communication by by looking at at the video movie Warriors of of the net [online] Available free of of charge from: [cited 2005]
24 **** Internet: addresses of computers with the Domain Name System 47 Internet style = Domain name system The Internet naming scheme consists of a hierarchical sequence of names from the most specific to the most general (left to right), separated by dots. computer.subdomain.domain.(country if not USA) OR n1.n2.n3.n4 where n is a natural number (8-bit) Examples The Internet Domain Name System DNS: examples 48 Belgium:»ftp.vub.ac.be» U.S.A.:»dialog.com»ftp.cs.widener.edu
25 !! Task - Assignment!! 49 Read Brain, Marshall How domain name servers work. [online] Available from: [cited 2005] **** Internet: growth in number of hosts worldwide: linear plot January of each year
26 Internet: the basic methods to connect (Part 1) 51 Method 1: Connect your computer to Increasing power»the LAN of your institute, that includes a server computer connected to an Internet Service Provider, or»an Internet Service Provider, using a a cable modem + a public cable network Method 2: Dial from your computer into an external Internet Service Provider, using a modem + the public voice telephone network (Method 3: Connect your computer to an external Internet host that provides Internet services.) Internet: the basic methods to connect (Part 2) 52 Method 1: full-time Internet host Increasing power Method 2: part-time Internet host (Method 3: using another Internet host)
27 Internet: TCP/IP in the basic methods to connect 53 Method 1: TCP/IP Increasing power between your computer and the rest of the Internet, at high speed. Method 2: TCP/IP between your computer and the rest of the Internet, but speed limited by the modem and the telephone network (Method 3: TCP/IP between the Internet host you connect to and the rest of the Internet, but not between your computer and that Internet host.)!! Task - Assignment!! 54 You can learn the basics of of Internet online starting from
28 ?? Question?? 55 A way of of describing the Internet is is (select 1): 1): A network of of computers in in an an office, building or or company An An alternative to to the the telephone directory A network of of networks of of computers that that can can "talk" to to each each other An An interconnected mess mess of of computer cables?? Question?? 56 Who's in in charge of of the Internet? Bill Gates No-one The US senate The World-Wide Web
29 ?? Question?? 57 The Internet is is commonly referred to to as as (select 1): 1): The Hard Drive The Net The Waste of of Time The Web **** Internet Service Provider = ISP 58 Internet Service Providers provide their clients access to Internet + in many cases»an address / server»space for a web site»software tools to start»training»technical support»an accessible location for a WWW site of the client»assistance with WWW site design and promotion
30 ?? Question?? 59 What is is an an Internet Service Provider or or ISP? (select 1) 1) A company that that allows allows access access to to their their customers messages A company that that provides an an internet connection to to its its customers A company that that provides internet connected computers A company that that maintains the the structure of of the the internet?? Question?? 60 How are you connected to to the Internet? What is is the name of of your Internet access provider?
31 !! Task - Assignment!! 61 Read Tyson, Jeff How Internet infrastructure works. [online] Available from: [cited 2005]?? Question?? 62 Being online means (select 1): 1): You are connected to to the internet Your computer is is switched on on You can read your without paying phone costs All your computer files are organised in in the right order
32 63 Computer networks, data communication and Internet Miscellany!? Question!? 64 Which ways of of data communication do do you know to to access online information systems?
33 **** Microcomputer -- external computer: some ways of data communication 65 Telephone Microcomputer Modem ISDN Voice telecommunication network TelePAD LAN Local PAD Public data comm. network Gateway computer system Private/academic data comm. network (e.g. Internet) Leased, fixed communication line External computer Intern Extern 66 Computer networks, data communication and Internet The future impact of digital communication networks
34 Future impact of digital communication networks 67 Extreme scenarios: Boom scenario: evolution to computopia Doom scenario: evolution to a digital brave new world Computer-based communication: boom scenario 68 Evolution to computopia International, interpersonal communication increases, using the international computer communication networks. Information gap (between information rich and information poor) disappears: access from everywhere (even from developing countries) to internationally available information. Capitalism and repression disappear.
35 Computer-based communication: doom scenario 69 Evolution to a digital brave new world Face-to-face, interpersonal communication disappears. Information gap (between information rich and information poor) becomes larger. Capitalism uses the evolving techniques for increased control and repression. The world of information from your desktop 70
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**** 1 Computer networks, data communication and Internet Introduction **** Computer networks: summary 2 The following gives an overview of computer networks and data communication:»the basic principles»local
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