Brussels, 4 September European Cooperation in the field of Scientific and Technical Research - COST - Secretariat COST 279/01

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1 European Cooperation in the field of Scientific and Technical Research - COST - Secretariat Brussels, 4 September 2001 COST 279/01 DRAFT MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING Subject : Draft Memorandum of Understanding for the implementation of a European Concerted Research Action designated as COST Action C16 "Improving the quality of existing urban building envelopes" Please find attached the abovementioned draft Memorandum of Understanding. COST 279/01 dm

2 Memorandum of Understanding for the implementation of a European Concerted Research Action designated as COST Action C16 "IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF EXISTING URBAN BUILDING ENVELOPES" The Signatories to this Memorandum of Understanding, declaring their common intention to participate in the concerted Action referred to above and described in the Technical Annex to the Memorandum, have reached the following understanding: 1. The Action will be carried out in accordance with the provisions of the document COST 400/01 "Rules and Procedures for Implementing COST Actions", the contents of which are fully known to the Signatories. 2. The main objective of the Action is to improve the quality of the urban building envelopes for the non-traditional housing stock, as well as to propose and disseminate new relevant methods and technical options to architects, engineers and planners. 3. The overall cost of the research activities carried out under the Action has been estimated at Euro 3,3 million in 2001 prices. 4. The Memorandum of Understanding will take effect on being signed by at least five Signatories. 5. The Memorandum of Understanding will remain in force for a period of four years, unless the duration of the Action is modified according to the provisions of Chapter 6 of the document referred to in Point 1 above. COST 279/01 dm

3 TECHNICAL ANNEX COST Action C16 "Improving the quality of existing urban building envelopes" A BACKGROUND As a result of changes in the composition of the population, society changes continuously with respect to various factors including age-structure, family composition and the availability of energy. Changes lead to situations that are reflected in the commissioning of buildings, which is gradually shifting from new construction to the reuse and renovation of existing buildings. The adaptation of buildings often requires the modification of facades. In themselves, buildings may still be functionally satisfactory, but there are external factors, such as the dullness of the image that they summon up or their poor technical quality that require that attention should be paid to the shell of the building. There are many reasons why buildings may no longer be adequate. Failure to satisfy current demands may be expressed in lack of occupancy and further deterioration of the neighbourhood. This establishes a vicious circle, which can and must be broken. All too quickly discussions turn to demolition and new development, without first an investigation of the reasons for the situation. From an economic point of view, renovation and the reuse of buildings, taking into consideration the technical and spatial functions and also the architectural aspects often appears to provide a better solution. According to studies carried out by Action COST C-5, the estimated value of our European Urban Heritage amounts to about 40 trillion Euro ( ) for the housing stock alone. The same research indicates the differences between countries of the EU as well as what they have in common. In a country like the Netherlands, the building stock has a different age-profile from that of the UK. Of interest too, are the costs of maintenance, renovation and refurbishment of the building stock. For the EU as a whole, this amount is about 1 trillion Euro per year. At the same COST 279/01 dm 1

4 time the three Building Decay Surveys issued by the Federal Government of Germany that were based on systematic, scientific building research projects, pointed out that 80% of all building decay is found in urban building envelopes (roof, walls, foundation). That means an annual amount of 800 billion Euro. There are elements in the building stock that the countries in Europe have in common, such as: - Most of the buildings in Europe were completed after For a country like the Netherlands this means 75% of the existing buildings. - The maintenance costs are mainly incurred in urban building envelopes, - The renovation of buildings and reconstruction to provide an improved or different range of use will influence the building envelope, - The quality of the building envelope very often fails to fulfil current demands and will certainly not meet future demands. An important conclusion deriving from the common points mentioned above is that however important maintenance may be, it does not lead to the higher quality of urban building envelopes that is desired. Improvement of the quality of urban building envelopes must be the real task. Of course, this improvement will incorporate the necessity for maintenance. Such an improvement requires the development of new and suitable strategies for local authorities, housing corporations and owners on one hand, and for architects and civil engineers on the other hand. Until now engineering aspects on an integrated scale have been disregarded in this process. In many European countries new technologies have been developed, but these have either not yet been translated into practice, or have been only locally used to achieve a higher quality in urban buildings. This results in a limited impact on urban environments. Therefor it is essential to bring all kind of local solutions together, to learn from it and to come to a more general approach that can be used for building systems. Often problems and their solutions are approached in isolation. The wish to improve the quality of an individual building envelope usually leads to a local, project-based solution. Solving the specific problems of this renovation-project becomes the sole target. To reach maximum value for money, it is essential to integrate all the factors influencing urban building envelopes and look at it in a broader scope. COST 279/01 dm 2

5 The main factors involved are: 1. Quantitative technical demands, 2. Qualitative aspects; 3. Social aspects 4. Safety aspects; 5. Environmental aspects, including energy use, 6. Aspects relating to sustainability. 7. Modifications in the use of the building Two general movements to change the way of thinking and have to lead to an integral approach are: 1. The resolution of the UN: Dwellings have to be designed in such a way that they are a part of the ecological, social, cultural and financial sustainable society. This sentence has to count also for redesign and renovation, what is basically new. 2. The SUREURO project with the target to develop methods and means for the renovation of determined housing areas in Europe; until now no real improvements can be found for improvement of urban building envelopes. Important is the contribution of Prof. A de Naeyer of the University of Gent who wrote It is our intention to extend this research theme in our Department, and also in the coming years, the topic of Urban Building Envelopes will be one of the central themes to work on. In the Netherlands, for example, two or three renovation projects can be given for a more or less integral approach for urban building envelopes. Nevertheless it is already a jump forward it stays a tailor made solution, which does not give a general approach for the needs, and possible solutions. COST 279/01 dm 3

6 In the article Changes in concrete structures for future use published in the proceedings of the international congress on Urban heritage and building maintenance (COST C-5), ISBN by l.g.w.verhoef, an attempt has been made for adaptation. The scope of the Action is to improve techniques and methods for envelopes of buildings constructed during the last half of the 20th century in the COST countries. In other words directed on the building envelopes of the so-called non-traditional buildings, constructed in-poured concrete systems, big prefabricated systems and/or with small concrete/mixed elements. The demand for housing in the post-war period necessitated the rapid production of large numbers of dwellings. Qualitative aspects were less important. Furthermore dwellings of the types then constructed no longer fulfil contemporary or anticipated future demands for housing, with the possible exception of those dwelling built during the last 5 years. At this stage, it must be noted that two other ongoing Actions in the field of Urban Civil Engineering, also address issues related to buildings: - COST C12 on Improving buildings structural quality by new technologies - COST C13 on Glass and interactive building envelopes. The participants of the COST Action on Improving the quality of existing urban building envelopes will, beside their duties directly connected to the main objective of this Action, establish and maintain close contacts with the two above mentioned Actions, in order to foster co-operation with these Actions and avoid any potential overlaps. This co-operation will be implemented in due connection with the Technical Committee on Urban Civil Engineering. COST 279/01 dm 4

7 B OBJECTIVES AND BENEFITS B 1 Objectives The main objective of the Action is to improve the quality of the urban building envelopes for the non-traditional housing stock, as well as to propose and disseminate new relevant methods and technical options to architects, engineers and planners. The corresponding step-by-step objectives are - To survey and compare non-traditional dwellings in Europe related to their amount per type per country; for instance the top 2 per type per country. - To compare the engineering technologies used. - To assess the future demands for housing, sites and neighbourhoods and their effects for building envelopes. - To evaluate the possibilities for change in use and the limitations for such measures. - To develop new engineering technologies and techniques for better use. - To disseminate the gained results in order to assist in implementation. B 2 Benefits - The main benefit is to reach an understanding how to get more value for money by changing urban building envelopes in respect to renovation of non traditional realised dwellings. - The gain in insight into the non-traditional European housing with respect to the bearing structure and the building envelope. - The integrated knowledge of how existing building envelopes of non-traditional buildings can be changed for future use. COST 279/01 dm 5

8 - The decrease in energy consumption attained by adapting the non-traditional-building stock to attain an improvement of the building envelopes and thus higher quality of use. Environmental benefits obtained by improving existing materials, rather than by demolishing the stock and replacing it by buildings incorporating new materials. Here the important aspects are durability and recycling. - Information relating to the solutions existing in the different countries. - The attainment of a new approach to the improvement and changing of urban building envelopes. - Last but not least, a clarification of the strong and weak points of parts of the non-traditional building stock. For instance to establish under what conditions it is not wise to renovate. C SCIENTIFIC PROGRAMME Problems and solutions in relation to Urban Building Envelopes are till now approached in isolation. Where in the original design planners, architects and engineers are working together to realise a building according the current state of knowledge this co-operation do practical not exist in the further lifecycle. For a too long time continuation of use by maintenance was the sole target and if improvement became an option then only to some of the aspects are given attention to. On this moment the current state of knowledge is a local one, concentrated in some of the housing cooperations, architectural and engineering firms and in some departments of universities. The knowledge is an internal one and till now not much has been done to spread this information to start the discussion when and how existing buildings with their envelopes can be improved to be fit for the future. The COST mechanism will make possible to concentrate, internationally, on the integrated problems related to non-traditional dwellings. It will create a direction for improvement of UBE, also the state of the art for the different countries becomes visible. What has already been learned in one country now easily will become known or can be translated to other countries. After the lessons learned, implementations become easier. COST 279/01 dm 6

9 Directions and technical solutions for improvement of UBE will be determined in the COST Action and disseminated. The COST mechanism will also help to spread information focussed on this subject on a European scale. The scientific programme implies: - Descriptions and analyses on the types per system and related to the factors influencing urban building envelopes; - Analyses and comparison of the legislation and technical regulations in European countries related to renovation; - Analysis how urban building envelopes have been changed up till now, in relation to relevant factors; - A survey of existing engineering techniques that can be used or modified/developed to reach this goal; - A synthesis for possible global approaches leading to directions how to reach maximum value for money in relation to the wished quality and working conditions in the urban habitat, and also how that can be reached for other types of buildings. D ORGANISATION AND TIMETABLE The duration of the Action is scheduled to be of 4 years. During a first period, the management committee will gather existing data on various current techniques and methods and develop as well an approach for future renovation. A second period will be devoted to analyses of that gained complex experience in order to draw lessons, and ideas for establishing a common global approach, to be studied more precisely during a final period. COST 279/01 dm 7

10 Schematic working plan I. Working group 1 State of the art of current non traditional building envelopes in Europe. - Comparison; - Legislative rules for renovation in Europe; - Difficulties and possibilities for improvement of specific systems. - Preparation International Symposium 2 II. Working group 2 The needs for improvement, changes in use and maintenance This group focuses on: - Enlarging of spaces inside the envelope with possible effects on the envelope; - Outside impacts with possible effects on the envelope; - Replacement of parts of the envelope; - Improvement of the envelope. - Preparation International Symposium 2 COST 279/01 dm 8

11 III. Working group 3 - Comparison of the techniques available for change and improvement; - Determination of techniques necessary for improvement. - Preparation International Symposium 2 IV. Working group 4 - Drawing lessons from the International Symposium 2 - Developing new approaches - Preparing the final symposium a new approach for improvement on urban building envelopes. E ECONOMIC DIMENSION The following COST countries have actively participated in the preparation of the Action or otherwise indicated their interest: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Poland and Slovenia. It is likely that some more countries will join at the start of the COST Action. On the basis of national estimates provided by the representatives of these countries, the economic dimension of the activities to be carried out under the Action has been estimated, in 2001 prices, at roughly Euro 3.3 million. This estimate is valid under the assumption that all of countries mentioned above, but no other countries, will participate in the Action. Any departure from this will change the total cost accordingly. F DISSEMINATION PLAN 1. Shortly after the start of the Action, an International Symposium on major non-traditional housing systems in Europe will be held, divided in two parts. The first part will show the diversity of systems in Europe. The second part will be on the subject of what has been achieved until now in improvement of urban building envelopes in relation to these types of buildings. COST 279/01 dm 9

12 2. After a period of gaining information and developing new techniques, a second international symposium on available systems and techniques for improvement of urban building envelopes in non-traditional housing in Europe will be held. 3. A final International Symposium on a new Approach for improvement of the envelopes of the non-traditional buildings. From all the three symposia proceedings will be produced. All the participating experts, the national housing corporations, the COST-organisation and the National committees will be asked to spread information about these symposia. 4. The World Wide Web will be used to bring all the information on the major non-traditional housing systems in Europe together. Also the different techniques for improvement of urban building envelopes will be published using the digital highway. COST 279/01 dm 10

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