# Optimal Stochastic Control of Dividends and Capital Injections

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1 Optimal Stochastic Control of Dividends and Capital Injections I n a u g u r a l - D i s s e r t a t i o n zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades der Mathematisch - Naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität zu Köln vorgelegt von Natalie Scheer aus Osch Köln 211

2 Berichterstatter: (Gutachter) Prof. Dr. Dr. Hanspeter Schmidli, Universität zu Köln Prof. Dr. Josef Steinebach, Universität zu Köln Tag der mündlichen Prüfung:

3 Abstract In this thesis, we consider optimisation problems of an insurance company whose risk reserve process follows the settings of the classical risk model. The insurer has the possibility to control its surplus process by paying dividends to the shareholders. Furthermore, the shareholders are allowed to make capital injections such that the surplus process stays nonnegative. A control strategy describes the decision on the times and the amount of the dividend payments and the capital injections. To measure the risk associated with a control strategy, we consider the value of the expected discounted dividends minus the penalised expected discounted capital injections. Because of the discounting, it can only be optimal to make capital injections at times when the reserve would become negative due to a claim occurrence. Our goal is to determine the value function, which is defined as the maximal value over all proper strategies, and to find an optimal strategy which leads to this maximal value. First, we solve the optimisation problem for the classical risk model when the capital injections are penalised by some proportional factor φ. We show that an optimal strategy exists and is of barrier type, i.e., all the surplus exceeding some barrier level b is paid as dividend. The penalty factor φ can be interpreted as proportional costs associated with the capital injections. In the second part, we extend this model by adding fixed costs incurring any time at which capital injections are made. The optimal strategy here is not of barrier type any more, but of band type. That is a strategy where the state space of the surplus process is partitioned into three types of sets where either dividends at the premium rate, or lump sum dividends, or no dividends at all are paid. In the third part, we allow the dynamics of the surplus process to depend on environmental conditions which are modelled by a Markov process. I.e., the frequency of the claim arrivals and the distribution of the claim amounts vary over time depending on the state of the environment process. We again maximise the difference between the expected discounted dividends and the (proportional) penalised capital injections and show that the optimal strategy for any fixed initial environment state i is of barrier type with a barrier b i.

4 Zusammenfassung In dieser Dissertation werden Optimierungsprobleme eines Versicherungsunternehmens betrachtet, dessen Überschussprozess mit einem klassischen Risikomodell beschrieben wird. Der Versicherer hat die Möglichkeit, seinen Überschussprozess durch Zahlung von Dividenden zu kontrollieren. Ausserdem dürfen die Anteilseigner Kapitalzuschüsse tätigen, damit der Überschuss nichtnegativ bleibt. Eine Kontrollstrategie enthält Entscheidungen über die Zeiten und die Höhen von Dividendenzahlungen und Kapitalzuschüssen. Um das mit einer Kontrollstrategie verbundene Risiko zu messen, betrachten wir den Wert der erwarteten diskontierten Dividenden abzüglich der erwarteten diskontierten Kapitalzuschüsse inkl. der dabei anfallenden Kosten. Wegen der Diskontierung kann es nur optimal sein, Kapitalzuschüsse zu den Zeitpunkten zu tätigen, an denen das Reservekapital aufgrund eines Schadens negativ wird. Unser Ziel ist es, die Wertefunktion zu bestimmen, die als maximaler Wert über alle geeigneten Strategien definiert ist, und eine optimale Strategie zu finden, die zu diesem maximalen Wert führt. Zuerst lösen wir das Optimierungsproblem für das klassische Risikomodell für den Fall, dass zusätzlich zu den Kapitalzuschüssen proportionale Kosten eingerechnet werden. Wir zeigen, dass eine optimale Strategie existiert und vom Barrieretyp ist, d.h. der ganze Überschuss, der ein bestimmtes Barrierenniveau b überschreitet, wird als Dividende ausgezahlt. Im zweiten Teil der Arbeit erweitern wir das Modell durch Hinzunahme von Fixkosten, die in den Zeiten entstehen, zu denen Kapitalzuschüsse erfolgen. Die optimale Strategie ist hier nicht mehr vom Barrieretyp, sondern vom Bandtyp. Es handelt sich also um eine Strategie, bei der der Zustandsraum des Überschussprozesses in drei Mengen unterteilt ist, in denen entweder Dividenden zur Prämienrate, eine Pauschalsumme oder keine Dividenden gezahlt werden. Im dritten Teil lassen wir die Entwicklung des Überschussprozesses von Umweltbedingungen abhängen, die durch einen Markov-Prozess modelliert werden. Das bedeutet, dass die Schadensfrequenz und die Verteilung der Schadenshöhen in Abhängigkeit vom Zustand des Umweltprozesses in der Zeit variieren. Wir maximieren wieder die Differenz der erwarteten diskontierten Dividenden und der Kapitalzuschüsse inkl. proportionaler Kosten und zeigen, dass die optimale Strategie für jeden anfänglichen Umweltzustand i eine Barrierenstrategie mit einer Barriere b i ist.

5 Acknowledgments I am deeply grateful to my supervisor Prof. Dr. Hanspeter Schmidli for his support, encouragement, and guidance over the past years. It was not least his understanding and patience that enabled me to complete this dissertation. I express my thanks also to Prof. Dr. Josef Steinebach for kindly agreeing to act as second referee. Furthermore, it was he who recommended me to Prof. Schmidli as a Ph.D. student. I would like to thank my best friend Nina Kilian who encouraged me to take the plunge and to begin with this thesis und who always found motivating words at the right time. Last but not least, my biggest thanks go to my beloved husband, Marsel, for believing in me, and to our little son, Nikolas, for loving his mum with and without a Ph.D.

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7 Contents 1 Introduction Risk Models and Maximisation Problems Thesis Outline Conventions Dividends Until Ruin Dividends Until Ruin for a Barrier Strategy Gerber-Shiu Penalty Functions Dividends-Penalty Identity Optimal Control of Dividends and Capital Injections in a Classical Risk Model Introduction Strategies With Restricted Densities The Value Function and the HJB-Equation The Optimal Strategy and the Characterisation of the Solution Unrestricted Dividends The Value Function and the HJB-Equation The Optimal Strategy and the Characterisation of the Solution Calculating the Value Function Examples Optimal Control of Dividends and Capital Injections with Administration Costs in a Classical Risk Model Introduction Strategies With Restricted Densities The Value Function and the HJB Equation The Optimal Strategy and the Characterisation of the Solution vii

8 viii CONTENTS 4.3 Unrestricted Dividends The Value Function and the HJB Equation The Optimal Dividend Strategy and the Characterisation of the Solution Calculating the Value Function Examples Optimal Control of Dividends and Capital Injections in a Markovmodulated Risk Model Introduction Strategies With Restricted Densities The Value Function and the HJB-Equation The Optimal Strategy and the Characterisation of the Solution Unrestricted Dividends The Value Function and the HJB Equation The Optimal Strategy and the Characterisation of the Solution Calculating the Value Function Illustrations for a Two-State Model A Markov Processes 123 A.1 Definition of Markov Processes A.2 Generators A.3 Continuous-Time Markov Chains with Finite State Space B Poisson Processes 131 B.1 Homogeneous Poisson Processes B.2 Cox Processes C Linear Algebra 135 C.1 Determinants C.2 Eigenvalues C.3 Matrix-exponentials Bibliography 138

9 Chapter 1 Introduction Risk lies at the core of the insurance business. An insurer assumes the risk of an uncertain future loss of an insured person and promises, in exchange for payment, to compensate the policy holder if the insured event occurs. While selling safety guarantees to others, the insurance company has to insure its own economic survival. Thus, it is of primary importance for the insurer to identify and measure risks in order to control them. This is the role of risk management. Proper risk management requires good cooperation between economists and mathematicians. While the economists define risks related to a company s objectives, it is the mathematical, or actuarial, task to assign numerical values to these specified risks by building quantitative risk models and choosing appropriate risk measures. For this purpose, modern actuarial science uses not only classical risk theory but increasingly the methods and techniques of stochastic control theory. The basic risk in insurance are the claims, since the claim sizes and occurence times are uncertain. The first step to handle this uncertaincy is to choose a probabilistic model which describes the claims adequately. Next, the insurer has to determine premia sufficient to cover the future loss. Choosing the initial capital and the premium size is one way to manage the risk. There are several other possibilities for an insurer to influence or to control the dynamics of the surplus process, for example by buying reinsurance, making investments, paying dividends, or a combination of these actions. A control strategy describes the decisions affecting the surplus: when action should be taken with regard to the surplus, what type of action, and what amounts action is taken on. By choosing a strategy, the insurer aims to maximise (minimise) some objective function connected to that strategy. In mathematical formulation, these are problems of optimal control theory (see Fleming and Soner [27 or Fleming and Rishel [26). 1

10 2 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION The control possibilities that we will consider in this thesis are dividend payments and capital injections made by the shareholders if the surplus process becomes negative. Our goal will be to find optimal control strategies which maximise the expected discounted dividends minus the penalised expected discounted capital injections. 1.1 Risk Models and Maximisation Problems General Model Settings Let X = {X t } t be the surplus process defined on the probability space (Ω,F, IP). Further, let {F t } t be the natural filtration of the process X. By U = {U t } t we denote a control process with state space U. We allow only controls U that are {F t }-adapted, because the decisions can only be made based on present and not on future information. Further, we may not allow all strategies from U, but make some restrictions on them. Let S denote the set of admissible strategies, i.e., the adapted strategies that are allowed. To each initial value x and each admissible control process U we associate a value V U (x), which we call an objective function. The goal is now to find the value function which is the maximal value over all admissible controls V (x) = sup V U (x) U S and to determine - provided that it exists at all - the optimal control process U leading to the value function, i.e., V (x) = V U (x). Risk Models There are several probabilistic models for describing the development of the risk reserve process {X t } t of an insurance company. The most famous one goes back to Lundberg [55, 56 and Cramér [15, 16. Over the course of time it has established itself as a "classic" and is now called the classical risk model (the Cramér-Lundberg or compound Poisson risk model). For the initial capital x, the surplus at time t is given by N t X t = x + ct Y n. (1.1) c > is the constant premium rate. The number of the claims that have occured up to time t is described by a homogeneous Poisson process {N t } t with intensity λ >, i.e., N t Poi(λt). As a consequence, the n=1

11 1.1. RISK MODELS AND MAXIMISATION PROBLEMS 3 claim inter-occurence times are exponentially distributed. The claim sizes are a sequence of positive independent and identically distributed (iid) random variables {Y n } n IN with distribution function G and a finite mean µ. The claim sizes and the claim numbers are assumed to be independent. A sample path of the surplus process in the classical model (1.1) is illustrated in Figure 1.1. Figure 1.1: A sample path of the classical risk model A generalised approach allows claim arrivals and the distribution of the claim amounts not to be homogeneous in time, but to depend on environmental conditions. As pointed out by Asmussen [4, in, for example, automobile insurance this could be weather conditions or traffic volume. In health insurance the outbreak of epidemics can considerably impact portfolios. Economic circumstances or political regime switchings can also be thought of as influence factors (cf. Zhu and Yang [74). Let the environment be described by a Markov process {J t } t with a finite state space J = {1,...,m}. Given the environment state J t = i, premia are paid at rate c i, the claim sizes have distribution G i with mean µ i, and claims occur according to a homogeneous Poisson process {Nt i } t with intensity λ i. The claim counting process {N t } t is given by m N t = 1I {Js=i} dns. i i=1

12 4 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION {N t } is called a Markov-modulated Poisson process (doubly stochastic Poisson process or Cox process). The claim sizes {Y n } again are assumed to be independent of the claim number. The surplus at time t is then given by X t = x + N t c Js ds Y n. (1.2) The process {(X t,j t )} t is called a Markov-modulated risk model. The idea of Cox processes goes back to Cox [14. Reinhard [6, Asmussen [4 and Grandell [37 were the first who integrated them as models in risk theory. There are several other alternative risk models used in the literature. In the so-called Sparre Andersen model proposed by Sparre Andersen [3, the claim counting process {N t } is modelled as a general renewal process, i.e., {N t } is governed by a sequence of iid inter-occurence times with some common distribution. In diffusion models introduced by Iglehart [45, the surplus is described by a diffusion process which can be obtained as an approximation of the classical risk models if one lets the number of claims increase and makes the claim amounts smaller (for a detailed discussion see e.g. Schmidli [66). Gerber [29 had the idea to combine the classical risk model with a diffusion component in the perturbed compound Poisson model. Dividend Strategies We assume now that the insurance company has the possibility to control the surplus process by paying dividends to the shareholders. Let D = {D t } t denote a stochastic process representing the cumulated dividend payments up to time t. The controlled surplus process is defined by X D t = X t D t. There are several types of dividend strategies used in the literature. A band strategy is described by the partition of the state space of the surplus process in three disjunct sets A, B and C. The dividends are paid according to the set where the current surplus x is located: if x A, then the incoming premium is paid as dividend; if x B, then dividends of the amount x max{a : a < x, a A} are paid immediately bringing the current reserve to the next point in A that is smaller than x; if x C, no dividends are paid. The sets B and C may consist of several disjoint intervalls dividing the state space in bands which legitimise the nomenclature. An example of a risk process controlled by a band strategy with A = {,b}, B = (,a (b, ) and C = (a,b) is given in Figure 1.2. n=1

13 1.1. RISK MODELS AND MAXIMISATION PROBLEMS 5 A barrier strategy is a special case of the band strategy where A consists of only one point, i.e., A = {b} for some b. In this case all the surplus above the barrier b is paid as dividend. As long as the reserve process stays below b, no dividend is paid. A dividend strategy is called a threshold strategy for a fixed threshold level b >, if dividends are paid continuously at a rate a smaller than the premium rate whenever the surplus is over b, and otherwise, no dividends are paid. If there are multiple thresholds b i with associated dividend rates a i, then we have a multiple threshold or multi-layer strategy. A simple type of impulse strategy is characterised by two levels b 1 < b 2. Each time the surplus process is above b 2, a dividend payment is made bringing the surplus to the level b 1. As long as the reserves are below b 2, no dividends are paid. In general, one allows all non-decreasing càdlàg processes as dividend strategies. The optimal strategies we will be dealing with in this dissertation are of band and barrier type. Such dividend processes are examples of feedback control strategies. These are control processes U such that U t = u(x t ) for some measurable function u. Figure 1.2: Risk process controlled by a band dividend strategy

14 6 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION Value Functions The definition of the objective and accordingly the value function depends on the optimisation criterion which is used to measure the risk (or the quality) of the insurance portfolio. A traditional method to quantify the risk or the credibility of the insurance company is the probability of ruin, i.e., the probability that the surplus becomes negative in finite time. Thus, it is natural to assume that the insurer is anxious to keep the probability of ruin small. Therefore, minimising the ruin probabilities is one of the most discussed problems in risk theory. Since the first results in Lundberg [56 and Cramér [15, 16, the ruin probabilities have been extensively studied by many authors, see e.g. Rolski et al. [61, Asmussen [4, Grandell [37 for the general results, or in the context of stochastic control Schmidli [63, 64, 65, 66, Hipp and Plum [4, Hipp and Schmidli [41, Hipp and Taksar [42. Even though the ruin probability criterion corresponds to the Value-at- Risk that is now used for financial institutions, this concept has also been criticised. Minimising the ruin probability supposes that the company should allow the reserve capital to grow to infinity, which is not realistic. This led Bruno de Finetti [17 to direct the focus not on the expected ruin but on the "expected life" (Borch [9) and to propose measuring the risk exposure of an insurance portfolio by the expected discounted value of its future dividends which the company pays to the shareholders before ruin. This idea served as an impulse for the further developments in the field of dividend maximisation problems. Borch [9, Bühlmann [12 and Gerber [28, 3 were the first who studied de Finetti s original model in more detail. Since then there has been a lot of research activity on this optimisation criterion in various settings, for the classical risk model see Azcue and Muler [8, Albrecher and Thonhauser [1, Thonhauser and Albrecher [7 and for a diffusion approximation Shreve et al. [67, Jeanblanc-Piqué and Shiryaev [46, Radner and Shepp [59, Asmussen and Taksar [5, Højgaard and Taksar [43, 44. For recent surveys on various dividend optimisation problems see Albrecher and Thonhauser [2, Avanzi [6 or Schmidli [66. Unfortunately, maximising the expected dividends in de Finetti s setting results in optimal dividend strategies which lead almost surely to ruin. Therefore, Dickson and Waters [21 proposed to allow capital injections from the shareholders when the surplus falls below zero in order to cover the deficit at ruin, thereby avoiding bancruptcy. Denoting by Z = {Z t } t the capital injections process, the controlled surplus process is then of the form X (D,Z) t = X t D t + Z t. Dickson and Waters considered the value of the discounted cash flow if the dividends are paid according to a barrier strategy, see also Gerber et al. [36

15 1.1. RISK MODELS AND MAXIMISATION PROBLEMS 7 and Gerber et al. [32. The optimal strategy in their model is a simple one because of the discounting. It is optimal to pay all capital as dividend and then let the shareholders pay the claims as they arrive keeping the surplus at zero. A different solution may be obtained if capital injections are penalised. Having this question in mind, we will here consider the objective function [ V (D,Z) (x) = IE e δt dd t φ e δt dz t X = x (1.3) with φ > 1 and a constant discount factor δ >. As optimisation criterion we choose the maximal value over all strategies (D,Z) such that the controlled surplus {X (D,Z) t } remains non-negative a.s. In a diffusion setting, an analogous problem has been solved by Shreve et al. [67, see also Lokka and Zervos [54. Avram et al. [7 showed the optimality of the barrier dividend strategies in the more general framework of spectrally negative Lévy processes. Eisenberg [24 considered the problem without dividends and minimised the expected discounted capital injections in both the classical risk model and a diffusion approximation model with the control possibility of reinsurance and investment. The penalty factor φ in (1.3) can also be interpreted as proportional costs associated with capital injections. A natural extension of this model is to add fixed costs incurring any time at which capital injections are made. The next model we will investigate here is of the form [ V (D,Z) (x) = IE e δt dd t φ e δt 1I { Zt>} X = x. e δt dz t L t (1.4) In a diffusion approximation, dividend optimisation problems with transaction costs were treated by He and Liang [39 who added the possibility of proportional reinsurance and Paulsen [58 who assumed that costs incure with both dividend payments and capital injections. Loeffen [53 studied the dividend maximisation problem until ruin including transaction costs on the dividends for spectrally negative Lévy processes. Finally, we adopt the risk measure (1.3) in the framework of a Markovmodulated risk model. For an initial environment state i and initial capital x, the objective function is of the form [ V (D,Z) (x,i) = IE e δt dd t φ e δt dz t X = x,j = i (1.5) for φ > 1. Dividends problems in a Markov-modulated risk model were treated e.g. in Wei et al. [71 and Li and Lu [49, 5 who considered the value of the

16 8 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION expected dividends until ruin. Sotomayor and Cadenillas [69 and Jiang and Pistorius [47 investigated optimal dividend strategies under a regime-switching diffusion model. 1.2 Thesis Outline In Chapter 2, we present some known results regarding the value of a barrier dividend strategy in de Finetti s setting in the classical risk model obtained by Bühlmann [12 and Gerber [28. Further we discuss the so-called "Gerber- Shiu penalty functions" first introduced in Gerber and Shiu [34. These are functions of the expected discounted penalty due at ruin which depend on the severity of ruin and the surplus immediately prior to ruin. Finally, we illustrate a relationship between the expected discounted dividends until ruin and the Gerber-Shiu penalty functions referred to as the dividends-penalty identity (see Gerber et al. [32). In Chapter 3, we solve the optimisation problem (1.3). For this purpose, we use the two-step solution concept developed by Schmidli [66. In the first step, we consider only strategies which are absolutely continuous processes with a density bounded by some arbitrary constant u >. We derive the characterising integro-differential equation the so-called Hamilton Jacobi Bellmann equation (HJB) for the associated value function V u (x), show that the solution is unique, and identify the optimal dividend strategy as a barrier strategy. In the second step, we allow all càdlàg increasing dividend processes. Letting the maximal dividend rate u converge to infinity, we obtain in the limit the value function for the general problem, i.e., lim u V u (x) = V (x), and show that it solves the corresponding HJB equation. Unfortunately, we are not able to obtain an explicit solution to the HJB equation, nor do we have a natural initial value for the maximisation problem. Therefore, we will have to characterise the value function among other possible solutions. The optimal dividend strategy will again be of barrier type. The results obtained in this chapter have been published in the author s paper Kulenko and Schmidli [48. In Chapter 4, we consider the model (1.4) with both fixed and proportional administration costs incurring any time at which capital injections are made. Further, at the time of an injection the company may not only inject the deficit, but also some additional capital C to prevent future capital injections. We conclude that capital injections are only carried out if the claim process falls below zero. Again, in a two-step procedure, we derive the associated HJB equation and show that the optimal strategy is not of barrier type any more, but of band type. The value function will be characterised as the smallest solution to the HJB equation, fulfilling a linear growth condition, such that

17 1.3. CONVENTIONS 9 V (C) φc is maximal. By using Gerber Shiu functions, we derive a method to determine the solution to the integro-differential equation and the unknown value C, if it is optimal to pay no dividends around zero. Finally, we describe an algorithm for a piecewise construction of the value function. Chapter 5 treats the maximisation problem (1.5) in a Markov-modulated risk model. We show first for the absolutely continuous dividend processes and then for the general case that the value functions V (x,i) for initial states i J simultaneously satisfy the system of HJB equations. The optimal strategy for every initial state i is again a barrier strategy with a barrier level b i, i.e., if at time t the state of the environment process is J t = i and the surplus exceeds the barrier b i, then dividends at the premium rate c i are paid. 1.3 Conventions In the following, we will use a probability space (Ω,F, IP) on which all stochastic quantities are defined. We supply the probability space with a filtration {F t } t and assume it to be the smallest right-continuous filtration such that the underlying surplus process {X t } is adapted. We will work with càdlàg (right-continuous with existing limits from the left) adapted control processes because this simplifies the presentation. By the càdlàg property of the risk process {X t }, the controlled process {Xt D } will be càdlàg as well. In the literature one often uses left-continuous adapted and, as a consequence, previsible controls. Then one can obtain processes with Xt D Xt D Xt+. D However, the values connected to a previsible process {D t } and to its right-continuous version {D t+ } are the same. The latter process is càdlàg because it will be assumed to be increasing and adapted by the choice of the filtration. The drawback of using càdlàg dividend controls is that if D causes a jump of the controlled process, one observes not the pre-dividend but the post-dividend process (cf. Schmidli [66). I.e., the jump size of Xt D is composed of the claim size and the dividend. Hence, one cannot determine the size of the dividend payment without knowing the claim size. In other words, we need additionally information from the filtration about the size of the claim in order to get the size of the dividend. We assume that all processes we consider are already discounted. The discount factor δ > in the definition of the objective functions (1.3), (1.4) and (1.5) reflects the preference behaviour of the shareholders (cf. Borch [9). They prefer to earn dividends today rather than tomorrow

18 1 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION and, on the other side, to make capital injections tomorrow rather than today. Unless otherwise stated, all statements will hold almost surely. For simplified presentation, we omit the notation almost surely or with probability one. For notational convenience, we write IP x [ = IP[ X = x and IE x [ = IE[ X = x in the classical risk model and IP (x,i) [ = IP[ X = x,j = i and IE (x,i) [ = IE[ X = x,j = i in the Markov-modulated risk model. If the connection is clear, we dismiss the letters x and (x,i).

19 Chapter 2 Dividends Until Ruin In this chapter, we cite some known results about dividends until ruin (see Bühlmann [12, Gerber et al. [32), the Gerber-Shiu functions (see Gerber and Shiu [35, Lin et al. [52) and the dividends-penalty identity (see Gerber et al. [32) for the classical risk model which we will use later for the calculation of the value functions. 2.1 Dividends Until Ruin for a Barrier Strategy Suppose that the surplus process follows the classical risk model (1.1), and dividends are paid according to a barrier strategy with the barrier level b. Let X b t denote the controlled surplus process and τ b = inf{t : X b t < }, T b = inf{t : X b t = b} be the corresponding time of ruin and the first time the surplus process reaches the barrier, respectively. For x, let V b (x) be the expected discounted dividend payments unitl ruin, i.e., [ τ b V b (x) = IE x e δt dd t. Bühlmann [12 showed (with the same methods which we will use in the proof of Theorem 3.2.2) that V b (x) fulfils the following integro-differential equation c(v b ) (x) + λ x with the boundary condition V b (x y) dg(y) (λ + δ)v b (x) =, x b, (V b ) (b ) = 1. 11

20 12 CHAPTER 2. DIVIDENDS UNTIL RUIN (If the initial value x b, then dividends of the amount x b are paid immediately, such that V b (x) = x b + V b (b) holds, and therefore, (V b ) (b+) = 1. Thus, the function V b is differentiable at x = b, and the boundary condition is fulfilled even for the derivative at x = b). To solve the above equation, consider the equation ch (x) + λ x h(x y) dg(y) (λ + δ)h(x) =, x <. (2.1) There is a unique solution to (2.1) with initial condition h() = 1 (see e.g. Schmidli [66, p. 9). Since any multiple of h(x) is another solution to (2.1), we have that V b (x) = h(x)γ, x b, where γ does not depend on x. Now we can determine the constant γ by differentiating of V b (x) at x = b getting V b (x) = h(x), x b. (2.2) h (b) This formula was first obtained by Bühlmann [12, p.172, see also Schmidli [66, p. 91. Remark Equation (2.2) is well-defined because h (x) > for x <. To see this, one can use the arguments from Lin et al. [52. Let x be the largest value such that h(x) is strictly increasing for x < x. Then, x > since h () = (λ + δ)/c >. Suppose, x is finite, then h (x ) =. However, h (x ) = λ c x h(x y) dg(y) + λ + δ h(x ) c > λ c h(x )G(x ) + λ + δ h(x ) c λ c h(x ) + λ + δ h(x ) >, c which is a contradiction. Therefore, x =. Define now the function C b (x) = IE x [e δt b 1I T b <τb (2.3)

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