Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Technology

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1 ISSN: Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Technology Volume 3, Issue 3 July Editor-in-Chief Professor Dr. Saedah Siraj Editor Dr. Norlidah Alias Dr. Onur Isbulan Associate Editors Professor Dr. Raja Maznah Binti Raja Hussain, Associate Prof. Dr. Habib Bin Mat Som, Dr. Chin Hai Leng Dr. Dorothy Dewitt Inst. Aydın Kiper [ w w w. m o j e t. n e t ]

2 Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Technology 2015 (Volume 3 - Issue,) Copyright MALAYSIAN ONLINE JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY All rights reserved. No part of MOJET s articles may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Contact Address: Professor Dr. Saedah Siraj MOJET, Editor in Chief University of Malaya, Malaysia Published in Malaysia

3 Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Technology 2015 (Volume 3 - Issue 3) Message from the editor-in-chief The Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Technology (MOJET) highlights the current issues in educational technology. MOJET is an international, professional referred journal in the interdisciplinary fields sponsored by Faculty of Education, University of Malaya. This journal serves as a platform for presenting and discussing the emerging issues on educational technology for readers who share common interests in understanding the developments of the integration of technology in education. The journal is committed to providing access to quality researches raging from original research, theoretical articles and concept papers in educational technology. In order to produce high quality journal, extensive effort has been put in selecting valuable researches that contribute to the journal. I would like to take this opportunity to express my appreciation to editorial board, reviewers and researchers for their valuable contributions to make this journal a reality. Professor Dr. Saedah Siraj July 2015 Editor in chief Message from the editor The Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Technology (MOJET) is aimed at using technology in online teaching and learning through diffusing information from a community of researchers and scholars. The journal is published electronically four times a year. The journal welcomes the original and qualified researches on all aspects of educational technology. Topics may include, but not limited to: use of multimedia to improve online learning; collaborative learning in online learning environment, innovative online teaching and learning; instructional design theory and application; use of technology in instruction; instructional design theory, evaluation of instructional design, and future development of instructional technology. As editor of the journal, it is a great pleasure to see the success of this journal publication. On behalf of the editorial team of The Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Technology (MOJET), we would like to thank to all the authors and editors for their contribution to the development of the journal. Dr. Norlidah Alias & Dr. Onur İŞBULAN July 2015 Editor

4 Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Technology 2015 (Volume 3 - Issue 3) Editor-in-Chief Professor Dr. Saedah Siraj, University of Malaya, Malaysia Editor Dr. Norlidah Alias, University of Malaya, Malaysia Dr. Onur Isbulan, Sakarya University, Turkey Associate Editors Professor Dr. Raja Maznah Binti Raja Hussain, University of Malaya, Malaysia Associate Prof. Dr. Habib Bin Mat Som, Sultan Idris Education University, Malaysia Dr. Chin Hai Leng, University of Malaya, Malaysia Dr. Dorothy Dewitt, University of Malaya, Malaysia Inst. Aydın Kiper, Sakarya University, Turkey Advisory Board Professor Dr. Mohd Hamdi Bin Abd Shukor, University of Malaya, Malaysia Professor Emeritus Dato Dr. Abu Bakar Nordin, University of Malaya, Malaysia Professor Dr. Aytekin Isman, Sakarya University, Turkey Professor Dr. Fatimah Binti Hashim, University of Malaya, Malaysia Professor Dr. Mohammed Amin Embi, National University of Malaysia, Malaysia Professor Dr. Moses Samuel, University of Malaya, Malaysia Professor Dr. Omar Abdul Kareem, Sultan Idris University of Education, Malaysia Professor Dr. Richard Kiely, the University College of St. Mark and St. John, United Kingdom Dr. Zawawi Bin Ismail, University of Malaya, Malaysia Editorial Board Professor Emiritus Dr. Rahim Md. Sail, University Putra of Malaysia, Malaysia Professor Datuk Dr. Tamby Subahan Bin Mohd. Meerah, National University of Malaysia, Malaysia Associate Professor Dato Dr. Abdul Halim Bin Tamuri, National University of Malaysia, Malaysia Professor Dr. Abdul Rashid Mohamed, University of Science, Malaysia Professor Dr. Bakhtiar Shabani Varaki, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. Professor Dr. H. Hamruni, Ma, Sunan Kalijaga Islamic University, Indonesia Professor Dr. Ibrahem Narongsakhet, Prince of Songkla University, Thailand Professor Dr. Iskandar Wiryokusumo M.Sc, PGRI ADI Buana University, Surabaya, Indonesia Professor Dr. Mohammad Ali, M.Pd, Ma, University of Islamic Education, Indonesia Professor Dr. Ramlee B. Mustapha, Sultan Idris University of Education, Malaysia Professor Dr. Rozhan M. Idrus, University of Science, Malaysia Associate Professor Dr. Abdul Jalil Bin Othman, University of Malaya, Malaysia Associate Professor Dr. Ajmain Bin Safar, University of Technology, Malaysia Associate Professor Dr. Esther Sarojini Daniel, University of Malaya, Malaysia Associate Professor Dr. Fadzilah Siraj, Northern University of Malaysia, Malaysia Associate Professor Dr. Haji Izaham Shah Bin Ismail, Mara University of Technology, Malaysia Associate Professor Dr. Mohamad Bin Bilal Ali, University of Technology, Malaysia Associate Professor Dr. Norazah Mohd Nordin, National University of Malaysia, Malaysia Associate Professor Dr. Rohaida Mohd Saat, University of Malaya, Malaysia Associate Professor Dr. Mubin KIYICI, Sakarya University, Turkey

5 Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Technology 2015 (Volume 3 - Issue 3) Dr. Adelina Binti Asmawi Dr. Farrah Dina Binti Yusop, University of Malaya, Malaysia Dr. Husaina Banu Kenayathula, University of Malaya, Malaysia Dr. Ismail Bin Abbas, Institute of Teacher Education, Malaysia Dr. Khamsiah Binti Ismail, Institute of Education, International Islamic University Malaysia Dr. Lorraine Pe Symaco, University of Malaya, Malaysia Dr. Misnan Bin Jemali, Sultan Idris University of Education, Malaysia Dr. Mohammad Bin Ab Rahman, Institute of Teacher Education Malaysia Dr. Mohammad Attaran, University of Malaya, Malaysia Dr. Mohd. Awang Bin Idris, University of Malaya, Malaysia Dr. Mohd Burhan Bin Ibrahim, Institute of Education, International Islamic University Malaysia Dr. Mojgan Afshari, University of Malaya, Malaysia Dr. Muhamad Arif Ismail, National University of Malaysia, Malaysia Dr. Muhamad Faizal Bin A. Ghani, University of Malaya, Malaysia Dr. Nabeel Abdallah Mohammad Abedalaziz, University of Malaya, Malaysia Dr. Nazean Binti Jomhari, University of Malaya, Malaysia Dr. Rafiza Binti Abd Razak, University of Malaya, Malaysia Dr. Rose Amnah Binti Abd. Rauf, University of Malaya, Malaysia Dr. Siti Hendon Sheikh Abdullah, Institute of Teacher Education, Malaysia Dr. Tee Meng Yew, University of Malaya, Malaysia Dr. T. Vanitha Thanabalan, English Language Teaching Centre, Malaysia Ministry of Education Dr. Zahra Naimie, University of Malaya, Malaysia En. Mohd Khairul Azman Bin Md Daud, University of Malaya, Malaysia En. Mohd Sharil Nizam Shaharom, University of Malaya, Malaysia En. Norhashimi Saad, University of Malaya, Malaysia En. Norjoharuddeen Mohd Nor, University of Malaya, Malaysia Pn. Norini Binti Abas, University of Malaya, Malaysia

6 Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Technology 2015 (Volume 3 - Issue 3) Table of Contents A FRAMEWORK FOR MOBILE LEARNING FOR ENHANCING LEARNING IN HIGHER EDUCATION 1 Kadar Abdillahi Barreh, Dr Zoraini Wati Abas ASSESSMENT OF UTILIZATION OF INTERNET FACILITIES AMONG PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS IN UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN, NIGERIA 10 Oyeronke Olufunmilola Ogunlade, Oluwafunmilayo Faith Fagbola, Amos Akindele Ogunlade, Abdulganiyu Alasela Amosa EFFECTIVENESS OF COMPUTER-ASSISTED STAD COOPERATIVE LEARNING STRATEGY ON PHYSICS PROBLEM SOLVING, ACHIEVEMENT AND RETENTION 20 Amosa Isiaka Gambari, Mudasiru Olalere Yusuf EFFECTS OF USING TEAMS GAMES TOURNAMENTS (TGT) COOPERATIVE TECHNIQUE FOR LEARNING MATHEMATICS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS OF BANGLADESH 35 Abdus Salam, Anwar Hossain, Shahidur Rahman 0BTHE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN UTILIZATION OF COMPUTER GAMES AND SPATIAL ABILITIES AMONG HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS 46 Vahid Motamedi, Razeyah Mohagheghyan Yaghoubi

7 A Framework for Mobile Learning for Enhancing Learning in Higher Education Kadar Abdillahi Barreh [1], Dr Zoraini Wati Abas [2] [1] Faculty of Science, University of Djibouti, Djibouti. [2] Vice Rector for Academic and Student Affairs at Universitas Siswa Bangsa Internasional (USBI), Jakarata, Indonesia. ABSTRACT As mobile learning becomes increasingly pervasive, many higher education institutions have initiated a number of mobile learning initiatives to support their traditional learning modes. This study proposes a framework for mobile learning for enhancing learning in higher education. This framework for mobile learning is based on research conducted on the course titled Internet Technology, taught to second year students in the Department of Mathematics and Computer Science at the University of Djibouti. While the entire gamut of mobile technologies and academic applications needs to be considered, special emphasis and focus is provided to Short Message Services (SMS) and popular social network sites such as Facebook, which is widely used for recreation. This paper highlights how mobile learning using SMS and Facebook can be designed to enhance student learning and help achieve learning outcomes. Keywords: Framework for mobile learning, SMS, Facebook, Higher Education INTRODUCTION Mobile learning strategies such as the integration of SMS and Facebook applications have the potential to help higher education institutions cope with rapid technology change, competition, and globalization. This article highlights how mobile learning using SMS and Facebook could be used together with classroom learning in order to support student learning in higher education. SMS and Facebook applications were chosen because these are what most students in higher education use. This aligns with one of the main purposes of mobile learning, namely to reach as many learners as possible. In addition, SMS and Facebook are not only popular but also perceived to be useful in supporting students needs. However, in order to gain maximum benefit from this technology in education in general and in higher education in particular, an appropriate design and proper implementation are required. RELATED WORKS Mobile learning has captured the imagination of many educators in higher education as they have capitalized on the features and tools embedded within powerful mobile devices (Hung & Zhang, 2011). Osaka Jogakuin College in Japan became the first educational institution to provide mobile learning devices (i.e. ipods) to their students to assist in English learning (McCarty, 2005). This success was soon followed by the initiative of Duke University in the United States to provide all first year students with ipods (Belanger, 2005). Furthermore, extant literature indicated that Columbia University in the United States has started to introduce mobile phone learning to explore how instructors and students can utilize the mobile phones for learning (Ahmad & Mentor, 2011). Oxford University in the United Kingdom also has explored the integration of ipad as effective technology for taking online programs (Scott & Breana, 2011). According to Lim, Fadzil and Mansor (2011), there have also been numerous successful attempts by higher education institutions worldwide in using text messages to support distance learners such as Kingston University and the University

8 of Ulster in the United Kingdom, the Sheffield Hallam University branch in India, the Srinakharinwirot University of Thailand, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, and University of Victoria in Australia. Further research is also being conducted to determine the potential of mobile learning in traditional forms of higher education. However, mobile learning in higher education settings has not become widespread and is still in the testing stage. Moreover, the research into mobile learning mainly has been based on the challenges and opportunities of this technology in education in general and in online distance learning in particular. In addition, many new research topics have been emerging in various areas, including technological, pedagogical, and methodological issues, and problems related to content and user interface adaptation. Both university administrators and educators have been working to find the best way to use mobile devices in education. WHAT IS MOBILE LEARNING? In this context, numerous research studies on the use of mobile and wireless communication technologies in education have been conducted. Researchers have denoted these technology-supported learning approaches as mobile learning (Shih, Chuang, & Hwang, 2010). During its development, mobile learning was defined differently by various researchers. A review of the literature of the different definitions reveals four approaches for defining mobile learning: mobile devices, learners and learning process, learning and combination of different components, and a combination of these three approaches. Table 1 Approaches to Defining Mobile Learning Approaches Mobile Devices Learners and Learning Experience Learning Definitions The use of mobile and handheld IT devices, such as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs), mobile telephones, laptops, and tablet PC technologies in teaching and learning (Alsaadat, 2009). The use of handheld devices such as PDAs, mobile phones, laptops, and any other handheld information technology devices that may be used in teaching and learning (Harriman, 2007). Learning delivered, enhanced, or supported mainly or solely by wireless and mobile devices and their technologies (Kukulska-Hulme et al.,2005) Any educational provision where the sole or dominant technologies are handheld or palmtop devices (Taxler, 2005). Where a learner can be physically mobile while at the same time remaining connected to non-proximate sources of information, instruction, and data communications technology (Woodill, 2012). When the learning experience that you re trying to design happens to be out and about in the world (Dikkers, 2012). Learning process, in which learners collaborate with their peers and teachers, construct the meaning of knowledge (Sharples, 2005). Learning arising in the course of person-to-person mobile communication (Nyiri, 2002). The processes (both personal and public) of coming to know through exploration and conversation across multiple contexts among people and interactive technologies (Sharples 2009, p. 5). The acquisition of any knowledge and skill through using mobile technology, anywhere anytime that results in an alteration in behavior (Geddes, 2004). Any form of learning when mediated through mobile devices, and a form of learning that established the legitimacy of nomadic learners (Alexander, 2004). Part of a new learning landscape created by the availability of online and personal technologies supporting flexible, accessible, learner-focused education (Kukulska- Hulme, 2010).

9 Combination of Components The combination of mobile technology and its affordances that create a unique learning environment and opportunities that can span across time and place (Stanton & Ophoff, 2013). Combination of e-learning and mobile technology (Ketterl, Heinrich, Mertens, & Morisse, 2007; Parsons & Ryu, 2006). Partly about learning and partly about the breakthroughs of mobile computing and global marketing of mobile devices (Kukulska-Hulme & Traxler (2005).\ The combination of e-learning and mobile computing that promises the access to applications that support learning at anytime and anywhere (Holzinger, Nischelwitzer & Meisenberger, 2005). The four approaches shown in Table 1 emphasize the uniqueness of mobile learning and distinguish mobile learning from other forms of education and training such as online learning, distance education, and e-learning. In addition, by providing an understanding of mobile learning in general, these four approaches also can help designers understand the position and significance of mobile learning in the context of higher education. In this study, mobile learning was defined as learning using mobile devices with wireless connectivity such as mobile phones, smartphones, tablets or any other handheld devices that offers learners the opportunity to enhance their learning experience anywhere and at anytime. This definition was based on the first and second approaches shown in Table 1. DESIGN OF MOBILE LEARNING The design of mobile learning constitutes a fundamental stage for the development of a framework or model of mobile learning needed to successfully build mobile learning applications. Mobile learning requires a change in the lecturer s philosophical approach to teaching, and it is not simply the application of e-learning design requirements to the mobile learning environment (Parsons & Ryu, 2006). This means that mobile learning initiatives must establish their own design as a framework or model in order to support learning in education in general and in higher education in particular. According to Sharples, Taylor, and Vavuola (2005), a first step in postulating a design for mobile learning is to distinguish what is special about mobile learning compared to other types of learning activities. Second, this design must embrace the considerable learning that occurs outside classrooms and lecture halls as people initiate and structure their activities to enable educational processes and outcomes. Third, mobile learning should be based on contemporary accounts of practices that enable successful learning in which learning is an active process of building knowledge and skills through practice within a supportive group or community. Lastly, a design of mobile learning must take account of the ubiquitous use of personal and shared technology. Following those criteria, some of the most well-received and acknowledged proposals of a framework or model for mobile learning are described next. In other words, many researchers have emphasized the importance of having a good design when implementing technology to enhance student learning (Herrington, Herrington & Mantei, 2009; Koole, 2009; Litchfield, Dyson, Lawrence, & Zmijewska, 2007). Alexander (1999) stressed the need for appropriate learning design in order to use technology to improve or enhance students learning experiences. If the focus is to enhance student learning, priority must be set to design mobile learning in such a way that it will succeed (Leigh, 2004). Since mobile learning is in its early years, much work is still needed before it can be used widely as added value in higher education. This study contributed to filling this gap by proposing a framework for mobile learning for enhancing learning in higher education in order to engage and motivate students in the learning process and help to achieve learning outcomes. FRAMEWORK FOR MOBLE LEARNING The framework for mobile learning is based on a course titled Internet Technology, taught to second year students in the Department of Mathematics and Computer Science at the University of Djibouti. Using student feedback, the elements of the proposed mobile learning framework are identified, and the factors

10 concerning these elements are presented in this section. Figure 1 shows the mobile learning framework for the enhancement of learning in higher education as was applied at the University of Djibouti. Figure 1. Framework for Mobile Learning. This framework highlights how mobile learning can be used to support face-to-face interaction through a course titled Internet Technology. Mobile learning activities were designed and developed to complement the three primary learning modes of face-to-face interaction, which were, lecture, activities, and discussion. Mobile learning has become an emerging tool that offers significant learning experience to enhance student learning in higher education institutions. Many studies have revealed that mobile learning can support and enhance learning in higher education if properly designed. However, although m-learning has been used to support a wide range of learning activities, there has been little research done to investigate the students requirements or to understand what types of mobile applications students need to use, or to examine how mobile educational software can be designed to effectively support learning (Devinder & Zaitun, 2006). In response to this gap in the literature, this framework shows how mobile learning can be used to enhance the overall learning experience of students and teachers in higher education. Face to face interactions Face-to face-interactions constitute one of the main modes of learning in higher education through activities such as lectures, discussion, activities, and lab sessions. This mode of interaction refers to when communication between teachers and students take place in the traditional classroom. The course Internet Technology used these four activities as part of face-to-face interaction. Mobile learning activities were used to supplement the face-to-face interactions activities of the course. Some of the mobile learning activities employed included the use of SMS for content delivery and reminders, and the use of Facebook for discussions, chats, exercises, videos, and quizzes. The course was designed to deliver 42 hours of face-to-face interactions: 24 hours of lecture, activities and discussion and 18 hours devoted to lab sessions.

11 Lab sessions for hands-on experiences Lab sessions were compulsory and composed of a weekly meeting of 1 hour and 30 minutes during the 12 weeks of each semester. Lab sessions were intended to enable students to undertake the practical aspect of Internet technology. Lab sessions involved instructor led practical demonstrations regarding the various aspects covered in the course during face-to-face sessions. Students also were required to undertake programming practical sessions aimed at reinforcing the theoretical concepts learned in class. Specifically, lab sessions were mainly undertaken in areas related to creating web pages with HTML and for building dynamic websites using PHP language with MySQL databases. Evaluation of students on lab sessions was based on the workability of the practical projects they completed. Lab sessions were therefore an important part of the course learning activities. Lectures Face-to-face lecture is still the main means of disseminating knowledge in higher education, but university faculty and administrators have been examining other tools and methods to support and engage students (Sweeney, O Donoghue, & Whitehead, 2004). For this study, lectures were undertaken through instructor led oral presentations to students in class. Specifically, lectures were used to deliver theoretical Internet technology concepts to students. The lecture method involved the instructor providing concepts orally to students who also participated in the lecture by asking questions. In addition, the lecture of this course mainly used multimedia presentation software such as Microsoft PowerPoint to engage students in the learning process. Additionally, public lectures organized by the department of mathematics and computer science were also used to expose students to more complex Internet technology applications. However, educational research has revealed that face-to-face lecture sessions alone are not highly effective in helping students accomplish learning outcomes. Therefore, other strategies, such as activities and discussion were used to help the instructor gauge the students progress and require students to actively engage with the content, each other, and the instructor. Activities Face-to-face activities are designed to encourage student engagement during class. Additionally, activities in learning Internet technology were developed for both the classroom environment and out-ofclass environment. Within the classroom, theoretical aspects of the course were deeply developed through several exercises before the practical lab session. In the out-of-class environment, students were required to conduct case studies and present their findings in class. Specifically, students were grouped into various categories and given a specific case study to evaluate based on topics covered during the course. Finally, face-to-face activities involved brainstorming activities to enable students to review the concepts learned from the face-to-face lecture. DISCUSSION Another learning tenet within face-to-face aspect of teaching and learning is the use of classroom discussion. Most advocates (e.g. Hung, Tan, & Cheng, 2005; Mayo, 2004; Smith, 2005) have argued that discussion between learners and instructors is a determining factor that either accelerates or impedes the learning process. Therefore, face-to-face interaction discussion is a useful teaching technique that enables student to develop critical thinking skills and improve in-depth analytical skills. For this course, students were engaged in academic debate regarding the stated topic. As part of the discussion, they were required to present their views in class. The instructor was then able to guide students in arriving at the best answers to the question besides helping students understand why some answers were invalid and inappropriate. MOBILE LEARNING In this study, mobile learning is defined as learning using mobile devices with wireless connectivity such as mobile phones, smart phone, tablets or any others handheld devices that offer learners the opportunity to enhance their learning experience anywhere and at any time. As mobile learning has become

12 ubiquitous, many higher education institutions have embarked on a number of mobile learning initiatives to support their traditional learning modes. In order to enhance the course learning environment, Internet Technology and mobile learning activities were used to supplement face-to-face interaction. Two main applications were employed: SMS for content and reminders and Facebook for discussions, chats, exercises, videos, and quizzes. SMS for content and reminders SMS messages were used to supplement face-to-face interaction by delivering some mobile based content as well as course reminders. SMS messages were scheduled to be sent twice during weekdays at 8.00 pm. This time was suitable because the majority of students were involved in their homework at that time. Further SMS messages were scheduled after the topics were covered during face-to-face lectures to enhance students learning. At the end of every lesson SMS content was sent to every student. The content included summaries containing the main concepts learned in the face-to-face lectures. For example, an SMS might have included a statement or question together with the reference chapter. This increased the students retention as well as understanding abilities. In addition, researchers at the Sheffield Hallam University of India found that when SMS messages containing important course content were received by learners, the content was more readily and easily assimilated because it was chunked into small sizes (Uday Bhaskar & Govindarajulu, 2008). Facebook for discussions Another mobile learning initiative employed was the use of Facebook discussions. Facebook discussion is a forum application enabling students to post messages and to reply to them asynchronously. For this study, discussion topics were posted on the forum and students were required to post their messages after reading the module. The instructor engaged the students in a critical discussion by posting comments that critically analyzed the responses they provided. The instructors also guided the students with cues and clues for answering the discussion questions appropriately. Many researchers have revealed that asynchronous discussions, such as forum discussion on Facebook, are useful in enhancing learning because students have more time to analyze and reflect on content and to compose thoughtful responses. Another important benefit of asynchronous discussion is the teacher-student and student-student interaction outside of the classroom. Researchers have found that students who felt they did not have enough background knowledge in the subject matter did extra research before making a comment. They did so because they did not want to sound unintelligent in front of their colleagues (Du, Zhang, Olinzock, & Adams, 2008). For example, in traditional face-to-face classes, when an instructor asks the class about something, not everyone has an opportunity to give a response (Benson, 2003). However, in Facebook forum discussions, all students have the chance to express their opinion. Furthermore, Hrastinski (2008) reported that when students agree with their colleagues, they form social ties, and these are important for collaborative learning. The forum discussion provides a collaborative learning environment where students learn from each other, and it allows the instructor to ensure that students are on track. Facebook for chats, quizzes, exercises and videos Facebook chats, videos, quizzes, and exercises were used to supplement the face-to-face sessions. The instructor created a chat group so that various students could engage in exchanging their opinions regarding a specific topic. However, the chat sessions were centrally managed by the instructor in order to avoid personalized messages chats. Also, videos were posted on the Facebook page for reinforcing the theoretical concepts learned in class. For instance, the instructor posted a video created by a reputed professor in which the professor explained the fundamentals of website design using HTML. Quizzes and exercises also were posted on the Facebook page. The quizzes and exercises were used to evaluate student understanding regarding key concepts learned in class. In addition, in order to engage students to take part actively in these activities, the results were discussed in the class. In sum, Facebook chats, videos, quizzes and exercises provided students with the opportunity to deepen their understanding by applying the different concepts learned in the class.

13 SUMMARY The mobile learning framework developed was based on the ideas and opinions of the students regarding the key motivations behind the use of Facebook and SMS in the teaching and learning process. The design of the mobile learning framework was guided by the students preference for flexibility and mobility as well as platform interactivity. As a new technology in education, mobile learning has the potential to contribute to the existing mode of learning at the University of Djibouti. Integrating mobile learning with face-to-face interaction in the Internet Technology course, which is taught to second year students in the Department of Mathematics and Computer Science at the University of Djibouti, offered a significant opportunity for enhancing student learning. Mobile learning motivated learner engagement in the learning process and at the same time it offered them opportunity to learn anytime and anywhere. Furthermore, mobile learning helped learners stay focused on their studies and also assisted them in better managing their studies and facilitated their learning. In sum, it is evident that mobile learning can be an effective learning enhancement tool if properly designed. In the near future, it is also possible that mobile learning will be implemented in most universities globally. From this perspective, the framework for mobile learning proposed in this study is timely. REFERENCE Ahmad, N., & Mentor, D., (2011), introduction to Mobile Phone Learning. Columbia University Teachers College. Retrieved from Alexander, B. (2004). Going Nomadic: Mobile Learning in Higher Education. Educause Review, 39(5), Alsaadat, K. (2009). Mobile learning and university teaching. Paper presented at the International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies (EDULEARN09), Barcelona, Spain. Belanger, Y. (2005). Duke University ipod first year experience final evaluation report Retrieved from Devinder Singh, & Zaitun A. B. (2006, August). Mobile Learning In Wireless Classrooms, Malaysian Online Journal of Instructional Technology (MOJIT), 3(2), pp Geddes, S. J. (2004). Mobile Learning in the 21st Century: fibt efnoer Learners. Knowledge Tree e-journal, 30(3), pp Harriman, G. (2007). M-learning (mlearning). Retrieved from Herrington, A., Herrington, J., & Mantei, J. (2009). Design principles for mobile learning. In J. Herrington, A. Herrington, J. Mantei, I. Olney, & B. Ferry (Eds.), New Technologies, New Pedagogies: Mobile Learning In Higher Education (pp ). Wollongong: University of Wollongong. Retrieved from Holzinger, A., Nischelwitzer, A., & Meisenberger, M. (2005). Lifelong-learning support by M-learning: Example scenarios. ACM elearn Magazine, 11.

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15 Sharples, M., Milrad, M., Sanchez, I. A., & Vavoula, G. (2007). Mobile Learning: Small Devices, Big Issues. In N. Balacheff, S. Ludvigsen, T. de Jong, A. Lazonder,S. Barnes, L. Montandon (Eds.), Technology Enhanced Learning: Principles and Products (pp. 20). Retrieved from kaleidoscope.org/openarchive/browse?browse=collection/30/publication&index=0&filter=all&para m=30. Sharples, M., Taylor, J., & Vavoula, G. (2007). A theory of learning for the mobile age. In R. Andrews & C. Haythornthwaite (Eds.), The Sage handbook of e-learning research (pp ). London: Sage. Scott, H., & Breana, J., (2011). ipad as an Effective Technology for Taking an Online Program. Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education (SITE) Conference. Retrieved from Shih, J. L., Chuang, C. W. & Hwang, G. J. (2010). An inquiry based mobile learning approach to enhancing social science learning effectiveness. Educational Technology & Society, 13(4), Stanton, Genevieve, & Ophoff, J. (2013). Towards a Method for Mobile Learning Design. Issues in Informing Science and Information Technology, 10, pp Traxler, J. (2005). Mobile learning- it s here but what is it? Interactions, 9(1). Warwick: Warwick University of Woodill, G. (2012). Moving from e-learning to m-learning. Canadian Learning Journal, 16(2),

16 Assessment of Utilization of Internet Facilities Among Pre-Service Teachers in University of Ilorin, Nigeria Oyeronke olufunmilola OGUNLADE [1], Oluwafunmilayo Faith FAGBOLA[2], Amos Akindele OGUNLADE [3], Abdulganiyu Alasela AMOSA [4] ABSTRACT [1] Department of Educational Technology University of Ilorin,Ilorin,Nigeria [2] Department of Educational Technology University of Ilorin,Ilorin,Nigeria [2] Department of Social Sciences Education University of Ilorin,Ilorin,Nigeria [2] Department of Educational Technology University of Ilorin.Ilorin,Nigeria The use of the Internet can further equip teachers by providing them with the latest information on their discipline. The purpose of technology in teacher training is to provide pre-service teachers with the capability of integrating computer technologies into curriculum and instructional activities.this study therefore assessed the internet facilities among pre-service teachers in the University of Ilorin in Nigeria. The use of internet facilities based on gender was also examined. The instrument used was a questionnaire. All pre-service teachers in the Faculty of Education, University of Ilorin were the population for the study. Some 150 students in 400 level were randomly sampled (89 males, 61 females). Frequency counts and percentage were used to answer three research questions while the independent t-test statistic was used to test the hypothesis. The results show that: 80% of the respondents had a positive attitude toward the use of internet facilities, 62% agreed that males were more internet literate; and there was no significant difference between male and female in the use of internet facilities. Based on the findings, it was recommended that training should be emphasized for pre-service teachers, female preservice teachers should be encouraged to be part of change and pre-service teachers should learn to balance their time. Keywords: Assessment, utilization, pre-service teachers and internet facilities INTRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY is the process of using scientific, material and human resources in order to meet human needs. Information and Communications Technology (ICT) is the use of information in order to meet human need or purpose including the use of contemporary devices such as the internet. Internet can be defined as a global network of computers that connects one or more people together to share vital information all over the world. To effectively fit in the global arena, organizations and institutions have the internet as a veritable tool (Kahn & Cerf, 1999). According to Onasanya, Shehu, Ogunlade and Adefuye (2010), some pre-service teachers who claim to be computer literates are unaware of the rules guiding the use of internet and this affects their online behavior. ICT is increasingly being accepted and integrated in the teaching, learning and research agenda in universities all over the world (Hites, 2005). According to Hosseini and Kamal (2013), who investigated reasons for the deficiency in teachers knowledge, teaching technological skills that were out of context and separate in teacher education program were inadequate to learn the use of technology in the classroom. In spite of attempts by teacher education programs, the participants showed deficiency in knowledge of using technology for instruction purpose. This, they believed, was as a result of teaching technology in an isolated way in teacher education programs.

17 The purpose of technology in teacher training programs is to provide pre-service teachers capability of integrating computer technologies into the Curriculum and instructional activities in classrooms (Novick, 2003). This training will assist pre-service teachers in integrating ICTs more effectively into their teaching. They should also be persuaded to spend time using this technology so that it will be part of them. Internet is free for all and allows individual to access information online if only one has a system, media literacy and smooth flow of network service. Recent studies have posited that there remains a gender imbalance, despite a significant growth in ICT sector in recent years (Chiu, Lin, & Tang, 2005). This gender imbalance has been partly blamed for both the shortage of qualified ICT professionals and the under representation of some segments of the population, mostly females (Trauth & Gowcorft, 2006). Previous studies have stated an urgent need to get women involved in the ICT use both as literate users and as professionals. This challenge applies to institutions and nations as well as to students and individuals (Gafen & Straub, 1997; Wang, Liu, & Jong, 2000). Narinasamy and Mamat (2013) discovered that it is very paramount for relevant school authorities and organizations to support teachers in adopting ICT in their teaching. If this fails, then it will be an exercise in futility in trying to make ICT an important pedagogy. Statement of the Problem Pre-service teachers who are well trained on ICT are competent and have a high degree of self-efficacy. They also make use of this knowledge in integrating ICT for instructional purposes. The permeation of the Internet technology and computers into classrooms has also created the opportunities for students to be active learners and allowed instructors to be facilitators (Anderson & Reed, 1998; CHEPS, 2000). The attitude of most pre-service teachers toward internet facilities usage is not encouraging because majority of the students find pleasure in visiting face book, yahoo, twitter, YouTube, and various dating cites. They also find time to watch pornographic pictures, play games, chat, watch movies, listen to music, and find friends online. Thus the need for this study. Raman and Yamat (2014) noted that barriers such as how hesitant the teachers are, amount of workload, age and lack of skills could impede teachers from incorporating ICT in their teaching. Pre-service teachers in Nigeria need to be competent in the use of computer, its applications and internet services in order to promote effective teaching and learning. For teachers to continue developing their knowledge and skills in using emerging technologies for teaching, teacher training institutions could perhaps design and develop more relevant professional development courses for teachers. Pre-service teachers should not use the internet facilities for entertainment but for educational purposes. Badariah and Ahmad (2014) submitted that teachers were hindered in utilizing ICT by their self-handicapping thought, lack of support from the schools, teachers negative attitude towards ICT utilization and their negative beliefs. All these could also hamper effective utilization of the internet facilities. Thus the need for this study. Purpose of the Study The main purpose of this study was to assess the use of internet facilities by the pre-service teachers in University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria. Specifically, the present study assessed; 1. Attitude of pre-service teachers toward utilization of internet 2. Competence of the pre-service teachers in the utilization of internet 3. Utilization of internet facilities by pre-service teachers based on gender

18 Research Questions This study is designed to answer the following research questions: 1. What is the attitude of pre-service teachers toward the utilization of internet facilities? 2. What is the level of competence of pre-service teachers in the utilization of internet? 3. Is there any difference in the utilization of internet facilities between male and female pre-service teachers? Hypothesis One null hypothesis was generated based on the third research question H o1 There is no significant difference between male and female pre-service teachers in the use of internet facilities Review of the Related Literature Literature were reviewed based on the following headings: Meaning and Concept of Internet The Internet or the World Wide Web can be described as a global network of computers. It is a kind of global meeting place where people from all parts of the world can interact. It is a service available on the computer, through which knowledge is now at the fingertips of anyone who has access to the internet. The use of the internet as an educational medium is now rapidly expanding (Liaw, 2004). Information can be collected through web servers on the internet. This means that billions of websites contain different information in the form of text and pictures. One can easily collect information on every topic of the world. For this purpose, special websites, called search engines are available on the internet to search information on any topic around the world. Users can search for jobs online using the internet facilities; most of the organizations or departments around the world advertise their vacancies on the Internet. Also, internet facilities help to promote advertisement online. Nowadays, most of the commercial organizations advertise their products through internet. It is a very cheap and efficient way of advertising products. The internet also facilitates communication; one can communicate with the other through internet around the world. The internet provides services such as chatting, video conferencing, , internet telephony and others. It serves as a virtual marketplace and social interaction platform. Along with getting information on the internet, one can also shop online. There are many online stores and sites that can be used to look for products as well as buying them using credit cards (Liaw, 2004). Computer technologies have been viewed as important educational tools and will continue to enhance the learning process (Anderson & Reed, 1998). They help to foster students interest, promote students commitment to learning, arouses students interest and promote distance learning. Ogunlade and Olafare (2012) conducted a study on advantages of internet and intranet. Results revealed that the internet connectivity was a very strong means of creating extensive knowledge. Moreover, the majority agreed that there was a difference between the roles played by internet and intranet in knowledge creation.they therefore recommended that lecturers should be given more opportunity to use intranet for easy communication in the university. Undergraduates should also be given easy access to surf the internet anywhere on campus, the cost of which should have been added to their school fees on resumption. Gender Interaction in the utilization of internet facilities Female students have less experience about the internet, but have higher level of confidence in programming and systems technology (Li, Kirkup, & Hodgson 2001). Many have regarded the internet as a technological boy toy. The problems of gender disparity in the usage and attitude toward the internet have received considerable interest among researchers. Most findings have revealed that females are at a

19 disadvantage compared to their male counterparts where internet usage is concerned. They have unequal access, a low rate of usage and exhibit negative attitudes toward the Internet (Madell & Muncer, 2004). Although, the internet has been characterized as male-dominated, recent evidence indicates that the gender gap in internet use is rapidly diminishing. If more females are using the internet, then there are specific applications they would prefer which would make them differ from those of their male counterparts (Novick (2003). Disadvantages of Internet Users personal information such as name, address and so on can be accessed by other people and this can lead such users to danger and exposure to internet fraudsters. If a credit card is used to shop online, hackers can steal information relating to such cards and eventually endanger the individual concerned. Pornography and spamming are serious issues concerning the internet, especially when it comes to young children. There are thousands of pornographic sites on the internet that can be easily found and these can be detrimental to children. With unlimited access to a variety of websites and the impediment of needing to enter a brothel physically removed, immoral gratification is just the click of a mouse away from any intending customer (Sackson, 1996). Progress is observable in the fight against Internet pornography (except in a few cyber cafes) content filters are downloaded and installed to filter unwanted Internet content (Longe & Longe, 2005). METHODOLOGY This section discusses the method used in conducting the research, research type, sample and sampling techniques, instrumentation, procedure for data collection and data analysis techniques. Research type The study adopted the descriptive method of the survey type. Survey was chosen for this study because it enabled the researchers to collect large amount of information about the values and activities of the pre-service teachers on utilization of internet facilities. Sample and sampling technique The population for the study was all pre-service teachers of faculty of education. Some 150 pre-service teachers at 400 level were purposively selected as the sample. Israel s (1992) model of sample size was employed to select the sample from a target population of 900 students in 400 level (+/_7%). Instrumentation The instrument used was a researcher-designed questionnaire, divided into two sections, A and B. All the researchers were involved in the design with relevant literature as guides. There are demographic questionnaire and the instrument questionnaire which were given to five professors and senior lecturers in the department of Educational Technology, University of Ilorin and two English Language experts for both the content and face validity. After the corrections were effected, 30 copies of the questionnaire were pilot tested on a sample outside the study area for reliability. Cronbach alpha was used to determine the reliability with.82 reliability coefficient. This implies that the instrument was reliable and was used for the study. Procedure for Data Collection The instruments were administered personally by the researchers to the pre-service teachers. The preservice teachers were allowed to respond to the questionnaire at their own pace. One hundred and fifty copies of the questionnaire were administered and collected immediately to avoid misplacement by the respondents. Data analysis Techniques The research questions were answered using frequency counts and percentages while the hypothesis was tested using independent t-test statistic.

20 DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS This section presents the analysis and interpretation of data obtained during the course of this study. Data obtained in respect of research questions were analysed using percentage. The demographic information of the participants is given in Table 1. Table 1: Demographic Information of Respondents GENDER FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE % Male Female Total Table 1 indicates that male respondents were 89 in number representing 59.3% of the total sample while female respondents numbered 61 representing 40.7% of the total sample. This shows that all the departments in the faculty of education were fairly represented. The distribution of respondents by departments shows that all the five departments had 30 respondents each, representing 20% each of the total sample since 150 respondents were involved which made up 100% of the total sample. Research Questions The following research questions were answered as indicated; Research question one: What is the attitude of pre-service teachers towards the use of internet facilities? Table 2 summarizes the attitude of respondents toward using internet facilities. Table 2: Attitude of respondents towards the use of Internet facilities S/N ITEMS SA(%) A(%) D(%) SD(%) 1 Internet enhances students learning 108(72) 42(28) Internet creates more information between teachers and students 80(53.3) 61(40.7) 8(5.3) 1(0.7) 3 I learn more from internet than I do from textbooks 60(40) 62(41.3) 25(16.7) 3(2) 4 I always use internet to solve my assignment 67(44.7) 71(47.3) 11(7.3) 1(0.7) 5 I find the use of internet interesting 87(58) 61(40.7) 1(0.7) 1(0.7) 6 Internet gives opportunity to learn more 93(62) 51(34) 6(4) - 7 I taught myself on how to use internet 54(36) 75(50) 18(12) 3(2) 8 I can do deep web searching using appropriate search engine 56(37.3) 77(51.3) 13(8.7) 4(2.7) 9 I can download files from the internet 81(54) 53(35.3) 14(9.3) 2(1.3) 10 I spend more time on the internet than I do studying my books 12(8) 25(16.7) 72(48) 41(27.3) 11 I consider the use of internet as wasting of resources 12(8) 9(6) 49(32.7) 80(53.3) 12 I browse pornographic sites on the internet 9(6) 13(8.7) 45(30) 83(55.3) 13 I engage in internet fraud 6(4) 6(4) 36(24) 102(68) 14 I spend most of my time chatting on the internet 18(12) 32(21.3) 83(55.3) 17(11.3) 15 I use internet for social sites like facebook, twitter, yahoo messenger etc. more than I use it for my 64(42.7) 63(42) 22(14.7) 1(0.7) assignment 16 I attended ICT training before I can use the internet properly 9(6) 23(15.3) 73(48.7) 45(30) 17 I have a certificate in ICT training 25(16.7) 32(21.3) 52(34.7) 41(27.3) 18 I am conversant with the rules of internet 32(21.3) 82(54.7) 27(18) 9(6)

21 Based on the results in Table 2, there is every indication that responses to the positive statement (item 1-9) shows that over 80% of respondents had a positive attitude toward the use of internet facilities. It is seen that more respondents believed that internet facilities could generally provide better learning experience. However, the negative statement (item 10-15) shows that 24.7% of the respondents agreed or strongly agreed that they spent more time on the internet than they did when studying their books while 75.3% disagreed or strongly disagreed. Item 11 shows that 14% of the respondents agreed or strongly agreed that they considered the use of internet as wasting of resources while a majority of the respondents (86%) disagreed or strongly disagreed on that statement. Item 12 shows that 14.7% of the respondents agreed or strongly agreed that they surfed pornographic sites on the internet while 85.3% of the respondents disagreed or strongly disagreed. Item 13 shows that 8% of respondents agreed or strongly agreed that they engaged in internet fraud while a majority of respondents representing 92% disagreed or strongly disagreed. Item 14 shows that 33.3% of the respondents agreed or strongly agreed that they spent most of their time chatting on the internet while 66.7% of respondents disagreed or strongly disagreed. Item 15 showed that 84.7% of the respondents agreed or strongly agreed that they used the internet for social sites like Facebook, twitter, yahoo messenger and others more than they used it for their assignments while 15.3% disagreed or strongly disagreed. Item 16 shows that 21.3% of the respondents agreed or strongly agreed that they attended ICT training before they could use the internet properly while 78.7% of respondents disagreed or strongly disagreed. This implies that a majority of pre-service teachers did not attend ICT training before they could use the internet. Item 17 shows that 38% of the respondents agreed or strongly agreed that they had a certificate in ICT Training while 62% of the respondents disagreed or strongly disagreed. This means that a majority of preservice teachers did not have a certificate on ICT training. Finally, item 18 showed that 76% of respondents agreed or strongly agreed that they are conversant with the rules of internet while a few respondents, representing 24%, disagreed or strongly disagreed with that statement. This shows that a majority of preservice teachers are conversant with the rules of internet. Research Question two: What is the level of competence of pre-service teachers in the use of internet? The analysis related to this question is shown in Table 3. Table 3: Competence of respondents in the use of Internet Facility S/N ITEMS Often Seldom Not at all 1 I use application programs like Microsoft Word, Excel, PowerPoint etc. 76(50.7) 60(40) 14(9.3) 2 I create basic presentation package. 34(22.7) 74(49.3) 42(28) 3 I introduce animation into slides. 40(26.7) 63(42) 47(31.3) 4 I assess internet site via its web Addresses 94(62.7) 48(32) 8(5.3) 5 I download files from the internet. 114(76) 30(20) 6(4) 6 I send and receive messages. 99(66) 42(28) 9(6) 7 I use web authoring tools. 53(35.3) 75(50) 22(14.7) 8 I use the webcam to communicate via chat on the internet. 42(28) 61(40.7) 47(31.3) 9 I can use programs like HTML, PHP, C++, etc. 30(20) 60(40) 60(40) 10 I can use search engines like Google, Mamma, Amazon, devil finder, ask.com, MSN etc. effectively 105(70) 35(23.3) 10(6.7) Item 1 shows that 50.7% of respondents often used application programs like Microsoft Word, Excel, PowerPoint and so forth. Some 40% of respondents seldom used such application programs while 9.3% did not use them at all. This implies that majority of pre-service teachers used such application programs. Item 2 shows that 22.7% of respondents often created basic presentation package. A larger population (49.3%) of the respondents did not create presentation package. This result shows that most pre-service teachers hardly or have never created a basic presentation package. Item 3 shows that 26.7% of the respondents often introduced animation into slides, 42% of respondents seldom introduced animation into slide while 31.3%

22 did not introduce animation into slides. Item 4 showed that 62.7% of the respondents often ccessed internet sites via web addresses, 32% of the respondents seldom accessed while 5.3% of the respondents did not. This indicates that most pre-service teachers used web address to access the internet. Item 5 showed that 76% of the respondents often downloaded files from the internet, 20% seldom did such while 4% did not. This indicates that most pre-service teachers often downloaded files from the internet. Item 6 showed that 66% of the respondents often sent and received messages, 28% of the respondents hardly sent and received while 6% did not. Item 7 showed that 35.3% of the respondents often used web authoring tools, 50% seldom used them while 14.7% did not. This indicates that in general pre-service teachers seldom used web authoring tools. Item 8 showed that 28% of the respondents often used the webcam to communicate via chat on the internet, 40.7% seldom used such while the remaining 31.3% did not. Item 9 revealed that 20% of the respondents often used programs like HTML, PHP, C++ and so forth, while 40% seldom and 40% never used these at all. Finally, item 10 showed that 70% of the respondents often used search engines like Google, mamma, Amazon, devil finder, ask.com, msn and so forth effectively. Some 23.3% of the respondents seldom used search engines effectively while 6.7% of the respondents did not. This result shows that majority of preservice teachers could use search engines effectively. Research Question three: Is there any difference in the use of internet facilities between male and female pre-service teachers? The analysis related to this question is as shown in Table 4. Table 4: Utilization of Internet Facilities by Pre-Service Teachers Based on Gender S/N ITEMS SA(%) A(%) D(%) SD(%) 1 A larger population of male is internet literate than female 42(28) 51(34) 41(27.3) 16(10.7) 2 I think males are more advanced in the use of internet than females. 38(25.3) 42(28) 46(30.7) 24(16) The distribution of respondents by gender difference revealed that 93 respondents representing 62% of the total sample agreed or strongly agreed that a larger population of male was internet literate than females while 57 respondents representing 38% of the total sample disagreed or strongly disagreed. This result implies that males were more educated in the use of internet than females. Item 2 also revealed that 80 respondents representing 53.3% of the total sample agreed or strongly agreed that males were more advanced in the use of internet than females while 70 respondents representing 46.7% disagreed or strongly disagreed. Based on this result, males were more conversant and advanced in the use of internet facilities than females. So, it could be concluded that there was a difference between male and female pre-service teachers capability in the use of internet facilities. Hypotheses Testing H O1 There is no significant difference between male and female pre-service teachers in the use of internet facilities Table 5 Utilization of Internet Facilities by Pre-Service Teachers Based on Gender Gender No X SD df t Sig. (2-tailed) Male Female Total 150 From Table 5, it can be deduced that there was no significant difference between male and female pre-service teachers in the use of internet facilities. This is reflected in the result: df (150), t = 1.47, p >.05. That is, the result of t-value of 1.47 resulting in.13 significance value was greater than the.05 alpha value. Thus, the hypothesis was accepted. This implies that there was no significant difference between male and

23 female pre-service teachers in the use of internet facilities. DISCUSSION The majority of pre-service teachers did not have a certificate in ICT training although they were conversant with the rules of the internet while majority of them could use search engines effectively. More respondents believed that internet facilities could generally provide better learning experience. Science preservice teachers were more experienced in the utilization of the internet. This is at variance with the finding of Badariah and Ahmad (2014) that science teachers surveyed in Malaysia were familiar with ICT, but not in innovative ways that could help the classroom as expected. Males were more conversant and advanced in using internet facilities than females. So, it could be concluded that there was a difference between male and female pre-service teachers capability in the use of internet facilities though the difference was not statistically significant. This disagrees with Bastani (2008) who reported a difference in the way males and females used the internet. CONCLUSION The following conclusions were drawn from the study based on the findings: Pre-service teachers considered the use of internet essential to life. Most of them could not do without being connected to the internet for social reasons while others used it for assignment purposes or gaining more knowledge. Pre-service teachers neglected having a certificate in ICT. They felt it was not essential or not needed. Some were of the opinion that they did not need a certificate before they could access the internet properly thereby placing little or no importance on certificates. It is sad to note that some pre-service teachers still considered the use of internet as a waste of time and resources in this era and age of advanced technology. Most pre-service teachers had frequent access to the internet which has greatly improved their competence in using it. Pre-service teachers from science education were often more competent in the use of internet facilities than other departments in the Faculty of Education. The study has strong implications on the way teaching and learning process is being handled through the way pre-service teachers used the internet. It indicates that there would be positive result if the internet is used in a better way. RECOMMENDATIONS The following recommendations were made on the basis of the findings: Pre-service teachers should learn to balance their time when it comes to surfing the internet for social sites and reading their books since a large number tend to spend most of their time chatting away instead of focusing on academic tasks. Institutions should make ICT a core course for pre-service teachers so as to produce more ICTcompetent teachers. Issuance of certificate on ICT competence should be taken as a priority. This will serve as a back-up for the degree certificate of pre-service teachers. Female pre-service teachers should erase their present notion that the internet is male dominated. It is not logical to just assume that males are more advanced in the use of internet than females. The idea that internet is a waste of resources should be dropped because knowledge is power; the internet is an advanced way of acquiring knowledge and digging further for more. Government or institutions should provide suitable ICT training environments and equipment for

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26 Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Stad Cooperative Learning Strategy on Physics Problem Solving, Achievement and Retention [1] & [2] & Amosa Isiaka Gambarı[1], Mudasiru Olalere Yusuf [2] ABSTRACT This study investigated the effectiveness of computer-assisted Students Team Achievement Division (STAD) cooperative learning strategy on physics problem solving, students achievement and retention. It also examined if the student performance would vary with gender. Purposive sampling technique was used to select two senior secondary schools year two physics students (SS II). The schools were assigned into computer-assisted STAD and Individualized Computer Instruction (ICI) groups. 84 students from two intact classes participated in the study. The Computer-Assisted Learning Package (CALP) on physics and the Physics Achievement Test (PAT) were used as treatment and test instruments respectively. Analysis of Covariance and Scheffe test were used for data analysis. Findings indicated that students taught physics with computer-supported STAD performed better than their counterparts in ICI group. In addition, they had better retention than those in ICI group. However, gender has no influence on students performance. Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that physics teachers should be encouraged to use computer-assisted cooperative instruction to enhance students performance. Keywords: STAD, Cooperative Learning, Problem Solving, Achievement, Retention, Physics INTRODUCTION IN the history of modern civilization, Physics occupies the central position among the science subjects. Thus, science and technology would be incomplete without physics (Micheal, 2006). Therefore, the inclusion of physics in the Nigeria senior secondary school curriculum for science-oriented students cannot be overemphasized (FRN, 2004). In spite of its importance to other disciplines such as medicine, engineering, computer science, and many others, students poor performance in the subject in national examinations is not encouraging (WAEC, 2011, 2012). Some of the reasons attributed to this poor performance in the subject include: inability of students to understand the physics contents while studying independently, poor teaching methods, lack of integrating computer technology into teaching and learning, poor mathematical ability of the students, lack of problem-solving skills, and many others (Ajaja, 2002; Jegede, 2007; Yusuf & Afolabi, 2010; Zakaria, Solfitri, Daud, & Abidin, 2013). The recognition of the educational importance of group problem-solving has resulted in groups working together around computers (Neufeld & Haggerty, 2001; Stahl Koschmann, & Suthers, 2006). The computer is a medium through which groups can communicate their understanding and provides a way to represent and store shared knowledge (Sharan, 1995; Sherman, 1991). Small groups interacting around and through the computer promotes productive cooperative learning (Littleton & Light, 1999). Interacting around

27 computers refers to using the computer as a shared reference for a group while interaction through computers refers to the use of a computer network. The use of problem-solving groups is increasing both in work and education fields (Beatty & Barker, 2004; Salas & Fiore, 2004). Therefore, in order to provide better learning opportunities, it is important that learners work in problem-solving groups in physics classrooms (Light, 2004; Lesh & English, 2003). Cooperative learning improves students mathematical understanding as well as their communication and group skills (Weldon & Felder, 2000). Physics and mathematics are interrelated; thus understanding the mathematical concepts will enhance physics knowledge. It is easier for groups to master physics problems that are too complex than for individuals to solve them alone (Jonassen & Kwon, 2001). While problem solving in cooperative learning, students have opportunities to ask questions, explain their reasoning, build upon their knowledge, and discuss and develop problem-solving strategies (Gillies & Asman, 2000). A shift in focus from the individual learner to cooperative learning is necessary for two reasons. First, the use of group problem solving is increasing both in education and work fields (Beatty & Barker, 2004; Salas & Fiore, 2004). Second, the proliferation of computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL) and computer supported collaborative work (CSCW) environments in education and work fields is increasing due to the wide use of computers (Stahl et al., 2006). Working in a group gives students access to a wide range of thinking strategies, contributes to understanding of the problem, and provides alternative solutions (Gillies, 2000; Jonassen & Kwon, 2001). However, while several studies have shown that groups are more productive than individuals in complex problem solving, not all groups work together cooperatively (Van-Wyk, 2010). In order to work effectively in a cooperative setting, students need to think about their group work by planning, monitoring, and evaluating their learning processes within a group context (Salas & Fiore, 2004). Some researchers have suggested that computer settings can increase the possibility of successful group learning and problem solving, as students are more likely to work together when working on computer based tasks (Kreijns, Kirschner & Jockems, 2002; Light, 2004). Computers provide a medium for group problem solving by encouraging discussion and sharing both within- and between- groups (Beamish & Au, 1995). Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of Students Team Achievement Division (STAD) with that of Individualized Computer Instruction strategy in physics. STAD is a cooperative learning technique that has been extensively researched and assessed specifically on academic achievements, attitudes, social interactions and interpersonal relationships (Balfakih, 2003; Bernaus & Gardner, 2008; Slavin 1990; Kagan, 1994; Johnson & Johnson, 1998, 1999; Tarim & Akdeniz, 2008). STAD is one of the simplest and most extensively researched forms of all cooperative learning techniques and it could be an effective instrument to begin with for teachers who are new to the cooperative learning technique (Slavin, 1990). STAD as a teaching technique was designed and researched by Johns Hopkins University and is known as student team learning (Sharan, 1995). Research studies show that STAD as a teaching technique has been applied with great success in various science research projects. For instance, Adesoji (2009) and Balfakih (2003) in chemistry, Ho and Boo (2007) in physics, Pei-wen (2001), Van-Wyk (2010), and Keramati (2010) in Mathematics, reported that STAD is more effective than individualistic instructional strategy, discussion method and conventional classroom instruction respectively. Fajola (2000), Pandian (2004), Yusuf and Afolabi (2010) reported that students exposed to cooperative computer-assisted instruction group outperformed their counterparts who learned the same biology concepts through traditional method. Similarly, Taiwo, (2008) reported that students taught mathematics using computer-assisted cooperative learning strategy performed better than those taught with individualized computer instruction and traditional method respectively. However, Rosini and Jim (1997), Armstrong (1998), Glassman (1989) and Khan and Inamullah (2011) found no significant difference between chemistry students exposed to cooperative learning and those taught using the traditional method. Gender has been identified as one of the factors influencing students achievement in sciences at senior secondary school level. Balfakih (2003), Adeyemi (2008) Kost, Pollock and Finkelstein (2009) and Oludipe (2012) reported no significant difference between male and female students performance when

28 taught using cooperative learning strategy. Similarly, Pandian (2004), Yusuf and Afolabi (2010) and Yusuf, Gambari and Olumorin (2012) reported that gender did not have any significant influence on biology achievement using computer-assisted STAD cooperative learning strategy. However, Fajola (2000), Ghaith (2001), Aguele and Uhumniah (2007), Kolawole (2007) and Khairulanuar, Nazre, Sairabanu, and Norasikin, (2010) in their studies found that male students performed better than female students in the cognitive, affective and psychomotor skill achievements. In contrast, Olson (2002) reported female students taught mathematics using cooperative learning outperformed their male counterparts. Obviously, there is a strong association between gender and academic achievement in science education. The likely influence of gender on students academic achievement in physics when taught using cooperative learning and individualized computer instructional method was examined by this study. The extent of computer-assisted STAD cooperative settings on physics problem-solving on Nigerian students performance is yet to be fully explored. Literature showed the inconclusiveness of the findings on STAD cooperative learning, gender, and retention on learner performance. Therefore, the effects of computer-assisted STAD cooperative learning strategy on students achievement in physics were investigated in this study. RESEARCH QUESTIONS The study addressed the following research questions: 1. Is there any difference in the performance of students taught physics using computer-assisted STAD cooperative setting and those taught with individualized computer instructional method? 2. Is there any difference in the performance of male and female students taught physics using computer-assisted STAD cooperative setting? 3. Is there any difference in retention of students taught physics using computer-assisted STAD cooperative settings and individualized computer instructional method? 4. Is there any difference in the retention of male and female students taught physics using computerassisted STAD cooperative setting? RESEARCH HYPOTHESES The following null hypotheses were tested in the study: 1. There is no significant difference in the performance of students taught physics using computerassisted STAD cooperative setting and those taught using individualized computer instruction. 2. There is no significant difference exist in the performance of male and female students taught physics using computer-assisted STAD cooperative setting. 3. There is no significant difference in the retention mean scores of students taught physics using computer-assisted STAD cooperative setting and individualized computer instructional method. 4. There is no significant difference in the retention of male and female students taught physics using computer-assisted STAD cooperative setting. METHODOLOGY Design of the Study The study employed pre-test, post-test control group design. This design consisted of two instructional groups (cooperative group and individualized computer instruction group) gender (male and female), ability (high, medium and low) and repeated testing (pre-test and post- test). The main independent variables were exposure to cooperative learning strategy, gender and ability while the dependent variables were achievement and attitude.

29 Sample of the Study Multi-stage sampling procedures were employed in this study. Firstly, purposive random sampling was used to select two secondary schools in Minna, Niger State, Nigeria. The schools were selected based on the following criteria: equivalence (laboratories, facilities and manpower), school ownership (public schools), gender composition (mixed schools), ICT facilities (computer laboratories under the SchoolNet programme), and candidates enrolment (Senior Secondary School Certificate in Education in physics for a minimum of ten years). Secondly, an intact class from each of the two schools were selected and randomly assigned to experimental (computer-assisted STAD) and control (ICI) groups using simple random sampling technique. Thirdly, the researcher arranged the list of students in the class into different strata based on gender (male & female) and achievement level (high, medium, & low). Students were stratified into academic levels (high, medium and low) based on their performance in the last promotion examination in physics. 84 students participated in the study, 46 students were in computer-assisted STAD cooperative learning strategy (Exp. Group) and 38 students in ICI strategy, the control group. Instruments Three research instruments were employed: treatment instrument {computer-assisted learning package (CALP)}, test instrument {physics achievement test (PAT)} and attitude test {physics attitude scale (PAS)}. Treatment instrument: CALP was a researcher developed package used at two different instructional settings (cooperative and individualized). The computer package was written in html format using Macromedia Dreamweaver 8 as the overall platform. Other computer programs and applications also utilized during the development process are Microsoft Word, Macromedia Fireworks, and Macromedia Flash 8. Macromedia Fireworks was used for specific texts, graphics and buttons, while Macromedia Flash was used for simulation. The package was validated by computer programmers and educational technology experts; subject content (physics) specialists; and finally field tested on a sample representative of the students involved in the final study. The package contained two topics subdivided into sixteen lessons. The main menu of the package consisted of introduction, students registration, list of lessons as in lesson 1, 2, 3, 4, 16 and exit. It adopted the drill and practice modes of CAI. The main difference between the group-based program and the individualized program were the adjustments made in terms of entries of number of the individuals who reacted to the computer. The package was produced by a team of professionals and specialists including the system programmer, operator and the instructional designers (the researchers). Test Instrument: Physics Achievement Test (PAT) was used in collecting data for this study. The PAT consisted of 100 multiple choice objective items adopted from past examination of West African Examination Council (WAEC, May/June, ) and National Examination Council (NECO, June/July, ). The Test (PAT) was based on the contents of the CALP. Each of the stems of the PAT had five options (A - E) as possible answers to the question. Students were required to indicate their correct answers by ticking one of the letters (A - E) corresponding to the correct option in each item. This instrument (PAT) was administered to the experimental and control groups as pre-test, posttest and again as delayed posttest (retention test) after it had been reshuffled. The scoring of the multiple-choice items was: 1 was awarded for each correct answer and 0 for each wrong answer. The items were validated and tested for reliability using 40 randomly selected SSII students within the population but outside the sampled schools. A reliability coefficient of 0.90 was obtained using the Kuder Richardson (KR-21). Treatment Procedure During the treatment, Physics teachers were trained as research assistants in using the computerassisted learning package and cooperative learning strategy. The teacher in the cooperative-learning group incorporated the basic elements of cooperative learning into the group s experience: positive interdependence, face-to-face interaction, individual accountability, social skill development, and group processing, as recommended by Johnson, Johnson, and Holubec (1990). In addition, the teacher specified both the academic and social skill objective, explained the tasks and goal structures, assigned roles within the groups and described the procedure for the learning activities, as demonstrated by Trowbridge and Bybee (1996).

30 The Computer Assisted Learning Package (CALP) was installed on standalone computer systems. The physics contents were presented through the computer and the learners interact and respond to the computer prompts. The computer presents information and displays animation to the learner on each unit after which the students attempted some multiple-choice questions. The students could only proceed further in a lesson on the condition that the questions were satisfactorily answered. The students must have had at least 100% mastery of one topic before moving on to the next. If after three attempts they do not get the answer correctly, the package immediately logs them out and the instructor had to be called before they could continue through another log-in. The students in the experimental groups trained on the principles and practice of cooperative learning. They were heterogeneously divided into groups with three members each, composed of students of different gender and different academic achievement levels. After the formation of heterogeneous groups and the process of teambuilding, each member in the group was given a role to play. The designation and rotation of role assignment for each student led to avoidance of free riders or potential complaint of overloading from high achievers. The experimental group (computer-assisted STAD cooperative learning) was exposed to the following activities: 1. Each team consists of three members assigned to one computer. Team-mates complete the reading of the materials and complete the tasks as a team using CALP package; 2. Individually, students take a quiz on the assigned reading; 3. Each team takes the same quiz and reaches consensus with respect to the correct answers for test questions because only one answer sheet must be submitted by the team for which all teammates receive the same team score ; 4. Student s individual quiz score and team quiz score are counted equally toward the student s final course grade. 5. High scoring teams are recognized and rewarded in the class. The control group taught with the individualized computer instruction were exposed to the physics concepts using CALP only. The computer presented the instruction on human-to-computer basis. Students proceeded with the physics contents and study at their own rate without help from their colleagues. The study covered twelve weeks but the treatment lasted for six weeks. At the commencement of the study, the Physics Achievement Test (PAT) was administered as pre-test. Immediately after the treatment, PAT was administered as post-test. Then, after four weeks the post-test, the PAT was reshuffled and readministered as retention test. Students answered the PAT test at pre-test and post-test individually. The data obtained were analyzed using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) and Scheffe s test using SPSS version 16 at.05 alpha level. RESULTS The results are presented based on the research hypotheses. Hypothesis One: There is no significant difference in the performance of students taught physics using computer-assisted STAD cooperative setting and those taught using individualized computer instruction (ICI) method. To determine whether there was significant difference in the post-test mean scores of the experimental (computer-assisted STAD) and control groups (ICI), data were analyzed using the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Table 2 shows the analysis of results.

31 Table 1: ANCOVA post-test on experimental (STAD) and control (ICI) groups Source of Variation Sum of Square df Mean Square F Covariate (Pre-test) Main Effect (Treatment) Model Residual Total Significance of F Table 1 reveals that an F (1, 81) = 5.092, p =.027 for the main effect (treatment) was significant; this indicates that the method of instruction produced a significant effect on the post-test achievement scores of students when covariate effect (pre-test) was controlled. The result indicates that the treatment, using computer assisted STAD and ICI accounted for the difference in the post-test achievement scores of the students. Student performance in the two groups was further compared based on the mean gain scores between the pre-test and post-test for each group and the results are shown in Table 2 and graphically illustrated in Figure 1. Table 2: Mean gain scores of students in STAD and ICI groups Group Pre-test Post-test Mean Gain Score STAD ICI Table 2 shows that both groups had improved performance in post-test. STAD had mean gain scores of while ICI had mean gain scores of This indicates that both groups benefited from the treatments with STAD having higher performance. STAD ICI Fig. 1. Performance of students in STAD and ICI groups. Hypothesis Two: There is no significant difference in the performance of male and female students taught physics using computer-assisted STAD cooperative setting. To determine whether there was significant difference in the posttest mean scores of the male and

32 female students using computer-assisted STAD, data were analyzed using the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Table 3 shows the result of the analysis. Table 3: ANCOVA posttest on male and female students in computer-assisted STAD group Source of Variation Sum of Square df Covariate (Pretest) Main Effect (Gender) Mean Square F Significance of F Model Residual Total The analysis in Table 3 shows the main effect of treatment group (computer-assisted STAD) on gender produced an F (1, 43) = 0.852, p = This result was not significant at the.05 alpha level. This implies that there was no significant difference in the performance of male and female students taught using computerassisted STAD. The hypothesis two is therefore not rejected. This signifies that male students achievement did not differ significantly from that of female students when both groups were exposed to the computerassisted STAD cooperative setting. The mean gain scores between the pretest and posttest among male and female in the computerassisted STAD group were further tabulated and graphically illustrated as shown in Table 4 and Figure 2 respectively. Table 4: Mean gain scores of male and female exposed to computer-assisted STAD Group Pretest Posttest Mean Gain Score Male Female Table 4 shows that male students had higher mean gain scores of while the female students had mean gain scores of This indicates that both groups benefited from the treatment, with male students having better posttest performance than female students. However, male students had better mean gain scores than female students. The comparison of the mean scores between their pretest and posttest is shown in Figure 2.

33 Male Female Fig. 2. Performance of the male and female students in STAD group. Hypothesis Three: There is no significant difference in the retention of students taught physics using computer-assisted STAD cooperative setting and ICI method. To determine whether there was significant difference in the posttest mean scores of the computerassisted STAD and control groups (ICI), data were analyzed using the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Table 5 shows the analysis of the result. Table 5: ANCOVA retention test on students in computer-assisted STAD and ICI groups Source of Variation Sum of Square df Covariate (Pretest) Main Effect (Retention) Mean Square F Significance of F Model Residual Total Table 5 shows that the main effect of treatment group (computer-assisted STAD) and ICI groups produced an F (1, 81) = 3.870, p = This result was significant at the.05 alpha level. This indicates that there was significant difference in the performance of retention test of students taught physics using computer-assisted STAD. The hypothesis three is therefore rejected. This implied that students in computerassisted STAD group achieved significantly higher scores than those in ICI group. The mean gain scores between the pretest and posttest retention of computer-assisted STAD and ICI group were tabulated and graphically illustrated as shown in Table 6 and Figure 3 respectively.

34 Table 6: Mean gain scores of students retention in computer-assisted STAD and ICI groups Group Pretest Posttest Mean Gain Score STAD ICI Table 6 shows that both STAD and ICI had high retention from the treatment. The students in computer-assisted STAD group had higher mean gain scores of 1.40 while those in ICI group had a mean gain scores of This indicates that both groups benefited from the treatment and retained some physics concepts after four weeks of treatment. Furthermore, the comparison of the mean scores between their pretest and posttest is shown in Figure 3. STAD ICI Fig. 3. Graphical illustration of students retention in STAD and ICI groups. Hypothesis Four: There is no significant difference in the retention of male and female students taught physics using computer-assisted STAD cooperative setting. To determine whether there was significant difference in the retention mean scores of the male and female students using computer-assisted STAD, data were analyzed using the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Table 7 shows analysis of the results. Table 7: ANCOVA retention test on male and female students in computer-assisted STAD group Source of Variation Sum of Square Df Covariate (Pretest) Main Effect (Gender) Mean Square F Significance of F Model Residual Total

35 The analysis in Table 7 shows the main effect of treatment group (computer-assisted STAD) on gender produced an F (1, 43) = 0.852, p = This result was not significant at the.05 alpha level. This indicates that there was no significant difference in the performance of male and female students taught using computer-assisted STAD. Therefore, hypothesis three was not rejected. This implies that male students achievement did not differ significantly from that of their female counterparts when both were taught using computer-assisted STAD. The mean gain scores between the pretest and posttest among male and female in the computerassisted STAD group was tabulated and graphically illustrated as shown in Table 8 and Figure 4 respectively. Table 8: Mean gain scores of male and female students in computer-assisted STAD group Group Pretest Posttest Mean Gain Score Male Female Table 8 shows that male students had higher mean gain scores of while the female students had mean gain scores of This indicates that both groups benefited from the treatment, with male students having higher retention than female students. However, male students had better mean gain scores than female students. Furthermore, the comparison in the mean scores between their pretest and posttest is shown in Figure 4. Male Female Fig 4. Graphical illustration of retention of male and female students in computer-assisted STAD group DISCUSSION The results of the analyses related to hypothesis one indicated a significant difference in students performance of in favor of those in the experimental group (STAD). The findings regarding better performance of students in the STAD as compared to the ICI agree with earlier findings of Adesoji (2009), Balfakih (2003), Zuheer (2008), Ho and Boo (2007), Pei-wen (2001), van Wyk 2010, Keramati (2010), Liang (2002), Ghaith (2001), Dikici and Yavuzer (2006). Ayhan and Yasemin (2006) reported that STAD is more effective than individualistic instructional strategy, discussion method and conventional classroom instruction respectively. Findings of this study also support the findings of Fajola (2000), Pandian (2004), Taiwo (2008) and Yusuf and Afolabi (2010) stating that students taught using computer-assisted STAD cooperative instruction performed better than their counterparts who were taught the same biology concepts with individualized instruction and traditional method respectively. However, Rosini and Jim (1997), Armstrong (1998), Glassman (1989) and Khan and Inamullah (2011) found no significant difference in the achievement of students taught using STAD and those taught with conventional methods.

36 The results of the analyses for hypothesis two indicated no significant difference in the performance of male and female students taught physics using computer-assisted STAD cooperative setting. The findings regarding the performance of male and female students in the STAD group agree with the earlier findings of Balfakih (2003), Adeyemi (2008) and Kost, Pollock and Finkelstein (2009) who found no significant difference between male and female students performance when taught using cooperative learning strategy. Furthermore, the findings support that of Pandian (2004) and Yusuf and Afolabi (2010) showing gender did not have any significant influence on biology achievement using computer-assisted STAD cooperative learning strategy. However, the findings disagree with that of Fajola (2000), Ghaith (2001), Aguele and Uhumniah (2007), Kolawole (2007) and Khairulanuar, Nazre, Sairabanu, and Norasikin (2010) that male students performed better than female students in the cognitive, affective and psychomotor skill achievements. They also disagree with the findings of Olson (2002) showing that female students taught mathematics using cooperative learning outperformed their male counterparts. The results of the analyses related to hypothesis three indicated no significant difference in retention of students taught physics using computer-assisted STAD cooperative learning and those taught using ICI. Similarly, hypothesis four revealed no significant difference in the retention of male and female students in the computer-assisted STAD cooperative setting. The findings agree with the earlier findings of Tarim and Akdeniz (2008), Majoka, Dad and Mahmood (2010), Zakaria, Chin and Daud (2010) and Gupta and Pasrija (2011) revealing the encouraging effects of co-operative learning (STAD) on students' achievement, retention and attitude toward Mathematics. These findings have strong implications for teaching and learning of physics in secondary schools in Nigeria using computer-assisted cooperative learning strategies. Major implication of these findings is that computer-assisted instruction is better in cooperative setting than individualized setting. Furthermore, the findings provide sound empirical basis which indicate that student performance in physics and other science related subjects would be improved if students were exposed to computer-assisted STAD cooperative setting. RECOMMENDATIONS Based on the major findings of this study, it is recommended that: 1. Physics teachers should expose their students to computer-assisted STAD cooperative instructional strategy so as to improve their performance in physics. 2. Federal and State ministries of education and other educational agencies and other education stakeholders should organize workshops on the use of computer-assisted cooperative learning strategy to enhance better performance of secondary school students. 3. The teacher education program in Nigerian tertiary institutions should be improved upon to prepare teachers who can apply innovative teaching strategies such computer-assisted STAD cooperative learning, which will promote effective teaching and learning. 4. Instructional designers, computer programmers, textbook writers, material developers should develop relevant computer assisted instructional packages for use within the Nigerian school systems.

37 REFERENCES Adesoji, F. A., & Ibraheem, T. L. (2009). Effects of student teams-achievement divisions strategy and mathematics knowledge on learning outcomes in chemical kinetics. The Journal of International Social Research, 2(6). Retrieved from Adeyemi, B. A. (2008). Effects of cooperative learning and problem-solving strategies on junior secondary school students' achievement in social studies. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 6(3), Retrieved February 13, from Aguele, L.I. & Agwugah, N.V. (2007). Female participation in science, technology and mathematics (STM) education in Nigeria and national development. Journal of Social Science, 15(2), Ajaja, O.P. (2002). Assessment of biology study support environments in schools. In STAN 41st Annual Conference Proceedings (pp ). Armstrong, S. (1998). Student teams achievement division (STAD) in a twelfth grade classroom: Effect on student achievement and attitude. Journal of Social Studies Research. Retrieved from Balfakih, N. M. A. (2003). The effectiveness of student team-achievement division (STAD) for teaching high school chemistry in the United Arab Emirates. International Journal of Science Education, 25(5), Beaty, C. & Barker, S. (2004). Building smart teams: A roadmap to high performance. Thousands Oaks, CA: Sage. Becker, W. E., & Watts, M. (1998). Teaching economics to undergraduates: Alternatives to chalk and talk. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar. Bernaus, M. & Gardner, R. C. (2008). Teacher motivation strategies, student perceptions, student motivation, and English achievement. The Modern Language Journal, 92, Fajola, O. O. (2000). Effect of three modes of computer Based instructional strategies on students learning outcomes in biology. (Unpublished Ph.D thesis, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria). Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN)(2004). National policy on education. Lagos, Nigeria: Federal Government Press, P. 7. Gambari, I. A. (2010). Effect of Computer-Supported Cooperative Learning Strategies on the performance of senior secondary students in Physics, in Minna, Nigeria. Unpublished (Ph.D thesis, University of Ilorin, Nigeria). Ghaith, G. (2001). Learners' perceptions of their STAD cooperative experience. System, 29(2), Gillies, R. (2002). The residual effects of cooperative learning experiences: A two year follow-up. The Journal of Educational Research, 96(1),

38 Glassman, P. (1989). A study of cooperative learning in mathematics, writing and reading in the intermediate grades: A focus upon achievement, attitudes, and self esteem by gender, race, and ability group. (Dissertation, Hofstra University, NewYork). Ho, F. F., & Boo, H. K (2007). Cooperative Learning: Exploring its Effectiveness in the Physics Classroom. Asia- Pacific Forum on Science Learning and Teaching, 8(2). Retrieved from =EJ Jegede, S. A. (2007). Student s anxiety towards the learning of Chemistry in some Nigerian secondary schools. Educational Research and Review, 2(7), Retrieved from Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (1999). Learning together and alone: cooperative, competitive and individualistic learning (5th ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon. Jonassen, D. & Kwon, H. (2001). Communication patterns in computer-mediated versus face-to-face group problem solving. Educational Technology Research & Devt., 49(11), Kagan, S. (1994). Cooperative learning resources for teachers. San Juan Capistrano, CA: Resources for Teachers. Khairulanuar, S., Nazre, A. R., Sairabanu, O. K., & Norasikin, F. (2010). Effects of training method and gender on learning 2D/3D geometry. Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 29(2), Chesapeake, VA: AACE. Retrieved from Khan, G. N. & Inamullah, H. M. (2011). Effect of Student s Team Achievement Division (STAD) on Academic Achievement of Students. Canadian Center of Science and Education, 7(12). Retrieved from Asian Social Science. Keramati, M. (2010). Effect of cooperative learning on academic achievement of physics course. Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 29(2), Chesapeake, VA: AACE. Retrieved from Kolawole, E. B. (2007). Effects of competitive and cooperative learning strategies on academic performance of Nigerian students in mathematics. Educational Research Review, 3(1), Kost, L. E., Pollock, S. J. & Finkelstein, N. D. (2009). Characterizing the gender gap in introductory physics. Physics Education Research, 5(1), Kreijns, K., & Kirshner, P. (2001). The Social Affordances of Computer-supported Collaborative Llearning Environments. Paper presented at the 31st ASEE/IEE Frontiers in Education Conference, Reno, NV. Lesh, R., & Havel, G. (2003). Problem solving, modelling, and local conceptual development. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 5(2/3),

39 Light, P. (2004). Learning with computers. In H. Daniels & A. Edwards (Eds.), The Routledge Falmer Reader in psychology of education (pp ). London, UK: Routledge. Littleton, K., & Light, P. (1999). Learning with computers: Analysing productive interaction. Routledge. London: Michael, P. (2006). The Importance of Physics: Breakthroughs Drive Economy, Quality of Life, World Leaders, Public Increasingly Take Scientific Advances for Granted. Retrieved from Neufeld, N., & Haggerty, W. (2001). Collaborative team learning in information systems: A pedagogy for developing team skills & high performance. The Journal of Computer Information Systems, 42(1), Olson, V. E. (2002). Gender differences and the effects of cooperative learning in college level mathematics. (Unpublished Ph.D thesis, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Western Australia). Oludipe, D. I. (2012). Gender difference in Nigerian junior secondary students academic achievement in basic science. Journal of Educational and Social Research, 2(1), Pandian, S. S. (2004). Cooperative learning in Biology: The effect of computers. Department of Education, Arunachi University, India. Pei-wen (2001). A Comparison between student teams achievement division and traditional pedagogy for the effects on third grade mathematics learning. Retrieved from Reyna, V. F., Brainerd, C. J., Effken, J., Bootzin, R., & Lloyd, F. J. (2001). The psychology of human-computer mismatches. In C. R. Wolfe (Ed.), Learning and teaching on the world wide web (pp ). San Diego, CA: Academic Press. Rosini, B. A., & Jim, F. (1997). The effect of cooperative learning methods on achievement, retention, and attitudes of home economics students in North Carolina. Journal of Vocational and Technical Education, 13(2), 1-7. Salas, E., & Iiore, S. (Eds.) (2004). Team cognition: Understanding the factors that drive process and performance. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Sharan, S. (1995). Cooperative learning. Review of Educational Research, 50(2), Sherman, L. W. (1991, April). Cooperative learning in post-secondary education: Implications from social psychology for active learning experience. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Education Research Association, Chicago, IL. Sherman, L. (2001). Computer learning and computer supported intentional learning experiences. In C. R. Wolfe (Ed.), Learning and teaching on the world wide web (pp ). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

40 Sims, D., Salas, E., & Burke, C. (2005). Promoting effective team performance through team training. In S. Wheelan (Ed.), The handbook of the group research and practice (pp ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Slavin, R. E. (1990). Cooperative learning: Theory, research, and practice. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Stahl, G., Koschmann, T., & Suthers, D. D. (2006). Computer supported collaborative learning. In R. K. Sawyer (Ed.), Cambridge handbook of the learning sciences: An historical perspective (pp ). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Taiwo, O. A. (2008). Relative effectiveness of ICI and CCI packages on the performance of students in senior secondary school mathematics in Minna. Unpublished B.Tech. Project, Department Science Education, Federal University of Technology, Minna. Tarim, K., & Akdeniz, F. (2008). The effects of cooperative learning on Turkish elementary students mathematics achievement and attitude towards mathematics using TAI and STAD methods. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 67(1): Retrieved from Van Wyk, M. M. (2010). Do student teams achievement divisions enhance economic literacy? A quasiexperimental design. Journal of Social Science, 23(2), West African Examination Council. (WAEC). (2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 & 2011). May/June. Chief Examiner s Report. Lagos, Nigeria: Author. Yusuf, M. O., & Afolabi, A. O. (2010). Effects of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) on Secondary School Students Performance in Biology. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 9(1). Yusuf, M. O., Gambari, A. I., & Olumorin, C. O. (2012). Effectiveness of Computer-Supported Cooperative Learning Strategies in Learning Physics. International J. Soc. Sci. & Education, 2(2),

41 Effects of using Teams Games Tournaments (TGT) Cooperative Technique for Learning Mathematics in Secondary Schools of Bangladesh Abdus Salam [1], Anwar Hossain [2], Shahidur Rahman [3] [1] Associate Professor, Institute of Education and Research (IER), University of Dhaka, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh [2] Assistant Professor, Department of Anthropology, University of Chittagong, Chittagong-4331, Bangladesh [3] Program Assistant, Interactive Computer Learning Club program, D-net, Dhaka, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh ABSTRACT Games-based learning has captured the interest of educationists and industrialists who seek to reveal the characteristics of computer games as perceived by some to be a potentially effective approach for teaching and learning. Despite this interest in using games-based learning, there is a dearth of studies on the context of gaming and education in Third World countries. This study investigated the effects of game playing on performance and attitudes of Grade VIII students toward mathematics. The study implemented TGT technique for the experimental group and typical lecture-based approach for the control group. The same achievement test was employed in both pretest and posttest; an inventory of attitudes towards mathematics was applied for the pretest and posttest on TGT experimental and control group, an attitude scale on computer games was employed for the TGT experimental group, a semi-structured interview for the teacher and an FGD guideline for students were applied to serve the purpose of research objectives. After three weeks of intervention, it was shown that the TGT experimental group students had achieved a significant learning outcome than the lecture based control group students. Attitude toward mathematics differed to a certain positive extent in the TGT experimental group. Based on these findings, some recommendations were made to overcome barriers to integrating web-based game playing into the classroom. Keywords: Teams Games Tournaments, Web-based Game playing, Cooperative Learning, Game playing integration with learning. INTRODUCTION LOW math achievement, particularly in rural secondary schools, is a significant concern in Bangladesh. A study conducted by Morshed (2013) has identified from several national studies that secondary students' math performance was among the lowest of all school subjects. He further revealed that many secondary level students even failed to display sufficient competence on the basic mathematical skill set for primary level education in Bangladesh. However, the Bangladesh government had focused on the issue and initiated a Junior School Certificate exam in 2010 where everything from course curriculum to teaching techniques, teacher's module have been revised and changed according to international criteria. The government has emphasized most in creative questions rather than the just within-book typical set of questions. A report ( Report Casts Shadow, 2014) appearing just after the JSC exam held for 2014 noted that 60% of the mathematics questions were entirely creative. Though the Government had come up with the creative question technique, some students are reaching, yet not exceeding math proficiency levels; they continue to achieve below the mathematics proficiency level. This underachievement among secondary students is attributed to several factors which may consist of improper preparation for teaching mathematics, teachers lack of continued participation in

42 professional development and, most importantly, lack of implementation of effective instructional strategies in the mathematics classroom hence failure to get students sufficiently motivated for problem solving. It had been studied from a few decades back that cooperative learning had a direct contribution to successful learning outcomes. But Wyk (2011) identified that educational practitioners are reluctant to carry out this technique on students. While cooperative learning as an instructional methodology is an option for teachers, it is currently the least frequently applied in the classroom. Teachers could no longer depend on direct instruction alone as a primary method of instruction; the expectation that young secondary school students thrive in a teacher-focused, textbook-centered classroom hour-after-hour and day after day is at the very least naïve. In 2013, Tran noted that previous studies have been conducted in different settings of education, using different kinds of CL techniques. Such techniques are Learning Together (LT), Jigsaw Grouping, Teams-Games- Tournaments (TGT), Group Investigation (GI), Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD), and Team Accelerated Instruction (TAI). The Education For All Global Monitoring Report (2013/14) published that the digital classroom can enhance learning and bridge the knowledge and skills gaps among less qualified teachers. It further focused on the innovation in using technology that can support improved learning by enriching teachers curriculum delivery and encouraging flexibility in pupil learning. In this study, the researchers tried to generate a small contribution to the literature by making students undergo the TGT cooperative technique to see if they come up with effective learning outcomes and enhanced attitude toward mathematics. Statement of the Problem Although the Bangladesh Government had thought of integrating ICT into the classroom and placed a huge number of multimedia equipment in secondary institutions, there was still a stereotyped teachercentric mathematics teaching-learning phenomenon carried out especially in rural areas. Therefore previous studies of TGT in a new setting -- computer gaming for mathematics learning in the rural context-- should give a valuable contribution to recognize the effectiveness of this cooperative learning technique. Research Objectives The study was conducted to explore the effectiveness of one of the talked about instructional technologies -- TGT or Teams-Games-Tournaments -- in secondary schools of Bangladesh. Specific Objectives The study had the following objectives: To identify effectiveness of TGT (Teams-Games-Tournaments) cooperative web-based game-playing for learning mathematics. To ascertain the attitudinal differences of students on mathematics after TGT cooperative web-based game-playing especially in mathematics To recognize the effect of students attitude towards computer game on their learning outcome.

43 Research Hypotheses The following hypotheses were tested in the study: H 01: There is no significant difference between posttest scores of the control group and experimental group. H 02: There is no significant attitude difference toward mathematics between pretest and posttest of the experimental group. H 03 : There is no significant effect of TGT technique on both Males and Females in the experimental group. H 04 : There is no significant correlation between posttest score of the experimental group and their attitude toward computer games. Methodology of the Study The study was basically a quasi-experimental (pretest-posttest) design in nature. But data were collected through mixed approach. Qualitative data were also collected to support the quantitative part and for triangulation. This section will discuss the research design, strategy, sampling, data collection method and tools, data collection and analysis procedure. Four types of tools were used to collect data according to the objectives determined previously. The tool categories are the Achievement Test, Opinion checklist, Focus Group Discussion (FGD) Guideline, and Semi-Structured Interview Schedule. Population and Sample of the Study Grade eight students in secondary schools of all districts of Bangladesh formed the population of the study. The preference has been given to those students who are having basic computer operational skills and who have played with leisurely games before on the computer. Mathematics teachers of secondary schools are also the population of this study. As it was a small scale research, it was not possible for the researcher to take a sample from all over the country. Thus, the area of the study is one sub-district / Upazila. Faizun- Nesa High School has been selected as the sample. In this study, the sample group is the grade eight students with basic computer operational skills and mathematics teachers. The sample group consisted of two categories: Students in Grade 8 and Mathematics Teacher in Grade 8. Eighty-six participants were drawn from two intact eighth-grade classes from Faizun-Nesa High School. Participants were from two sections in the same grade of eight from which Section A' was drawn as the Experimental group and Section B' was selected as the Control group purposively. Participants from both sections were not varied by merit positions because both sections had students with the same roll number. Furthermore, participants were varied by gender (50% Female in the Experimental Group and 40% Female in the Control). Rationale of the study Mathematics became one of the feared subjects for several students because several concepts in mathematics ask them to analyze and think abstractly (Purwanti, 2013). Grade Eight in the Bangladesh context is a period when students are about to explore their expertise in themselves and going to choose a major stream which will decide their future career. In this period, affection for Mathematics should keep forward as in future students from every stream will have to face and solve mathematical analytical tasks. TGT was selected because it was a cooperative technique using both group rewards and individual accountability (Ke, 2008). This study identified the effectiveness of TGT learning strategy incorporated with web based games in mathematics learning on grade eight students. The current study added to the literature by investigating the impact of CL in the Bangladesh context. Specifically, it reported the results of an

44 experimental study designed to determine if TGT cooperative learning was more effective than lecture-based learning in improving achievement and attitudes toward mathematics among grade eight students. Definitions of the Terms: Teams-Games-Tournaments (TGT) Teams-Games-Tournaments (TGT) was originally developed by David DeVries and Keith Edwards (1972) at the Johns Hopkins University. It is a type of cooperative learning method. The students compete with members of other teams to contribute points to their team score. Students compete in at least threeperson tournament tables against others with a similar past record in mathematics. After then a procedure changes table assignments to keep the competition fair. The winner at each tournament table brings the same number of points to his or her team, regardless of which table it is; this means that low achievers and high achievers have an equal opportunity for success. High performing teams earn team rewards. Concept of Cooperative Learning (CL) Slavin (2011) defined cooperative learning as an instructional method in which teachers organize students into small groups, and they then work together to help one another learn academic content. In cooperative learning, students work together in small groups on a structured activity. They are individually accountable for their work, and the work of the group as a whole is also assessed. Cooperative groups work face-to-face and learn to work as a team. An empirical study conducted by Whicker, Bol, and Nunnery (1997) revealed the necessity of cooperative learning for fostering mathematics education. This learning pedagogy had been widely practiced around the whole world especially in developed countries. Studies have found positive effects on mathematics achievement of elementary and middle school students in one Israeli mathematics program that used cooperative learning strategies (as cited in Slavin, 2011). Learning Performance Difference of the Students The first objective of this study was to determine whether there was any significant difference between the means of the achievement pretests of the students of the TGT-treatment and control groups. An independent t-test comparing the mean scores of the pretest and the posttest between the experimental group and control group was computed to determine if a significant difference existed. In order to reject or accept the hypothesis for this study, the t-test scores for both experimental and control groups were computed. Table 1 Mean Differences of Experimental and Control groups Group TGT (Experimental) Lecture Method (Control) * p <.05 N Pretest Mean SD Posttest Mean SD Difference t-value 2- tailed * Table 1 clearly shows a significant difference between pretest and posttest scores of the experimental group. From the descriptive statistics, it can be seen that on pretest they have M = whereas on posttest they have M = 24.57, t (84) = , p <.05. In this way, at the 95% confidence level the null hypothesis (H 01 ) has been rejected. Therefore, the result revealed TGT is a more effective teaching technique compared to the lecture method for Mathematics education in grade eight. Table 1 also shows no significant differences of pretests and posttests scores of the control group. On pretest they scored M = 7.90 whereas on Posttest they scored M = 9.65, t (84) = , p >.05.

45 Achievement Test Score Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Technology Volume 3, Issue 3 (2015) It was revealed that the experimental group (pretest mean of 11.85) and the control group (pretest mean of 7.90) have little similarity. After conducting the quasi-experiment, the reported posttest mean score for the experimental group was (SD = 12.71) compared to the control group of 9.65 (SD = 5.81) which showed a remarkable and significant difference in scores. This showed that the experimental group had a increase from pretest to posttest, t (84)= -9.66, p <.05. Further, from Table 1, the control group only showed a slight increase of 1.75 from pretest to posttest. When comparing the different means between the two groups, there was a (12.71 minus 1.75) or difference between the increases of the experimental over the control group generally. Mean Difference of Pretest & Posttest 30 Posttest(24,56) Pretest(7,9) Posttest(9,65) Pretest11,85 0 CONTROL EXPERİMENTAL Control Experimental Pretest 7,9 11,85 Posttest 9,65 24,56 Pretest Posttest Figure 1. Mean differences of pretest and posttest of Experimental and Control group. Attitude Differences on Mathematics For measuring students attitude differences toward Mathematics before and after intervention of TGT instructions, the researcher tried to determine whether there was any significant difference between the means of the pretests and posttests of the experimental and control groups students. A paired t-test comparing the mean scores of the pretest and the posttest between the experimental group and control group was computed to determine if a significant difference existed. Attitude Difference on Control group Paired Samples Correlations showed if the results found are consistent. Paired Sample Correlations for the control group showed that none of the 16 statements under four factors of Sense of Security, Values, Motivation, Enjoyment revealed any significant differences; which was found through the significant value that not showed p <.05. Therefore it can be said that participants from the control group are not behaving consistently as their scores on the pretest are not significantly correlated with the posttest taken after the 3- week-period, and there might be some differences in their attitudes during 3-week period. Table 2 Paired Samples Tests (Control Group) Statement Mean SD t- value df Sig (2-tailed) I am always confused in my mathematics class (Factor: Sense of Security, Statement: 02)

46 Table 2 shows the factor or statement where the significant difference occurred between pretest and posttest mean scores among 16 statements. It clearly showed significant difference between Mean of pretest and posttest only on the 2nd among 16 statements, t (42) = , p <.05. Attitude Difference in Experimental group While conducting paired sample t-test for the experimental group, it was found that, like the control group, on Paired Sample Correlations none of the 16 statements revealed any significant value of p <.05. Therefore it can be recognized that participants from the experimental group are not behaving consistently before and after as their scores in the pretest are not significantly correlated (p >.05) with the posttest taken after 3-week-period of TGT. Table 3 Paired Samples Tests (Experimental Group) Serial Statement Mean SD t- value df * p <.05 I like any other subject rather than mathematics (Factor: Value, Statement: 02) I want to develop my mathematics skills (Factor: Enjoyment, Statement: 04) Sig (2- tailed) * * Data in Table 3 indicate that two pairs had significant difference in their Mean Difference. Under the factor of Value, statement 02, it was clearly evident that p <.05 and the column Mean informed the difference between Mean scores of pretest and posttest (pretest minus posttest), and it was Under the factor of Enjoyment, statement 04, it was clearly evident a significant difference existed since p <.05. And the column-mean informs the difference between Mean scores of pretest and posttest (pretest minus posttest), and it is Therefore, the Null hypothesis (H 02 ) has been rejected. Attitude Toward Web-based Computer Games on Learning For the four statements under the factor of learning, it was clearly visible by the Mean of 4.67 that on the first statement students were very supportive of the instructional practices they had undergone for the past 3 weeks. They were directly supporting the fact their concentration would increase if they are used to game playing for learning purposes. 5 4 Attitude Towards Statements under Factor- 'Learning' 4,67 4, ,9 1,9 Learning Statement 01 Statement 02 Statement 03 Statement 04 Figure 2. Attitude toward Web-based computer games on Learning.

47 Surprisingly, students disagreed (Mean of 1.90) on both statements 03 and 04. This indicated that they wanted games as a learning tool. Effect of TGT on Students Attitude towards Web-based Computer Games An attitude scale toward Games as an instructional technology was put on to the students in the experimental group just after the 3-week period of TGT ended. As the scale consisted of 5 factors (Learning, Confidence, Liking, Participation, and Leisure) under 3 domains (Cognitive, Affection and Behavior) of attitudes with 20 statements within it, researchers were trying to run MANOVA (Multivariate Analysis of Variance) for identifying students attitude toward games as an instructional tool. MANOVA would reveal if there were an effect of any group (e.g., gender) on the combined dependent variables of attitudes. It also disclosed the relationship between dependent variables (Hington, Brownlow, McMurray, & Cozens, 2004). In the current study, 20 statements each is a dependent variable. While running MANOVA, Box s test revealed the significant level: (p >.05), so the result did not violate the homogeneity of variance assumption or homogeneity of covariance assumptions. Though the p- values were almost.05, value denoted that the variables under 3 domains would be acting in similar ways. Attitude Cognition Affectio n Behavio r Like Learning Confidence Participation Leisure Figure 3. Focusing attitude domains toward games as instruction. Table 4 informed the 20 variables under 5 factors of New Computer Games Attitude Scale were not together being influenced by the TGT cooperative learning method. In the table, Wilks s Lambda test was not significant, (p >.05), which indicated overall on every variable there was no significant effect of TGT technique on both Male and Female. Therefore, the null hypothesis (H03) has been accepted.

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