Degree Courses at Institutions of Higher Education in Germany. 8 th Edition. DAAD; as for February 2007; no updates within the PDF-version!

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1 Degree Courses at Institutions of Higher Education in Germany 8 th Edition

2 Publisher DAAD Deutscher Akademischer Austausch Dienst German Academic Exchange Service Kennedyallee 50, Bonn (Germany) Section: Promotion of Studies and Research in Germany, Internet Project Coordination Alexander Haridi, Julia Quirll da Matta Publishing House BW Bildung und Wissen Verlag und Software GmbH, Nürnberg Editor: Simone Krach-Kestin Translation Guy Moore, Bad Honnef Layout LPG Loewenstern Padberg GbR, Bonn Typesetting HGS 5, Fürth Printed by Daemisch Mohr GmbH & Co. KG, Siegburg Print-run April ,000 Reprint February ,000 Excerpt from with the kind permission of the editors, the Bund-Länder Commission for Educational Planning and Research Promotion (BLK) and the Federal Employment Agency (BA); responsible for the contents: BW Verlag Degree Courses 8 th Edition: DAAD Any reproduction, even of extracts, only with appropriate source details. This publication was funded by the Federal Foreign Office.

3 Degree Courses in Germany 3 Content 6 Explanatory Notes 8 Abbreviations 13 1 Agriculture and Forestry Disciplines 14 Agriculture, Farming, Viniculture 16 Forestry, Forest Management 18 Horticultural Sciences 20 Landscape Architecture, Landscape Management 22 Wood and Timber-Management, -Engineering, -Construction, -Interior Fitting and Refinishing 25 2 Engineering Disciplines 26 Aeronautical and aerospace engineering 27 Architecture, Urban Planning 30 Automotive and Vehicle Engineering, Traffic and Transport Engineering 32 Civil Engineering 35 Electrical Engineering 38 Environmental Protection, Ecology, Waste Disposal Technology 40 Food Technology 43 Health Service Technology, Medical Engineering 44 Industrial Engineering 46 Materials Sciences, Materials Engineering, Plastics and Paper Technology, Metal Science 51 Mechanical Engineering 54 Mechatronics 56 Metallurgy, Metallurgical Engineering, Foundry Engineering 57 Mining, Mine Surveying 59 Navigation: Nautical Science, Ship Operations Engineering 61 Precision Engineering, Optoengineering 64 Printing Engineering and Media Technology 66 Production Engineering 68 Public Utilities Engineering, Facility Engineering 69 Regional and Area Planning

4 4 Degree Courses in Germany 71 Ship Engineering, Nautical and Marine Engineering/Technology 72 Surveying/Geodesy, Cartography 75 Textile Engineering, Clothing Technology 77 3 Languages, Humanities, Art and Design Disciplines 78 Art History 79 Cultural Studies 81 Design 83 Drama and Theatre Studies 84 German Studies 86 History 88 Interior Design 89 Jewish Studies 90 Library Administration, Archive Administration, Documentation 92 Linguistic and Speech Sciences, including Phonetics, Linguistics and Rhetoric 95 Media 97 Media Studies, Journalism 98 Music, Performing Arts 102 Musicology 104 Philology, Classical 105 Philology, Modern 110 Philosophy, Religious Studies 111 Translating and Interpreting 113 Visual Arts Law and Economics Disciplines 116 Business Computing 118 Commercial Law 119 Economics/Business Administration and Management 125 Law Mathematics and Science Disciplines 128 Biochemistry 129 Biology 131 Biotechnology, Bio-Engineering 133 Chemistry, Food Chemistry 136 Computer Science 140 Domestic Science and Nutritional Science/Dietetics 142 Geography 143 Geosciences

5 Content Mathematics 149 Physics, Physical Engineering, Astronomy 152 Process Engineering/Chemical Engineering 155 Statistics Medical and Health Service Disciplines 158 Dentistry 159 Medicine 161 Nursing and Public Health Studies, Education and Management in the Public Health System 162 Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Engineering 165 Therapy Professions 167 Veterinary Medicine Social Sciences Disciplines 170 Education 171 Politics 173 Psychology 174 Religious Education 176 Social Sciences, Sociology 177 Social Work, Social Education, Social Services 179 Sport 181 Theology (Catholic) 182 Theology (Protestant) 185 Higher Education Institutions in Germany 205 Alphabetical Index of Degree Courses

6 6 Degree Courses in Germany Explanatory Notes If you are interested in studying in Germany you will have to decide what you want to study and where before leaving your current country of residence. Please read this guide carefully before making that decision. Various types of higher education institutions exist in Germany: universities, including technical universities, other academic institutions of equivalent status, such as medical schools and universities of education; ecclesiastical colleges (Protestant), colleges of philosophy and theology (Catholic); colleges/universities of art, colleges of music; and universities of applied sciences. All the above-listed types of higher education institutions are responsible for cultivating and developing the sciences, arts and humanities through research, teaching and studies. Higher education institutions prepare students for professions for which the application of scientific knowledge or artistic abilities is required. Universities and other institutions of equivalent status are equally concerned with teaching and research work. They are entitled to confer academic degrees (Diplom, Magister, State Examination, Bachelor s, Master s, doctoral degrees). These institutions also organise and hold examinations, and award qualifications for academic careers. The subjects offered at these institutions are grouped together into defined areas, such as engineering, science, medicine, law, business administration and economics, social science, humanities, and agriculture. The colleges of art and music offer degree courses in artistic and musical subjects. Students at universities of education (in Baden-Württemberg only) acquire the qualifications required for teaching careers in primary, lower secondary and special needs education schools. Studies at universities of applied sciences (in German Fachhochschulen, abbr. FH ) aim to give students the ability to work independently in their chosen professions in which they apply their acquired scientific knowledge and artistic skills. Degree courses offered at universities of applied sciences correspond in part to those offered at universities. However, since courses are more tightly organised, they are shorter. Study goals and course contents are clearly practice-oriented. An extended period of relevant practical work is required as part of the degree course. Successful completion of studies at a university of applied sciences leads to an academic degree, the Diplom with the addition (FH) or a Bachelor s/master s degree.

7 Explanatory Notes 7 All German higher education institutions are currently changing their Diplom and Magister degrees over to the two-cycle academic system in which Bachelor s and Master s degrees are awarded. In December 2005, one third of all degree programmes were already offered with these internationally established degrees. The full conversion of study programmes is to be completed by This reform process also means that individual courses and programmes will no longer be continued, while, in other cases, new courses and programmes will be established sometimes at short notice. An English-German index of common degree programme titles at the end of the brochure aims to help you understand German higher education better. And you will also find a list of all higher education institutions in Germany there, including their websites. The various types of higher education institutions have differing admissions requirements. For example, for certain subjects at universities of applied sciences (Qualifying for University of Applied Sciences Study) a so-called Vorpraktikum (pre-study practical training) is obligatory. It can last from 6 weeks to 12 months, depending on the subject and the university of applied sciences in question. Students with relevant vocational qualifications may not require this Vorpraktikum. Be sure to inquire early enough for detailed information about the regulations applicable at the university of applied sciences of your choice, as well as about the possibility in exceptional cases of completing the internship during the semester breaks. The employment agencies and the universities of applied sciences provide assistance in finding internship positions. Once you have decided on a specific subject, the booklet and its 78 sections offer a detailed description of the courses and degrees in alphabetical order. This publication only contains information that applies specifically to degree programmes and courses offered in Germany. For additional information you should refer to other DAAD publications. The international office (Akademisches Auslandsamt) and the registrar s office (Studentensekretariat) are the most important contact points for foreign students at German higher education institutions (addresses: see the series above). Note: For the sake of convenience various German abbreviations, especially in the list of institutions offering the courses in question, have not been translated. And where English has no exact equivalent for a German institution the German designation is given. The same applies to the degrees Diplom, and Magister (Magister Artium) and to the Staatsprüfung (State Examination).

8 8 Degree Courses in Germany Abbreviations AKAD FH AKAD Fachhochschule (AKAD University of Applied Sciences) AkdBK Akademie der Bildenden Künste (Academy of Visual Arts) ASFH Alice-Salomon Fachhochschule für Sozialarbeit und Sozialpädagogik Berlin (University of Applied Sciences Social Work and Social Education) BC Baltic College Güstrow (University of Applied Sciences) BiTS Business and Information Technology School BLS Bucerius Law School DIU Dresden International University DSHS Deutsche Sporthochschule (German Sports University) EBS European Business School EFB Evangelische Fachhochschule Berlin (Protestant University of Applied Sciences Berlin) EHS Evangelische Hochschule für Soziale Arbeit (Protestant University of Applied Sciences - Social Work) ESCP-EAP Europäische Wirtschaftshochschule (European School of Management) EUFH Europäische Fachhochschule (European University of Applied Sciences) EvFH Evangelische Fachhochschule (Protestant University of Applied Sciences) EvFHS Evangelische Hochschule für Soziale Arbeit (Protestant University of Applied Sciences Social Work) FABW Filmakademie Baden-Württemberg (College of Film Baden- Württemberg) FernFH Fern-Fachhochschule (Distance Studies University of Applied Sciences) FernU Fernuniversität (Distance Studies University) FH Fachhochschule (University of Applied Sciences) FHAM Fachhochschule für angewandtes Management (University of Applied Sciences Applied Management) FH-DRK Fachhochschule im Deutschen Roten Kreuz (University of Applied Sciences of the German Red Cross) FHDW Fachhochschule für die Wirtschaft (University of Applied Sciences Business and Management)

9 Abbreviations 9 FHFresen FHKunst FHM FHS FHTE FHTelekom FHTG FHTW FHVR FHW FHWM FHWT FilmHS FOM Freie H FU GSA H HandelsH HAW HAWK HBK Europa Fachhochschule Fresenius (European University of Applied Sciences Fresenius) Fachhochschule für Kunsttherapie, Kunstpädagogik und Kunst (University of Applied Sciences Art, Art Therapy and Art Education) Fachhochschule des Mittelstands (University of Applied Sciences of the Small Business) Fachhochschule für Sozialwesen, Sozialarbeit und Sozialpädagogik (University of Applied Sciences Social Studies, Social Work and Social Education) Fachhochschule Esslingen Hochschule für Technik (University of Applied Sciences Technology, Esslingen) Deutsche Telekom Fachhochschule (German Telekom University of Applied Sciences) Fachhochschule für Technik und Gestaltung (University of Applied Sciences Technology and Design) Fachhochschule für Technik und Wirtschaft (University of Applied Sciences Technology and Business) Fachhochschule für Verwaltung und Rechtspflege (University of Applied Sciences for Administration and Legal Affairs) Fachhochschule für Wirtschaft (University of Applied Sciences Business and Management) Europa Fachhochschule Fresenius für Wirtschaft und Medien (University of Applied Sciences Business and Media) Fachhochschule für Wirtschaft und Technik (University of Applied Sciences Business and Technology) Hochschule für digitale Medienproduktion (The German Film School) Fachhochschule für Oekonomie & Management (University of Applied Sciences Economics & Management) Freie Hochschule (Free Higher Education Institution) Freie Universität (Free University) Gustav-Siewerth-Akademie (Gustav-Siewerth-Academy) Hochschule (Higher Education Institution) Handelshochschule Leipzig (Leipzig Graduate School of Management) Hochschule für Angewandte Wissenschaften (University of Applied Sciences) Hochschule für angewandte Wissenschaft und Kunst (University of Applied Sciences and Arts) Hochschule für Bildende Künste (College of Fine Arts)

10 10 Degree Courses in Germany HdM Hochschule der Medien (Media University) HfB Hochschule für Bankwirtschaft (University of Applied Sciences for Banking and Finances) HfBK Hochschule für Bildende Künste (College of Fine Art) HFF Hochschule für Film und Fernsehen (College of Film and Television) HfG Hochschule für Gestaltung (University of Design) HfGest Hochschule für Gestaltung (College of Design) HfK Hochschule für Künste (University of Arts) HfKi Hochschule für Kirchenmusik (College of Church Music) HfKiM Hochschule für Kirchenmusik (College of Church Music) HfKM Hochschule für Kirchenmusik und Musikpädagogik (College of Church Music and Music Education) HfKuD Hochschule für Kunst und Design (College of Art and Design) HfM Hochschule für Musik (College of Music) HfMDK Hochschule für Musik und Darstellende Kunst (College of Music and Performing Arts) HfMT Hochschule für Musik und Theater (College of Music and Theatre) HfP Hochschule für Politik (University for Political Studies) HfS Hochschule für Schauspiel (College of Drama) HFS Hochschule für Sozialwesen (University of Applied Sciences Social Studies) HFT Hochschule für Technik (University of Applied Sciences Technology) HfV Hochschule für Verwaltung (University of Administrative Sciences) HGB Hochschule für Grafik und Buchkunst (College of Graphic and Book Art) HHN Hochschule Heilbronn (Heilbronn University of Applied Sciences) HJS Hochschule für Jüdische Studien (University for Jewish Studies) HMT Hochschule für Musik und Theater (College of Music and Theatre) HPhil Hochschule für Philosophie (University of Philosophy) HS Hochschule (Higher Education Institution) HSBA Hamburg School of Business Administration HSF Hochschule der Sparkassen-Finanzgruppe (Sparkassen- Finanzgruppe University of Applied Sciences) HSGestaltung Hochschule für Gestaltung (University of Design) HSoG Hertie School of Governance HTW Hochschule für Technik und Wirtschaft (University of Technology and Business) HTWK Hochschule für Technik, Wirtschaft und Kultur (University of Applied Sciences Technology, Business and Culture)

11 Abbreviations 11 HU Humboldt-Universität (Humboldt-University) IH Internationale Hochschule (International University of Applied Sciences and Arts) IHI Internationales Hochschulinstitut (International Higher Education Institute) ISM International School of Management IU International University KathFH Katholische Fachhochschule (Catholic University of Applied Sciences) KathFHS Katholische Fachhochschule Hochschule für Sozialwesen, Religionspädagogik und Pflege (Catholic University of Applied Sciences Social Studies, Religious Education and Nursing) KH Muthesius Kunsthochschule (Muthesius Academy of Fine Arts) KHSB Katholische Hochschule für Sozialwesen Berlin (Catholic University for Applied Sciences Berlin) KiH Kirchliche Hochschule (Protestant Studies College) KIMS Kassel International Management School KuAk Kunstakademie (Academy of Arts) KuHMedien Kunsthochschule für Medien (Academy of Media Arts) LuthThH Lutherisch Theologische Hochschule (Lutherian Theological College) MBS Munich Business School MDH Mediadesign Hochschule (University of Applied Sciences Mediadesign) Merkur int. FH Merkur Internationale Fachhochschule (Merkur International University of Applied Sciences) MerzAk Merz Akademie Hochschule für Gestaltung (Merz Academy University of Applied Sciences for Design) MHH Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Hannover Medical School) NTA Naturwissenschaftlich-Technische Akademie (University of Sciences and Technology) OTA OTA Hochschule (OTA University of Applied Sciences) PH Pädagogische Hochschule (College of Education) PhThH Philosophisch-Theologische Hochschule (Catholic Studies College) Pop-Akad BW Pop-Akademie Baden-Württemberg (Pop Music Academy of Baden- Württemberg) PTHV Philosophisch-Theologische Hochschule Vallendar (Catholic Studies College Vallendar) RheinFH Rheinische Fachhochschule Köln (Technical University of Applied Sciences at Cologne) SHB Steinbeis-Hochschule Berlin (Steinbeis University Berlin) SHL SparkassenHochschule Lichtenwalde (Sparkassen-University of Applied Sciences)

12 12 Degree Courses in Germany TFH TH Theol. Seminar ThFak ThH TiHo TU TUBergAk U UBw UdK UMC WHL WHU ZU Technische Fachhochschule (Technical University of Applied Sciences) Technische Hochschule (Technical University) Theologisches Seminar (Katholic Studies College) Theologische Fakultät (Theological Faculty) Theologische Hochschule (Theological College) Tierärztliche Hochschule (School of Veterinary Science) Technische Universität (Technical University) Technische Universität Bergakademie (Technical University Mining Academy) Universität (University) Universität der Bundeswehr (University of the Federal Armed Forces) Universität der Künste (University of the Arts) University of Management and Communication Wissenschaftliche Hochschule Lahr (Graduate School of Business and Economics) Wissenschaftliche Hochschule für Unternehmensführung (Graduate School of Corporate Management) Zeppelin University

13 Degree Courses in Germany 13 1 Agriculture and Forestry Disciplines

14 14 Degree Courses in Germany 1.1 Agriculture, Farming, Viniculture Study Field Outline Agriculture/agronomy covers the economic and commercial use and cultivation of farmland for crop and livestock production. This field of study includes viniculture and the processing of agricultural produce, e.g., dairy farming. Agriculture is closely related to forestry/forest management. Studies in agriculture and the more technology oriented field of farming offered in the universities of applied sciences sector generally leads to teaching, consulting and administrative careers and less frequently to practical hands-on farming as such. Agriculture is based on science, engineering, economics and social sciences, including the use of electronic control equipment to produce optimum yields. As a result of the intensification of agriculture, greater emphasis is nowadays place on phytomedicine, the theory of plant diseases and their prevention. Increasingly, ecological plant/crop husbandry and proper animal/livestock husbandry plus the environmentally-compatible use of artificial fertilisers (e.g., antipollution measures to protect the waterways) are gaining in importance. Studies at Universities Standard period of study: 9 semesters; 6 semesters for a Bachelor s. Practical experience/internships: Students are not generally required to complete a period of pre-study practical training (work placement, internship) before they commence their studies, although in most cases such training is recommended (6 weeks). In some cases the completion of pre-study practical experience is required (13 weeks to 12 months). In some regional states (Länder), 6 months but normally 12 months of practical training must have been completed by the time the final Diplom examination is taken, in some cases including the requirement to have passed a practical test before or during the studies. All regional states (Länder) require that candidates for the higher agricultural civil service, including the teaching profession, have completed at least 12 months of practical training before they can qualify for admission to this training. Basic study stage: Lectures, exercise courses and excursions/field trips in chemistry, biology, economics, physics, mathematics, statistics, basic plant/crop production, animal/livestock production, agricultural economics/agronomy and social sciences, sociology, agricultural engineering (farm machines) and law. Main study stage: Studies are divided into the following areas: Plant/crop production (special plant/crop production, plant/crop nutrition, grassland, phytomedicine, plant

15 Agriculture and Forestry Disciplines 15 breeding/husbandry, biometry, microbiology); animal/livestock production (animal husbandry, animal breeding, animal nutrition, animal hygiene, grassland management); agricultural economics/agronomy and social sciences (agricultural policy, agricultural business administration, marketing, sociology); and environmental conservation, rural development, landscape development, nature conservation and landscape ecology. Special courses are offered to provide qualifications for dairy scientists and Diplom agricultural engineers, fisheries managers, water cultivation managers or medical phytoscientists. Degrees: Diplom (Diplom-Agraringenieur/in); Bachelor s, Master s. Berlin HU Berlin TU Bonn U Cottbus TU Gießen U (Gießen, Geisen - heim) Göttingen U Halle-Wittenberg U Hohenheim U (Hohenheim, Stuttgart) Kassel U (Witzenhausen) Kiel U München TU (Freising) Rostock U Studies at Universities of Applied Sciences Standard period of study: 8 semesters incl. 1 or 2 practical semesters (Diplom); 6 or 7 semesters for a Bachelor s. Practical experience/internships: Prestudy practical experience of between 6 weeks and 12 months required as prescribed by regional state (Länder) regulations. In principle no proof of pre-study practical experience need be provided if the applicant has completed appropriate vocational training or has attended a two-year course at an engineering college. Arrangements for crediting previous vocational training and experience to the practical training phase differ, e.g., training as a butcher at the FH Weihenstephan/ Triesdorf. Previous vocational training as a farmer is only required by the FH Osnabrück, while, in practice, other educational institutions frequently prefer students to have completed such training. Basic study stage: Lectures and practical courses in mathematics, statistics, physics, botany, animal biology, chemistry, soil and land science, plant and animal nutrition, farm technology (machinery), agricultural management economics and social sciences. Main study stage: Agriculture, agronomy, farming: Focuses to be chosen in plant/crop or animal/livestock production, business administration and management (agricultural economics/agronomy), international agricultural management, agricultural engineering and building, and many other areas. Viniculture, beverages technology: Core study areas to be chosen in viniculture and cellar management or beverages tech nology.

16 16 Degree Courses in Germany Dairy and milk management: Chemistry and microbiology, thermal and fluid dynamics, electrical engineering, dairy technology, in-depth study in economics, dairy testing or dairy technology. International Wine Management: Delivery of general specialist knowledge in the field of viniculture/viticulture, oenology and in economics and business administration, plus in fields of international wine management. Anhalt HS (Bernburg, Köthen) Bingen FH Dresden HTW Eberswalde FH Kiel FH (Osterrönfeld) Neubrandenburg FH Nürtingen FH Osnabrück FH Südwestfalen FH (Soest) Weihen stephan FH (Freising, Triesdorf) Wiesbaden FH (Geisenheim) Degrees: Diplom, Bachelor s, Master s. 1.2 Forestry, Forest Management Study Field Outline Forestry/forest management deals with the proper, sustainable and planned use of forests to meet human requirements. It not only concentrates on economic and commercial use, but also on the significance of the forests and woods for the environment and especially for the lasting viability of the biosphere, for the climate, water supply, clean air, soil fertility, the landscape, agriculture and infrastructure and popular recreation. The significance of this economic sector is illustrated by the fact that one third of the surface area of Germany is covered by woods and forests. Wood is an important resource and is, in economic terms, the most important regenerating raw material. Wood serves as an important commodity for the local timber and paper industry. Forestry and forest management also concern themselves with questions of the tropical rain forest and global ecosystems of woods and forests, as well as with questions of international marketing, for example. All in all, forest management strives to achieve optimum wood production based on ecological considerations while at the same time guaranteeing the protective and recreational function of woods and forests. The diversity of the responsibilities taken by forest managers and engineers not only calls for the solution of biological and ecological problems, but also calls for an understanding of engineering and business administration and management issues, as well as legal knowledge, commercial skills and extensive knowledge in the field of administration.

17 Agriculture and Forestry Disciplines 17 Studies at Universities Standard period of study: 8 or 9 semesters; 6 semesters for a Bachelor s. Practical experience/internships: Internships during the degree course. Basic study stage: Lectures, exercise and practical courses in botany, zoology, soil science, ecology, chemistry, geology, meteorology and climatology, hunting, locational studies, economics and social sciences, biometry and computer science, statistics, surveying and remote sensing, basic methodology. Main study stage: Courses in ecology, forest production, forest use, forest management, forest policy, timber market, timber applications, landscape conservation and law, social sciences. Degrees: Diplom, Bachelor s, Master s. Dresden TU (Tharandt) Freiburg U Göttingen U München TU (Freising) Studies at Universities of Applied Sciences Standard period of study: 8 semesters incl. 2 practical semesters (for a Diplom degree); 6 semesters for a Bachelor s. Practical experience/internships: Several weeks of pre-study practical training, for example in forestry offices/forest enterprises, depending on previous educational/professional qualification. During the degree course, practical internships of varying lengths. Basic study stage: Applied botany, zoology, plant sociology and geology, soil science and locational studies, meteorology, chemistry, physics, mathematics, surveying, business administration and management, political science, plus electives, such as psychology, English, etc. Main study stage: Forest cultivation, ecology of forest trees, forest and tree husbandry, forest yield theory, forest protection and conservation, forest work theory, forest development, hunting, roads and paths, landscape conservation, environmental protection and many more disciplines. Choice of in-depth study options (e.g., ecology, business administration/wood manage-

18 18 Degree Courses in Germany ment, tropical forestry) only possible at some universities of applied sciences. The Bachelor s degree course in International forest ecosystem management requires students to spend two semesters abroad. Eberswalde FH Hildesheim/Holzminden/ Göttingen HAWK (Göttingen) Rottenburg HS Weihenstephan FH (Freising) Degrees: Diplom, Bachelor s, Master s. 1.3 Horticultural Sciences Study Field Outline Horticulture works on the basis of scientific, economic, sociological and technical principles and knowledge to facilitate the best possible environmentally-friendly and compatible production and breeding of plants for human nutrition or for enhancement and visual improvement of the living environment. Important areas are tree and shrub nurseries, fruit and vegetable growing and ornamental horticulture, garden plant and seed growing, horticultural management and market theory, greenhouse technology, plant protection (pest control). On the one hand, the study of horticulture delivers a broad knowledge base in all fields of modern horticultural sciences, such as modern production processes in intensive farming, sustainable resource usage and biological plant protection, and so leads to an ecological understanding of horticulture; on the other hand, the teaching also delivers the necessary economic and sociological knowledge. Studies at Universities Standard period of study: 9 semesters for a Diplom, 6 semesters for a Bachelor s degree. Practical experience/internships: 3 to 6 months to be completed before graduation; in some cases, completion of an eight-week work placement (Jobpraktikum) is required. Other practical experience (apprenticeship) will be credited to the course. In the field of horticulture, some states require completion of at least one year of practical training before entry into the civil service is possible. Basic study stage: Lectures, exercises and practical courses in basic subjects such as botany, zoology, chemistry, physics, mathematics and statistics, plus specialist foundation subjects like phytomedicine, genetics and modern plant breeding, biostatistics and econometrics, soil sciences, plant nutrition, technology in horticulture, plant physiologies, technical

19 Agriculture and Forestry Disciplines 19 principles and economics/business administration plus electives with either a stronger biological-horticultural focus or a stronger management/business focus. Main study stage: Extension of the foundation subjects and in the horticultural disciplines of vegetable farming, fruit farming, tree nurseries or ornamental horticulture plus plant nutrition, phytomedicine, technology. Together with a choice electives, students can form core study areas in the biological, ecological, plant breeding, technical or economic/ management/business field. Degrees: Diplom, Bachelor s, Master s. Berlin HU Berlin TU Hannover U München TU (Freising) Studies at Universities of Applied Sciences Standard period of study: 8 semesters (including 1 or 2 practical semesters), 6 or 7 semesters for a Bachelor s degree. Practical experience/internships: Several weeks of pre-study practical training, for example in horticulture, floristics, farming or forest management, depending on previous educational/professional qualification. During the degree course, one semester of practical training. Basic study stage: The basic study stage roughly corresponds with that for university programmes and delivers a broad base of principles in natural and horticultural sciences, complemented by certain engineering subjects, such as machine theory and materials science. Main study stage: The main study stage provides in-depth treatment of the study focuses on ornamental plants, vegetable growing, fruit growing, tree and shrub nurseries, as well as other required and elective subjects or elective modules such as international horticulture, horticultural business management, investment and financing, company management and consultancy. Degrees: Diplom, Bachelor s, Master s. Berlin TFH Dresden HTW Erfurt FH Osnabrück FH Weihenstephan FH (Freising) Wiesbaden FH (Geisenheim)

20 20 Degree Courses in Germany 1.4 Landscape Architecture, Landscape Management Study Field Outline The study of landscape architecture prepares students for positions as landscape architects. It delivers the knowledge and skills required for planning, designing and drawing up projects, for building, preserving, developing and recultivating parks and recreational areas. The combination of aspects of art and design, science and ecology, planning and technical design plays an important role. Besides the classical fields of park and recreational area planning (open spaces), landscape planning and landscape gardening/engineering, the field of garden heritage conservation and village development provide interesting new work areas with responsibilities in the field of cultural-historical management, species and biotope protection planning, environmental compatibility assessments plus leisure and recreation planning. The study of landscape architecture/landscape management offers orientation and extension projects which serve to prepare students, in particular, for future largely planning oriented careers. Students must have artistic skills as an important prerequisite for working on design-based, creative assignments. The programme structure differs greatly from one university to the next. The study of arboristics (trees and shrubs) deals with the protection, care and development or urban greenery. Studies at Universities Standard period of study: 9 semesters, 6 semesters for a Bachelor s degree. Practical experience/internships: 6 months to be completed before graduation. Other practical training (apprenticeships) is credited to the course. Basic study stage: Introduction to scientific principles and subjects like surveying, theory of projection and design, projective geometry, soil, chemistry of plants and building materials, botany, geobotany, soil and site science, ecology, history of building/the built environment, open space, recreational and park planning, landscape engineering. Plus project planning, planning theory and methodology, planningrelated sociology and other electives, optionals and excursions. Main study stage: Extension of areas from the basic study stage as well as in the field of open space/park planning, garden heritage management, recreational area development, urban ecology, urban, rural and regional planning, meteorology, water management, environmental and plan-