1 Introduction to SMRTbell Template Preparation SMRTbell Template Preparation 1.1 Introduction to SMRTbell Template Preparation Welcome to Pacific Biosciences' Introduction to SMRTbell Template Preparation. This training module will present an overview of the steps required for SMRTbell template preparation as described in the PacBio Template Preparation and Sequencing Guide.
2 1.2 SMRTbell Template Preparation Agenda In this presentation we will cover the following: SMRTbell Templates Workflow overview and requirements Importance of DNA Input Quality gdna Shearing Damage Repair End Repair Adapter Ligation Purification Advantages of Size Selection Additional Resources
3 1.3 SMRTbell Template SMRTbell Template
4 1.4 SMRTbell Template A SMRTbell template is a double-stranded DNA template capped by hairpin loops at both ends. The SMRTbell template is structurally linear and topologically circular. Key advantages of the SMRTbell template format include homogeneous structure of the templates, efficient loading into ZMWs, and complementary strand information in every molecule. This enables users to apply essentially the same protocol for generating templates of all size ranges. The hairpin adapters that are ligated to each fragment of DNA provide a common primer-binding site for the DNA polymerase. The common primer-binding site further helps to reduce sequencing bias and normalize sequencing performance from inserts of different sizes.
5 1.5 Universal SMRTbell Template The SMRTbell template format can be used for standard continuous long reads (CLR) and circular consensus sequencing (CCS). For standard sequencing, each SMRTbell template generates one pass on each molecule sequenced. For smaller insert sizes, the SMRTbell template allows reads comprising multiple passes to be generated on each molecule. These can be combined to generate a consensus read for each template.
7 1.7 Workflow The SMRTbell template preparation method creates a circularized template for use in SMRT Sequencing. A single, streamlined protocol is used to create libraries of varying insert lengths from 250 bp to - greater than 20,000 bp. For shotgun sequencing, the starting DNA is sheared into fragments of the desired size range. The resulting fragments are subsequently repaired by treating the sample with a DNA-damage repair mix to repair nicks, abasic sites, and oxidation damage, which shall be discussed later in this presentation. For targeted sequencing, PCR products are also repaired with the DNAdamage repair treatment.
8 Following DNA-damage repair, blunt ends are created on each end and hairpin adapters are ligated to each blunt end. After ligation, the -sequencing primer is annealed to the adapters. In the final step, sequencing polymerase is bound to the SMRTbell template. AMPure PB beads, formulated for use in SMRT Sequencing, are used throughout the process to purify the DNA. A binding calculator is provided to assist you in determining the amount of primer-annealing and polymerase-binding reagents needed based on the concentration and size of the SMRTbell template. 1.8 Required Materials SMRTbell Template Preparation Required Materials
9 1.9 Required Reagents For template preparation, the SMRTbell Template Prep Kit is required. The kit includes, buffers, repair enzymes, ligase, exonucleases, hairpin adapters and sequencing primers. Kits are available in manual and high-throughput formats. For purification steps throughout the procedure, AMPure PB beads are also required. For more specific details on required reagents and equipment, please see the Pacific Biosciences Template Preparation and Sequencing Guide.
10 1.10 Importance Input DNA Sample Quality Importance of Input-DNA Sample Quality
11 1.11 Factors Affecting Prep and Sequencing Performance DNA integrity influences the results of single-molecule sequencing because the DNA sample is sequenced directly. Therefore the quality of the input DNA is critical for successful sequencing. Damaged genomic DNA can negatively affect SMRTbell library yields due to reduced adapter ligation efficiency and degradation during an exonuclease cleanup triggered at nicked and abasic sites. Additionally, damaged sites that are not repaired or eliminated during SMRTbell template preparation can affect sequencing reads by causing early sequencing termination - thus negatively affecting overall read lengths. PCR products are also likely to contain nicks and damaged sites caused by repeated exposure to elevated temperatures. PacBio recommends gentle treatment of the genomic DNA during extractions to minimize damages. Always perform DNA-damage repair to fix damage to the DNA.
12 1.12 DNA Quality Affects Performance Here is an example of subread length distributions impacted by the quality of input DNA. The figure on the left shows the subread length distribution from a SMRTbell template library prepared from degraded input gdna. The figure on the right shows the subread length distribution from a library prepared from high-quality input gdna. Note: If the goal of the project is to generate longer average subreads, a high-quality sample that contains high-molecular weight DNA is of utmost importance. To summarize, the quality of starting material directly affects the subread length distribution.
13 1.13 Other Considerations for SMRTbell Template Library Preparation and Sequencing Performance In order to take advantage of PacBio s long reads for applications such as de novo assembly and amplicon phasing, it is important to ensure that subread lengths are long. The subread length is the contiguous sequence between adapters. For an individual read, the subread length is primarily a function of the SMRTbell template insert size (assuming movie collection time is not limiting).
14 Short insert SMRTbell templates (e.g., 1 kb shear) will have shorter subread lengths than a large insert library (e.g., 10 kb). Insert Size Distribution & Loading Bias The distribution of sheared DNA plays a critical role in the subread length distribution. In SMRT Sequencing, short SMRTbell templates are loaded more efficiently than large SMRTbell templates. The presence of short SMRTbell templates in a library will result in a shorter average subread length. Recommendations: To achieve good fragment distribution, follow recommendations for shearing per manufacturer recommendations. Because of the loading bias, consider performing size selection of the SMRTbell template library to remove short-insert SMRTbell templates. Select the appropriate AMPure PB bead concentration during the purifications step, which is described later in this presentation. Size selection with the BluePippin System from Sage Science is particularly important if the goal is to generate long subreads for scaffolding large genomes or genomes with long repetitive regions. For amplicon sequencing, aim for amplicons to be of similar size (within 10%) when pooling. This minimizes loading bias. When sequencing PCR products, it is important to make sure there are no contaminating truncated products.
15 1.14 gdna Quality is Important Always assess the quality of your sample (both gdna and PCR products) prior to library construction. Agarose gel electrophoresis enables you to quickly view the integrity of the DNA sample. A "smeary" profile suggests degradation of the sample. With this information, one can decide how to proceed with library construction. To generate the longest average subread lengths, consider the best option for size selection. Degraded DNA will adversely affect the quality and fragment distribution of the library. In the example shown here: Lane 2 is an example of a degraded gdna Lane 3 is intact gdna
16 1.15 Assessing gdna Quality While running samples to assess integrity of the gdna on an agarose gel such as the Lonza FlashGel System may be rapid, it does not provide accurate sizing of high-molecular-weight fragments. A higher-resolution electrophoresis method such as Field Inversion Gel Electrophoresis (FIGE) or pulsed-field electrophoresis is important for assessing the presence of high-molecular-weight DNA. An example of the advantage of using FIGE to characterize high-molecularweight gdna is shown on this slide. Because constant voltage gel electrophoresis does not resolve highmolecular-weight fragments, what appears to be high-molecular-weight DNA from a standard low-percent agarose gel electrophoresis run (e.g. 1.2% Lonza FlashGel System) may not be accurate, as shown on the left image.
17 The same samples run on an FIGE system, - show a different profile exhibiting a range of low to high molecular weight fragments. High-molecular-weight DNA typically appears as a single band in the 48 kb marker in an FIGE gel gdna Shearing gdna Shearing
18 1.17 DNA Shearing Covaris Adaptive Focused Acoustics technology is recommended for insert sizes 500 bp to 5 kb. The Covaris g-tube devices are highly recommended for sizes 5 kb and larger because of simplicity and higher recovery. The Hydroshear system can also be used for sizes 5 kb and up. After fragmentation, the DNA must be concentrated. The purification is done with AMPure PB beads. The desired concentration range depends on the specific application. For specific concentration recommendations, please see the Pacific Biosciences Template Preparation and Sequencing Guide.
19 1.18 Characterization of Fragmentation Sizes is Important We recommend the Agilent Bioanalyzer Instrument to assess fragment size distribution of your sample prior to library construction. After shearing, typically only ~30 to 40% of DNA sheared is in the desired size range as shown in the Bioanalyzer traces Larger fragments do not have any advantage in loading, however, they affect library quantitation Small-size fraction within a shear has a higher loading advantage leading to reduced subread length Shorter insert sizes contain more individual molecules in a given quantity compared to larger inserts
20 Please note: sizing of fragments greater than 17 kb is outside the linear dynamic range of the Bioanalyzer instrument. We recommend using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for sizing fragments greater than 17 kb Damage Repair & End Repair Damage Repair and End Repair
21 1.20 Damage Repair Sheared DNA must first undergo DNA-damage repair and end-repair treatments to repair damage on the DNA including abasic sites, nicks, thymine dimers and deaminated cytosines. For PCR products, DNA-damage repair is recommended to address possible damage induced by prolonged exposure to high temperature during amplification. If not repaired, damaged sites are degraded during exonuclease treatment resulting in low library yield. Further, if present in the SMRTbell templates, early terminations occur at the damaged sites during sequencing resulting in shorter read lengths.
22 1.21 End Repair For blunt-end ligation, the ends are polished using the end-repair mix from the SMRTbell template preparation kit. 5' overhangs are filled-in by T4 DNA Polymerase 3' overhangs are removed by T4 DNA Polymerase T4 PNK phosphorylates the 5' hydroxyl group
23 1.22 Adapter Ligation Adapter Ligation
24 1.23 Adapter Ligation During the adapter-ligation step, hairpins are ligated to fragment ends creating a SMRTbell template. The length of the adapter-ligation reaction depends on the insert size of the library. For libraries having short inserts, the blunt-end ligation process takes 15 minutes. For libraries greater than 17 kb, we highly recommend an overnight ligation.
25 1.24 Purification Purification
26 1.25 Exonuclease Treatment Following the ligation step, many types of templates will exist in the sample. In addition to the correctly formed SMRTbell templates, there will be some molecules that are imperfect: some - with free ends that did not receive an adapter, some may contain nicks or other damage. None of these types of non-smrtbell templates are desirable for singlemolecule sequencing. Exonuclease treatment is used to remove them from the library leaving only intact SMRTbell templates. After exonuclease treatment, AMPure PB bead purification steps are performed.
27 1.26 AMPure PB Beads AMPure PB beads are used throughout the SMRTbell template library construction for buffer exchange and purifications. Ampure PB beads are specifically formulated for the SMRT Sequencing workflow. The process of size selection using AMPure PB beads is controlled by the concentration added to the sample. The next slide describes the importance of choosing the appropriate AMPure PB bead concentration required for SMRTbell template library construction.
28 1.27 AMPure PB Beads This slide demonstrates recovery of fragments as a function of AMPure PB bead concentration. The higher the AMPure PB bead concentration, the more efficient is the recovery of short fragments as short as 100 to 200 bp. In SMRT Sequencing, short SMRTbell templates are loaded more efficiently than large SMRTbell templates resulting in a shorter average subread length. When constructing large-insert libraries, consider reducing the concentration of AMPure PB beads down to 0.40x (or as low as 0.35x), to remove most short fragments. Ideally, a BluePippin system from Sage Science is recommended for more efficient size selection. For specific AMPure PB bead concentrations optimized for different library sizes, please see the Pacific Biosciences Template Preparation and Sequencing Guide.
29 1.28 Size Selection BluePippin System Size Selection with the BluePippin System Recommended for Large-Insert Libraries
30 1.29 Summary of the Advantages of Size Selection Long, continuous read lengths are essential for applications such as de novo assembly. Span long repeats and complex regions Improve mappability Close gaps or scaffold shorter contigs Large-insert libraries (compared to short-insert libraries) generate longer subread lengths. Size selection removes the shorter SMRTbell templates, allowing the longer SMRTbell templates to load.
31 1.30 Benefits of Size Selection If the goal is to generate large-insert libraries > 17 kb, size selection is highly recommended. Size selection with the BluePippin system from Sage Science removes shortinsert templates that may otherwise load efficiently and as a result, enables loading of the larger SMRTbell templates. This figure shows BioAnalyzer System traces of size-selected vs non-sizeselected libraries. The short SMRTbell templates present in the non-size-selected library are eliminated in the BluePippin system size-selected library.
32 1.31 BluePippin System A size-selection strategy that is effective for removing short-insert SMRTbell templates is the BluePippin System from Sage Science. This automated system provides preparative-scale separation and extraction of nucleic acids. It can be applied to the separation of large fragments of DNA, allowing the user to separate small DNA fragments from large DNA fragments.
33 1.32 Long Subread Lengths with BluePippin This example illustrates the gains achieved with size selection from a mammalian sample. This plot represents the fraction of bases in reads longer than the value on the x-axis. We report the N50 value - the read length at which 50% of the bases are in reads longer than this value. Libraries of ~20 kb average size were prepared. Aliquots were sequenced both with and without size selection. The size selection resulted in an approximately 2-fold increase in the number of bases in long reads. Note: To achieve longer N50 subreads utilizing size selection, the quality of your genomic DNA is of utmost importance. Thorough quality control of the starting DNA material is highly recommended.
34 1.33 Additional Resources Additional Resources
35 1.34 SMRT Community: Sample Net Official PacBio documents are available from within the Services & Support / Documentation & Training pages. Another resource is the SMRT Community page called SampleNet that provides protocols and recommendations outside of our standard sequencing workflow that were suggested by our customers. SampleNet is the central resource for information and discussion on sample preparation and sequencing with the PacBio System. In addition to downloading the latest PacBio sample preparation documents, you can find out what other users are thinking and doing, share your protocols, ask questions and join in the discussion.
36 1.35 Summary In summary, we presented the following: SMRTbell Templates Workflow Overview and Requirements Importance of DNA Input Quality gdna Shearing Damage Repair End Repair Adapter Ligation Purification Advantages of Size Selection Additional Resources
37 1.36 Thank You Thank you for your participation. For more information, please contact your local PacBio Field Applications Scientist (FAS) or PacBio Account Representative.
Please note: the shared protocols described herein may not have been validated by Pacific Biosciences and are provided as-is and without any warranty. Use of these protocols is offered to those customers
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