Sharing Disaster Risk Management and Environmental Management experiences, lessons and linkages.

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1 Sharing Disaster Risk Management and Environmental Management experiences, lessons and linkages. Disaster Risk Reduction and Environmental Management in the context of National and Local Sustainable Development in Mesoamerica David A. Smith Wiltshire Geneva, Switzerland Global Platform June 16, 2009

2 MAPA 3. Centroamérica, densidad de población Jalapa Gracia de Dios BELIZE CITY Belmopan San Cristobal BELICE de Las Casas HONDURAS Trujillo Pto Barrios Tela La Ceiba Huehuetenango Cobán San Pedro Sula El Progreso Olanchito San Cristobal Verapaz Morazán Quezaltenango Salama Santiago Atitlan GUATEMALA Jalapa Esquipulas Mazatenango Retalhuleu Jutiapa Comayagua La Paz Escuintla Chalatenango TEGUCIGALPA Santa Ana Suchitoto Sonsonate El Paraiso GUATEMALA Nueva San Salvador SAN SALVADOR Zacatecoluca La Libertad Usulután Choluteca EL SALVADOR Estelí Jinotega Matagalpa Chinandega Corint o Chichigalpa León Boaco MA NAGUA Masaya Granada Diriamba OCEANO PACIFICO Rivas Bluefields Pto Cabezas NICARAGUA MAR CARIBE PUERTO RICO SETTLEMENT PATTERN (2007) 502,100 km million inhabitants LEYENDA Densidad de población 1994 (# de habitantes x km2) N Fuente: Los datos de densidad de población fueron tomados del Atlas de indicadores ambientales y de sustentabilidad para América Latina y el Caribe, Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical y el Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Medio Ambiente Kilómetros Liberia Alajuela Heredia Puntarenas SAN JOSE Cartago Pto Quepos Pto Cortés COSTA RICA Puerto Limón Almirante Bocas del Toro David Pto Armuelles PANAMA Colón PANAMA Penonomé Santiago

3 Predominant Events in the region +75 % hydro-meteorological recurrence Climate Variability: rains, floods and drought patterns Environmental degradation (land & water) Unstable slopes/ landslides Active Volcanoes Earthquakes (last 18 years): Costa Rica (2009) Panama (2003); El Salvador (2001); Nicaragua (2000); C. Rica & Panama (1991) Tsunami: already affected Nicaragua and Costa Rica Climate Change Rise in intensity/frequency of events and expected sea level

4 Source: Birkel C. CRRH, 2002 Areas of Extremely low rainfall

5 Municipalities affected by Extreme Poverty Source: State of the Region, 2001 Report

6 LIVELIHOOD ISSUES ADDRESSED: CASES and EXAMPLES in Mesoamerica Coyolate: Guatemala Community based EWS project 10 initial communities and 90 finally included Monitored 2004 and 2006: EWS is operating EWS works --- But floods continue Integrated River Basin Management is required La Masica: Honduras Successful EWS installed No human victims during or after Hurricane Mitch 1999 Demand 2004 achievement System successfully applied to livestock (LIVELIHOOD) No Integrated River Basin or Environmental Management

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8 CASES and EXAMPLES in Mesoamerica: urban setting Belén: Costa Rica (1st in Social Development Index) : 3 flash floods / : 7 flash floods Rain patterns have not varied in last 20 years (NMI) Water volume varied from 25m3 to 50m3 (floods at 60m3) Changes of land use along upstream and midstream Catchments areas and runoff patterns were altered Previous coffee plantation now urbanized (substitute forest) 14 modern settlements in last 10 years Political and technical options Regulatory Plan and Land Management was reviewed Coordinate & negotiate with midstream and upstream municipal authorities Increase environmental management awareness

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11 CASES and EXAMPLES in Mesoamerica Rio Chico: Panama 2000 Community based EWS project drafted 2006 Hydroelectric Dam and agricultural irrigation project began Significant change in concept and management Same river basin: five year difference From Hazard and recurrent flood risk To relevant source for local development and security Cleaner and cheaper energy Improved agricultural produce and quality

12 LIVELIHOOD ISSUES ADDRESSED: CASES and EXAMPLES in Mesoamerica Cahoacán river basin: Chiapas, México ( ) Bi-national Tacana Volcano watershed & environmental initiative 910 km2 (7 mexican Municipalities)/ 1,400 km2 (15 Guate. Mplities) Upstream environmental degradation through: Demographic growth and poverty, Demands on agriculture, forest/ logwood use and water Land degradation and decrease in produce and quality Deterioration of watershed Drought patterns during dry season Excess runoff and floods during rainy season Subsequent deterioration of mangle, lagoons and estuaries Downstream contamination Increased vulnerability and disaster risk Reduced development potential: irrigation, agriculture & fisheries

13 LIVELIHOOD ISSUES ADDRESSED: CAHOACAN PROJECT (IUCN Mesoamerica) Project s first year: inter-institutional and multi stakeholders coordination for Integrated Watershed Management IUCN alliance with private sector foundation: Gzlo Rio Arronte Signed agreements with national, regional and municipal orgs. Identified multiple actors and established River Basin Committee: June 2009 Identified incentives, compatible national research and training programs Conserving and restoring natural resources (reduce erosion) Land management and alternative productive practices Disaster prevention initiatives and contamination control Identified and addresses a variety of productive concerns June 15 to July 30, 2009 (today): Developing municipal integrated solid waste management plans Support capacity building for waste and waste water treatment technologies

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16 Main Lessons and Challenges Mainstream paradigm shift: from Disaster Risk Reduction conceptual framework to Sustainable Development implementation strategy Coordinate DRR, Environmental Management and Climate Change Adaptation initiatives (includes ENSO) Address Risk Scenarios: Both hazard monitoring and vulnerability assessment Address Environmental Scenarios Land, water, flora, fauna and energy: resources & buffers Address development scenarios Enforce Interdisciplinary and Sector s interests & dialogue Mainstreaming DRR into development planning Produce tools, methodology and explicit indicators

17 The need to overcome Biases DRR is more a sustainable development (SD) concern than part of Disaster Management (DM) Environmental Management is also a part of SD DM deals with hazards, emergency situations preparedness and reconstruction Ex ante, during and Ex post Is basically reactive and disaster centered DRR has to do with vulnerability, risks and security: Lives and livelihoods: assets, investments, resources, produce, services, vital infrastructure, jobs, income (other variables) IS MORE THAN POVERTY ALLEVIATION Addresses existing risks and also the creation of new risks Is basically proactive and development prone

18 From thematic to strategic assessments: Address the need for other sectors involvement OWNERS OF RISK : need to take up responsibility in DRR Investment-finance, Dev. Planning, Public Works, Tourism Environment and Natural Resources (IWRM/land degradation) Housing-Human Settlements (water, sanitation, health) Agriculture, Energy and the Private Sector. Increase advocacy among national and district level authorities, development planners and the media. Address security issues: EWS for floods, climate variability, unstable slopes, water resources, land management, etc.: A DEVELOPMENT CONCERN Increase general public s access to technical and scientific info. for decision making and development planning: GROWING DEMAND

19 EL NIÑO TOTALES LOSSES OF US$ 91.2 MILLIONS AGRICULTURE 52.8 INDUSTRY 1.1 INFRAESTRUCT 21.4 SOCIAL SECTOR 1.9 EMERG & PREV 8.2 ENVIRONMENT 6.0 Orange, cantaloupe, water melon, papaya, plantain, palm sprout, mango, palmito, vegetables SECTOR 58%

20 Recent political developments in Central America Regional Agricultural Policy: Oct Area 1: Competitiveness and Agro-businesses Area 2: Financing and Risk Management Risk Mgmt: Financial; Market; Structural; Disaster Risk Agricultural-Environmental-Health Strategy: April 2008 Guidelines for Climate Change Strategy: May 2008 Main focus on Adaptation and Reduced Vulnerability Requires new Institutional Frameworks (security)

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