LAGOS STATE CLIMATE CHANGE POLICY

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1 Ere LAGOS STATE CLIMATE CHANGE POLICY ESD LTD ESD Ltd [Pick the date] LAGOS STATE GOVERNMENT

2 CLIMATE CHANGE POLICY LAGOS STATE GOVERNMENT MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT FIRST DRAFT March 2012

3 Foreword This text should ideally be provided by the Ministry of Environment for insertion, without any modification whatsoever, into the document by the client. This is important since the Foreword is often signed by a high-ranking government officer, often the Permanent Secretary, hence the need for the text to originate from the Government because, that among other things, communicates the Government s commitment to implementing the objectives of the Policy. i

4 Executive Summary Climate change poses serious challenges to Lagos State. Sea level rise (SLR) and flooding are likely to have serious ramifications on the health and settlements of coastal populations. It is estimated that 3.2 million Nigerians could be displaced from their homes by SLR. Over 2 million of these people live in Greater Lagos and other urban areas 1. unique features of Lagos State such as a high and rapidly increasing population, the flat topography, extensive coastal areas and a high water table, which in some areas of Lagos Island is less than 0.15 m from the surface, are predisposing factors that further increase the State s vulnerability to climate change impacts. Other potential climate change impacts on Lagos State include salt-water intrusion into aquifers and other fresh water sources, destruction of infrastructure by floods and storm surges, and increase in the incidences of water-borne diseases, among others. At the same time, climate change does have opportunities that developing countries and states such as Lagos State can take advantage of. These include the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), which is legislated under Article 12 of the Kyoto Protocol; Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs); and Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation plus (REDD+). Existing policies, programmes, actions and measures are insufficient to address the level of risk posed by climate change. Weak technical capacity and lack of appropriate institutional framework and governance instruments particularly at the national level are additional challenges pegging climate change response in the State. They are also some of the factors for poor participation by Nigeria in climate change opportunities such as the CDM. It is against this back drop that the Lagos State Climate Change Policy has been developed. The rationale of the Policy is to guide the State and other stakeholders on the implementation of collective measures to address climate change impacts and causes through adaptation, mitigation and other measures, while assuring sustainable socio-economic development through harmonised and coordinated strategies, programmes and actions to combat climate change. The Policy provides an integrated, harmonised and multi-sectoral framework for responding to climate change in Lagos State through adaptation, mitigation and other measures collectively referred to as cross-cutting measures. Some of the cross-cutting measures include education and training, research and development, technology development and transfer, finance, and mainstreaming and governance. Putting into consideration the differentiated impacts of climate change on different segments of the society, and the differentiated roles of women, men, youth, and the physically challenged, gender and other social perspectives have also been considered in the Policy. Primary priority areas of this Policy are climate change adaptation and disaster risk management. These priority areas will be supported by critical capacity building areas and pillars such as finance; technology development and transfer; education, training and public awareness; and information and knowledge management systems. Climate change mitigation is a secondary priority of this Policy. Further, regarding mitigation, the Policy recommends the implementation of measures that meet sustainable development needs of the State. This is in line with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) s principle of social and economic development and poverty eradication 1 French GT, Awosika LF, Ibe CE (1995): Sea-level rise in Nigeria: potential impacts and consequences. J Coast Res Spec Iss 14: ii

5 are the first and overriding priorities of developing countries and that a low-carbon development strategy is indispensable to sustainable development 2. Climate change impacts on nearly all sectors of the economy but mostly on energy, water, agriculture and food security, biodiversity and ecosystem services (wetlands, coastal and marine ecosystems, forests, wildlife, and tourism), human health, land use and soil, industry, human settlements, transport and other infrastructure. In this context, the Policy recognises the critical need for the development and implementation of integrated adaptation and mitigation projects to secure sustainable development of the State. This Policy conforms to the fundamental and operational principles of Lagos State set out in Chapter II (Fundamental Objectives and Directive Principles of State Policy) of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria (1999). Among the provisions of the country s supreme law that the Policy addresses is on environmental protection (Article 20). Article 20 of the Constitution empowers the State to protect and improve the environment and safeguard the water, air, land, forests and wildlife of Nigeria. It also conforms to the principles of environmental law as envisaged in multiple environmental governance instruments including Edict No. 9 of 1996 to establish the Lagos State Environmental Protection Agency, and Articles 3.3 and 3.4 of the UNFCCC. It is also aligned with the National Communications (NCs), which Parties to the UNFCCC use to communicate their status of implementing the UNFCCC related to vulnerability and adaptation, national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories by source and removal by carbon sinks, and potential mitigation actions. Nigeria submitted its initial National Communication to the UNFCCC Secretariat in November, The Policy complements various international conventions, treaties and protocols on environment and natural resources. In particular, the Policy is in line with the United UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol (KP) as well as other key Conference of the Parties (COP) decisions such as the Cancun Agreements (COP 16) and the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (COP 17). The ultimate objective of the UNFCCC is to achieve stabilisation of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system within a time frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, to ensure that food production is not threatened and to enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner (United Nations, 1992). Other related Multilateral Environment Agreements (MEAs) linked to the Policy that Nigeria is a Party to and therefore, that affect Lagos State, include: the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD); the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD); the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITIES); the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat; the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs); the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer; the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer; and the Basel Convention on Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal, among others. The Ministry of Environment (MoE) of the Lagos State Government will be responsible for the implementation of the Policy, working in close collaboration with other key line ministries. The Policy recommends that various implementation instruments be developed for its operationalisation. These include an elaborate State Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan. The Climate Change Department within the MoE shall coordinate and manage the implementation of the Policy so as to enhance synergies and minimise duplication of efforts. It shall work jointly with existing relevant State and national governments agencies, departments and institutions as well as other agencies, departments and institutions that may be established 2 Article of the Cancun Agreements iii

6 in the implementation of the Policy. As a coordinating institution, the Climate Change Department shall be vested inter alia with mandates to design climate change strategies and plans, design relevant projects, promote the introduction of climate change in education curriculum, and initiate relevant climate change capacity building projects. Overall, this Policy aims to: i. Establish a State climate change governance framework to coordinate and harmonise the implementation of State-level climate change activities and initiatives; i Identify priority adaptation action areas and roles of the State and other stakeholders to address climate change; Identify priority mitigation action areas, while taking into account that poverty eradication and economic development are the overriding priorities of the State, and the roles of the State and other stakeholders to address climate change; Promote capacity building efforts through inter alia education and training; public awareness; research and development; technology development and transfer; and information and knowledge management; v. Promote climate change research and observations through monitoring, detection, attribution and model prediction to enhance climate change preparedness and disaster risk management; vi. v Support the mainstreaming or integration of climate change into State planning and development processes including gender, youth and marginalised groups development; and Facilitate resource mobilisation for the implementation of identified climate change activities and initiatives. A monitoring and evaluation (M&E) framework shall be developed as an integral component of the Policy implementation to ensure that Policy goal and objectives are achieved and priority actions are implemented in a cost-effective, coordinated and harmonised approach. The Climate Change Department will develop tools and guidelines for monitoring and evaluating the implementation of the Policy. The Policy will be reviewed every three years to take into account emerging issues, challenges, and trends on climate change at the local, national, sub-regional, regional and global levels including the dynamic international climate change policy debate. iv

7 Contents Foreword... Error! Bookmark not defined. Executive Summary... ii Acronyms and Abbreviations... vii Terminologies and Concepts... ix 1 CHAPTER ONE... 1 INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND LINKAGES WITH STATE AND NATIONAL POLICIES AND STRATEGIES LINKAGES WITH REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL CONVENTIONS, TREATIES AND PROTOCOLS RATIONALE AND JUSTIFICATION CHAPTER TWO... 6 GOALS AND OBJECTIVES GOAL OBJECTIVES SCOPE OF THE POLICY GUIDING PRINCIPLES CHAPTER THREE... 8 POLICY PRIORITIES CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION Challenges to Adaptation Adaptation Objective Adaptation Policy Statements CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION Challenges to Mitigation Mitigation Objective Mitigation Policy Statements Sectoral Approach to Mainstreaming Climate Change Mitigation in State Development Planning CHAPTER FOUR...30 CROSSCUTTING ISSUES Education, Training and Public Awareness Information and Knowledge Management Systems Technology Development, Transfer and Adoption Gender and other Social Considerations CHAPTER FIVE...35 IMPLEMENTATION AND RESOURCE MOBILISATION PLAN IMPLEMENTATION PLAN INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS PARTNERSHIPS AND COLLABORATIONS POLICY STATEMENTS v

8 5.1 RESOURCE MOBILISATION PLAN Finance Capacity Building MONITORING, EVALUATION AND REVIEW vi

9 Acronyms and Abbreviations AR4 BAP BAT BET BNRCC BRT CA CCA CCM CDM CER COP DPR DRM DRR ECOWAS EWS FME GDP GHGs GIS HFA HIV/AIDS ICZM IPCC IPR KP LAMATA LASEPA Fourth Assessment Report Bali Action Plan Best Available Technologies Best Environmental Practices Building Nigeria s Response to Climate Change Rapid Bus Transit Conservation Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Climate Change Mitigation Clean Development Mechanism Certified Emission Reductions Conference of the Parties (to the Kyoto Protocol) Department of Petroleum Resource Disaster Risk Management Disaster Risk Reduction Economic Community of West African States Early Warning System Federal Ministry of the Environment Gross Domestic Project Greenhouse Gases Geographic Information System Hyogo Framework for Action Human Immuno Deficiency Virus/ Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Integrated Coastal Zone Management Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Intellectual Property Rights Kyoto Protocol Lagos State Metropolitan Area Traffic Authority Lagos State Environmental Protection Agency vii

10 LAS-CCAS LASTMA MEA M&E MoE NAMA NESREA NMT NOSDRA POPs PPPs R&D REDD+ SLR SME SON UN UNCCD UNFCCC WATSAN Lagos State Climate Change Adaptation Strategy Lagos State Traffic Management Authority Multilateral Environmental Agreement Monitoring and Evaluation Ministry of Environment Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency Non-motorised Modes of Transport National Oil Spill Detection and Response Agency Persistent Organic Pollutants Public Private Partnerships Research and Development Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation plus Sea Level Rise Small and Medium Enterprise Standards Organisation of Nigeria United Nations United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Water and Sanitation viii

11 Terminologies and Concepts 3 Adaptive capacity: ability of a system to adjust to climate change (including climate variability and extremes) to moderate potential damages, to take advantage of opportunities, or to cope with the consequences. Climate: situation of a climate system, including the statistical description, taking into account averages and variations in temperature, rainfall, winds and other relevant meteorological factors in a given period. Climate change: change of climate attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of global atmosphere which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable period. Climate variability: seasonal shifts in mean climatic conditions such as temperature and precipitation. Climate change adaptation: adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities. Such adjustment may be preventive or reactive, private or public, autonomous or planned. Climate change mitigation: human interventions to reduce the sources or enhance sinks of greenhouse gases. Carbon sink: any process, activity or mechanism that removes greenhouse gases, aerosols or precursors of greenhouse gases from the atmosphere. Coping capacity: means by which people or organizations use available resources and abilities to deal with adverse consequences of disaster. The strengthening of coping capacities usually builds resilience to withstand the effects of natural and human-induced hazards. Disaster risk management: the systematic process of using administrative decisions, organizations, operational skills and capacities to implement policies, strategies and coping capacities of communities to lessen the impacts of natural hazards. Disaster risk reduction: is the conceptual framework of actions considered and taken with the possibilities of minimising social and economic vulnerabilities to hazards and disaster risks in a society, to avoid (prevention), or to limit the adverse impacts of hazards (mitigation), within the broad context of sustainable development. Disaster mitigation: Structural and non-structural measures undertaken to limit the adverse impact of natural hazards, environmental degradation and technological hazards. Early warning system: is a functional system for generation and provision of timely and effective information, through identified institutions, that allows individuals exposed to a hazard to take action to avoid or reduce their risk and prepare for effective response 3 Adopted from the Intergovernmental Panel of Experts on Climate Change (IPCC), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) ix

12 Climate Impact Assessment: the practice of identifying and evaluating the detrimental and beneficial consequences of climate change on natural and human systems. Greenhouse gases: gaseous constituents of the atmosphere, both natural and anthropogenic, that absorb and re-emit infrared radiation. Global warming: intensifying greenhouse effect resulting from anthropogenic actions, where the consequence is an increase in the concentration of greenhouse gases, aerosols or their predecessors in the atmosphere, which absorb part of the infrared radiation emitted by the Earth s surface, thus increasing the average temperature on the planet and causing adverse climatic phenomena. Resilience: the ability of a system to adapt to climate change, whether by taking advantage of the opportunities or by dealing with their consequences; the analysis of adaptation identifies and evaluates the different options, benefits and costs of the measures. Sustainable Development: Development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Vulnerability: The degree to which a system is susceptible to, and unable to cope with, adverse effects of climate change, including climate variability and extremes. Vulnerability is a function of the character, magnitude, and rate of climate change and variation to which a system is exposed, its sensitivity and its adaptive capacity. x

13 1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.0 BACKGROUND Anthropogenic climate change is now recognised as the world s greatest developmental and environmental challenge. The 2007 Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) revealed that climate change is real, and is already happening at an unprecedented rate. According to the report, while it is difficult to precisely predict the future consequences of climate change, there is sufficient knowledge and understanding on the current risks and impacts posed by the changing climate to warrant action. Climate change impacts are unevenly distributed geographically and socially. Africa is widely recognised as one of the most vulnerable locations on the planet to climate change. This is because Africa is already hot and dry; it depends mainly on climate sensitive sectors such as agriculture for its livelihood and economic growth; and it is characterised by widespread poverty and inadequate developmental infrastructure, the latter two leading to a reduction in adaptive capacity. According to Nigeria s Initial Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 4, the following is the climate change picture for Nigeria over the next century: a change of 7 o C or more in maximum and minimum temperatures in certain parts of the country as well as increase in rainfall in other areas (although this increase is likely to be offset by increased evaporation rates due to rising temperatures). The impacts of these changes will be felt across different sectors including health, water, biodiversity, agriculture, forestry and human settlements. These will include flooding, water shortages, food insecurity, and increased disease incidences together with associated social disruption. The Lagos State Climate Change Adaptation Strategy (LAS-CCAS), one of the baseline studies for this Policy, corroborates the above findings. According to the report, Lagos State is likely to experience significant negative impacts as a result of climate change. The risks are particularly high as a result of its long coastline, flat topography, high water table and growing population and a heavy concentration of gross domestic product (GDP) generating industry and infrastructure near the coast. The dependence on rain-fed agriculture in Lagos implies that agricultural production is highly vulnerable to climate variability and change. Evaporation is projected to increase over Lagos State as temperatures rise. Increased rates of evaporation and longer dry periods are expected to lead to increased water demand for agriculture. In addition, sea-level rise and repeated storm surges will worsen the problems of coastal erosion that are already a menace in the Niger Delta, while the associated inundation will increase problems of floods, intrusion of sea-water into fresh water sources and destroying such stabilizing system as mangrove, and affecting agriculture, fisheries and general livelihoods 5. Due to competing land use needs such as land for human settlements and farming, there has been a rapid decline in the forest cover in Lagos State. The exploitation of forest for its resources has also contributed to the decline in Lagos State s forests. Climate change will only add to the stress the State s forests are already facing. For instance, it is estimated that a large 4 Ministry of Environment of the Federal Government of Nigeria 2003: Nigeria s First National Communication to the UNFCCC 5 Nigerian Environmental Study/Action Team (NEST) 2004: 1

14 proportion of the State s biodiversity-rich mangrove forests could be lost with a sea level rise of only 1 m by For coastal populations, mangroves are a source of food (they serve as reproductive and nursery grounds for a wide variety of fish), firewood, timber and medicine. Sea level rise (SLR) and flooding will have serious ramifications on the health and settlements of coastal populations. It is estimated that 3.2 million Nigerians could be displaced from their homes by SLR. Over 2 million of these people live in Greater Lagos and other urban areas 6. unique features of Lagos State such as a high and rapidly increasing population, its flat topography, extensive coastal areas and a high water table, which in some areas of Lagos Island is less than 0.15 m from the surface, are predisposing factors that further increase the State s vulnerability to climate change impacts. It is expected that many will move to what they consider to be more habitable areas. This will put additional strain on public health and other social infrastructure, hence the need for proper planning. Other important health implications of climate change on Lagos State include increase incidences of water-borne diseases such as cholera, giardia and enteric fever due to water quality impairment as a consequence of flooding, drought or salt water intrusion; changes in transmission intensity and/or distribution of vector-borne diseases like malaria due to variation in temperature and other climatic elements; and malnutrition due to reduced food production. The latter has a bearing on other diseases such as HIV/AIDS, whose coping mechanism includes proper nutrition. Inadequate and poor water storage and supply infrastructure as well as over-abstraction of groundwater resources in some locations to meet the increasing demand of the rapidly rising population and industry are challenges in the water sector in Lagos State. Projected climate change impacts will exacerbate this situation. Generally, for Lagos State, two opposite extremes are projected with regard to precipitation: wetter, rainy seasons (i.e., high intensity rainfall associated with flooding) and drier, dry seasons (i.e., meteorological drought) (BRNCC, 2011). These two extremes will have serious implications on the quality and quantity of water available for domestic, agricultural and commercial use. For instance, more frequent and intense floods will cause damage to water infrastructure, besides pollution. The importance of climate change on the State s water resources is further accentuated by the fact over 40% of the state is covered by water and wetlands, while additional 12% is subjected to seasonal flooding. Coastal wetlands are vulnerable to sea level rise. According to the IPCC (2007), the global average rate of sea level rise during the period 1993 to 2003 was about 3.1 mm per year. This trend is expected to continue, with IPCC projections indicating possible increases of between 18 and 59 cm by 2100 relative to This could translate into an increase of about 40cm by With this rise, Lagos State would be exposed to increased erosion, storm damage, inundation in low lying areas, and intrusion of salt/sea water into groundwater aquifers and estuaries due to SLR; hence reduced freshwater availability is a likely outcome of climate change. Indeed, IPCC s projection that up to 33% of the world s wetlands could be converted to open waters by sea level rise (IPCC, 2007) should be a concern to Lagos State. Loss of wetlands and pollution of water resources will have a devastating effect on the State s biodiversity resource and livelihood options. Wetlands provide environmental and economic benefits to mankind through fishery production, timber production, waste water purification and recreational opportunities. Wetlands are also important habitats for a wide variety of plants, invertebrates, fish, marine animals, shrimps and crabs and larger animals, including many rare, threatened or endangered species. Because they have both land and aquatic characteristics, wetlands are some of the most diverse ecosystems on earth. 6 French GT, Awosika LF, Ibe CE (1995): Sea-level rise in Nigeria: potential impacts and consequences. J Coast Res Spec Iss 14:

15 Some of these weather and climate extremes in the State have been observed and documented. Lagos State Climate Change Adaptation Strategy quotes a report by the Triple Eǁ Systems Inc. (2010), which notes that climate change effects that have manifested in Lagos State in recent times include beach erosions; flooding of buildings in low lying coastal areas and the destruction of infrastructure including roads, drains, and water pipelines. Extreme weather events have also become more frequent in the past four decades. In 1995 and 2010, Lagos State experienced devastating floods. The 1995 one in particular was of importance as it provided an indication of what the future potentially holds for a changing climate in Lagos State. Storm surges accompanied by high tides inundated the beaches and virtually connected the Kuramo Lagoon to the Atlantic Ocean. Many of the streets and drainage channels were flooded, resulting in an abrupt disruption of socio economic activities in Victoria and Ikoyi Islands during the flooding period. Storms and floods are often associated with loss of life, property and infrastructure damage, loss of GDP and other socio-economic setbacks. They also pose a big challenge to disaster risk management (DRM). The entire Nigerian coastal strip including Lagos State is projected to experience more storm surges in the months of April to June and September to October annually. The threat of accelerated sea level rise exacerbates the already existing high risks of storm surges and extreme waves, and will further hamper DRM. Projections of climate change suggest that Lagos State will experience a slight increase in rainfall, a slight increase in rainfall variability and a temperature rise of about 3 C by 2100 (Triple E Systems and Pennsylvania State University, 2010). Similar studies by the Climate Systems Analysis Group of University of Cape Town and commissioned by the Building Nigeria s Response to Climate Change (BNRCC) indicates a 2º C increase by the year 2065 and of 3.5 º C by the end of the century for southern Nigeria. Rainfall increases are also projected, with a peak increase of about 2 mm/day in monthly rainfall in the period in Lagos State. These changes have far-reaching consequences on all socio-economic sectors but particularly on water supply, health sector, agriculture and food security, coastal and marine resources, infrastructure and human settlements. Depending on social categories such as gender, age, geographic location, economic status and form of livelihood, climate change has, and will have differential impacts on various segments of the society, culminating in increased inequality in the State. Development gains including efforts towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) will likely be halted and reversed. Changing climatic conditions such as increases in rainfall amounts projected for Lagos State may bring with them positive attributes such as increased agricultural productivity that the State should exploit; however, these potential benefits are outweighed by the negative impacts of climate change. Nevertheless, climate change does have opportunities that developing countries and states such as Lagos State can take advantage of. These include the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), which is legislated under Article 12 of the Kyoto Protocol. The CDM allows developing countries such as Nigeria to trade certified emission reductions (CERs) from projects that limit or avoid emissions of greenhouse gases. A number of such projects from the State have already been registered, while others are in the pipeline. Major planned development projects such as the Eko Atlantic City, which will derive its energy exclusively from renewable sources, present huge CDM opportunities. Other areas through which the State could benefit from climate change include the Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs), opportunities represented by various climate change funds including the Green Climate Fund, REDD+ Mechanism and technology transfer. It is against this backdrop that the Lagos State Climate Change Policy (LAS-CCP) has been developed to assist the State to engage a more strategic and cooperative approach to responding to the impacts of climate change, maximising any potential benefits of the changing climate, and benefiting from existing and future instruments such as the CDM, NAMA, REDD+ 3

16 and others. It is therefore important to develop a robust policy to guide this approach. The Policy represents the commitment of the State in putting in place efforts to address the challenges and opportunities of climate change, for the benefit of both present and future generations. The Policy is guided by the precepts of international environmental law including the principle of sustainable development as reflected in the objective of the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol, the Cancun Agreements and other international environmental governance instruments. 1.1 LINKAGES WITH STATE AND NATIONAL POLICIES AND STRATEGIES The Policy takes cognisance of existing State and national (federal) development and sectoral plans, policies and strategies. These include sectoral policies and strategies in environment, water, land, forestry, coastal and marine systems, energy, transport, agriculture, fisheries, health, disaster risk management, gender among others. On climate change, the State has already prepared the Lagos State Climate Change Adaptation Strategy (LAS-CCAS) The LAS-CCAS 2011 details necessary adaptation measures needed to help the State and its citizens adapt and increase their resilience to the adverse effects of climate change. The State has also prepared its Policy Framework on Climate Change Mitigation, Adaptation and Governance in Lagos State This Policy Framework, in addition to addressing adaptation strategies for the State, also provides mitigation options and necessary institutional framework that can enhance the State s sustainable development agenda. Both the LAS-CCAS 2011 and the Policy Framework are the foundation of this Policy. Nationally, the Policy is in line with the National Communications (NCs), which Parties to the UNFCCC use to communicate their status of implementing the UNFCCC on issues related to vulnerability and adaptation, national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories by source and removal by carbon sinks, potential mitigation actions. Nigeria submitted its initial National Communication to the UNFCCC Secretariat in November, The Policy is also in line with Nigeria s Constitution Among the provisions of the country s supreme law that the Policy addresses is on environmental protection (Article 20). Article 20 of the Constitution empowers all the thirty-six States within the Federal Republic of Nigeria to protect and improve the environment and safeguard the water, air, land, forests and wildlife of Nigeria. 1.2 LINKAGES WITH REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL CONVENTIONS, TREATIES AND PROTOCOLS The Policy complements various international conventions, treaties and protocols on environment and natural resources. In particular, the Policy is in line with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and its Kyoto Protocol (KP) as well as other key Conference of the Parties (COP) decisions such as the Cancun Agreements (COP 16) and the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (COP 17). The ultimate objective of the UNFCCC is to achieve stabilisation of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system within a time frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, to ensure that food production is not threatened and to enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner (United Nations, 1992). Other related Multilateral Environment Agreements (MEAs) linked to the Policy that Nigeria is a Party to and therefore, that affect Lagos State, include: the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD); the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD); the Convention 4

17 on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITIES); the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat; the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs); the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer; the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer; and the Basel Convention on Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal, among others. 1.3 RATIONALE AND JUSTIFICATION The adverse effects of climate change are already being felt by almost all sectors of the economy in the State, and are having their toll on the livelihoods of a majority of the Lagosians as demonstrated above. Severe storms and floods are becoming a norm in the State, only now occurring with greater intensity and frequency. Destruction of infrastructure and human settlements, sea level rise and salt-water intrusion, increased incidences of water- and vectorborne diseases, water quality impairment and human and livestock deaths are some of the consequences of the changing climate that are beginning to express themselves in the State. The continued emissions of greenhouse gases which will cause more global warming will only aggravate the situation. Fragile ecosystems like coastal and marine resources which dominate the State as well as certain social groups such as women, children, youth, the elderly, and physically challenged are particularly vulnerable to climate change impacts. Metropolitan Lagos plays a critical role in Nigeria s economy. Any negative impact on its health, infrastructure, energy, water and other key sectors that climate change portends will impede on Nigeria s millennium development goals (MDGs) attainment. In this context, devising strategies that support Lagos sustainable development goals while at the same time enhance its climate change adaptation and mitigation capacity is critical for the State. The State recognises that every major social, economic and environmental sector is sensitive to climate variability and climate change, both of which are significant factors in each sector s sustainable development. The State is also cognisant of the changing climate and of the need to put in place measures geared towards adapting and enhancing its resilience to the adverse impacts of climate change as well as contributing to global mitigation efforts. There is also need for climate change vulnerability, risk and impact assessment to inform adaptation, development planning, decision making and disaster risk management. In addition, capacity building in terms of education and training in specialised climate change skills and public awareness, institutional strengthening, technology development, transfer and adoption as well as financial support for adaptation and mitigation are critical areas that the State is cognisant of. Lagos also acknowledges that a number of factors enhance its contribution to climate change and its vulnerability to climate change impacts. Rapid urbanisation is singled out in this context; it leads to increased energy-associated emissions while the resultant unplanned human settlement to meet the rising urban housing demand is pre-disposed to climate change impacts such as storm surges and sea level rise. Existing policies, programmes, actions and measures are insufficient to address the level of risk posed by climate change. Weak technical capacity and lack of appropriate institutional framework and governance instruments particularly at the national level are additional challenges pegging climate change response in the State. Given the above context, the maiden State Climate Change Summit held in Lagos City in March 2009 recommended a number of actions needed to address the adverse impacts of climate change and take advantage of its opportunities. In particular, the Summit recommended the preparation of a climate change policy to guide and inform the State s actions on climate change. 5

18 2 CHAPTER TWO GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 2.0 GOAL The overall goal of the Policy is to foster sustainable development in the State through harmonised and coordinated strategies, programmes and actions to combat climate change. 2.1 OBJECTIVES The purpose of the Policy is to guide the State and other stakeholders on the implementation of collective measures to address climate change impacts and causes through adaptation, mitigation and other measures, while assuring sustainable socio-economic development. The specific objectives of the Policy are anchored on pillars such as adaptation, mitigation, finance, technology, capacity building, research and development, mainstreaming and governance. They are to: i. Establish a State climate change governance framework to coordinate and harmonise the implementation of State-level climate change activities and initiatives; i Identify priority adaptation action areas and roles of the State and other stakeholders to address climate change; Identify priority mitigation action areas, while taking into account that poverty eradication and economic development are the overriding priorities of the State, and the roles of the State and other stakeholders to address climate change; Promote capacity building efforts through inter alia education and training; public awareness; research and development; technology development and transfer; and information and knowledge management; v. Promote climate change research and observations through monitoring, detection, attribution and model prediction to enhance climate change preparedness and disaster risk management; vi. v Support the mainstreaming or integration of climate change into State planning and development processes including gender, youth and marginalised groups development; and Facilitate resource mobilisation for the implementation of identified climate change activities and initiatives. 2.2 SCOPE OF THE POLICY This policy provides an integrated, harmonised and multi-sectoral framework for responding to climate change in Lagos State through adaptation, mitigation and other measures collectively referred to as cross-cutting measures. The cross-cutting measures include education and training, research and development, and technology development and transfer, among others. 6

19 2.3 GUIDING PRINCIPLES The Policy conforms to the fundamental and operational principles of Lagos State set out in Chapter II (Fundamental Objectives and Directive Principles of State Policy) of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria (1999). Article 20 of the Constitution gives every state within the Federal Government the mandate to protect and improve the environment and safeguard the water, air and land, forest and wildlife of Nigeria. It is also in line with the principles of environmental law as envisaged in a number of environmental governance instruments including Edict No. 9 of 1996 to establish the Lagos State Environmental Protection Agency, and Articles 3.3 and 3.4 of the UNFCCC, among others. The Policy is also guided by the following principles and concepts: i. Consistency with national and State development priorities, including gender considerations, poverty alleviation, access to basic amenities including energy, job creation, rural development, human resource development and improved health; i Importance of mainstreaming/integrating climate change issues into programmes and projects of the government and its agencies, private sector (industry), development partners, civil society, and communities; Active engagement of various stakeholders ranging from government (federal, state and local), intergovernmental, non-governmental, development partners, private sector, civil society, vulnerable communities, populations and groups including women, youth and the physically challenged in the formulation and implementation of the Policy actions; Importance of synergies and harmonisation to avoid duplication of efforts and to enhance efficiency in resource utilisation; v. Implementation of prioritised climate change adaptation and mitigation actions in accordance with environmental impact assessment, social impact assessment and ecosystem s approach to avert any negative social, economic and environmental impacts of the actions; and vi. Importance of integrating Best Available Technologies (BAT) and Best Environmental Practices (BET) into climate change response measures; 7

20 3 CHAPTER THREE POLICY PRIORITIES The primary priority areas of this Policy are adaptation and disaster risk management. These priority areas will be supported by the following critical capacity building areas and pillars, which cut across different sectors: finance; technology development and transfer; education, training and public awareness; and information and knowledge management systems. Given the differentiated impacts of climate change on different segments of the society including women, men, youth, physically challenged, and the different roles played by each of these groups in addressing climate change (in particular, the different roles of women versus men), gender considerations have been given adequate attention in an effort to mainstream gender into the Policy. Climate change mitigation is a secondary priority area of the Policy. Further, regarding mitigation, the Policy recommends the implementation of measures that meet sustainable development needs of the State. This is in line with the UNFCCC s principle of social and economic development and poverty eradication being the first and overriding priorities of developing countries and that a low-carbon development strategy is indispensable to sustainable development 7. The Policy further emphasises on the importance of mainstreaming climate change adaptation and mitigation into the State s development plans, taking a sectoral approach with focus on key socio-economic sectors more likely to be adversely affected by climate change and/or with a greater mitigation potential. These include but not limited to: energy, water, agriculture and food security, biodiversity and ecosystem services (wetlands, coastal and marine ecosystems, forests, and wildlife), human health, land use and soil, tourism, industry, human settlements, transport and other infrastructure. In this context, the Policy recognises the critical need for the development and implementation of integrated adaptation and mitigation projects to secure sustainable development of the State. 3.0 CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION Irrespective of whether emission of greenhouses (GHGs) is halted today or not, there is a certain degree of future warming and climate change to which we are already subjected because of past emissions. Furthermore, emissions of GHGs are continuing unabated, implying that future climate change impacts may be more severe than what current science projects. For these reasons, the State must prepare for and adapt to the effects of global warming through adaptation actions and policies that are designed to tackle both current and future climate change threats. The State s precarious situation as a low-lying region with flat topography that is vulnerable to sea level rise with its adverse impacts such as inundation further underscores the need for robust adaptation measures Challenges to Adaptation Despite the recognition by the State of the importance of adaptation to climate change to safeguard the safety and livelihood of its citizens, there are a number of challenges to the advancement of adaptation policy and practice that should be addressed. These challenges include: 7 Article of the Cancun Agreements 8

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