Role of ICTs and knowledge-based industries in industrial restructuring the Finnish experience

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1 Role of ICTs and knowledge-based industries in industrial restructuring the Finnish experience Antti Eskola Ministry of Trade and Industry Helsinki, Finland UNECE Trade and Industry Development Week 24 & 25 May 2005, Geneva Session II on Tuesday 24 May 2005

2 Background for industrial restructuring in 1990 s Economic downturn in early 1990 s; the GDP fell by 10 per cent in three years while unemployment increased from 3% to 17% Annual volume change of GDP (%) 1980 to Unsuccessfully implemented deregulation of financial markets in 1980 s led to high level of foreign debt and crisis in the banking sector, bankruptcies Exports to the Soviet Union, accounting for 15% of all exports, diminished by 70% in 1991

3 Share of value added of various industries and construction 100 % 80 % 60 % 40 % 20 % 0 % Other industries Food, beverages etc. Electricity, gas and water supply Chemicals, chemical products Construction Forest industry Metal and engineering Electronics & electrical equipment Statistics Finland / National Technology Agency of Finland, Tekes

4 Industrial restructuring in 1990 s The economic recession in early 1990 s speeded up restructuring of industry within industries ia. in form of closing of unproductive plants, bankruptcies between industries with electronics & electrotechnical industry emerging as a third pillar of the Finnish economy (in addition to forestry and mechanical engineering industries) Multisector enterprises started to focus on narrower specialisation Networking in industry, industrial cluster effects were strengthened Foreign investment legislation revision in 1993 in anticipation of Finland s EU membership (and the membership!) speeded up foreign investment in Finland Investments by Finnish industrial companies abroad increased rapidly Overall productivity increased by 29 per cent from 1990 to 2001, even though the average number of working hours or demand for labour did not increase

5 Share of various product groups of goods exports 100 % 80 % 60 % Wood products Pulp & Paper Metals & Metal products Machinery, vehicles 40 % 20 % 0 % Electronics & electrical equipment Chemicals & products Other products

6 Finnish industrial clusters; global market positioning Tekes

7 Proportional size of Finnish industrial clusters Transport Construction Metal Well Being Forest Energy Telecom Food Transport Construction Metal Well Being Energy Forest Food Telecom Early 1990 s Early 2000 s

8 Growth of ICT sector / cluster in 1990 s Opening of the telecommunication sector to competition Finland was the first country to open a commercial digital mobile network (GSM) Nokia made the strategic decision to focus on telecommunication, has had a significant role in the Finnish ICT cluster Technological developments in other strong Finnish industrial clusters, such as forestry, energy, health and welfare also provided a demanding customer base ICT sector companies networked, cooperated and outsourced operations Exports of the ICT sector grew rapidly in 1990 s Nokia s parts suppliers followed Nokia abroad R&D activities mainly remained in Finland thanks to strong technology know-how Strong growth in knowledge intensive services

9 1,0 = 100 % Shares of ICT cluster in the Finnish Economy (Estimates of Nokia s share by ETLA - Research Institute of Finnish Economy)

10 Finnish Forestry Cluster Special Inputs Forest management Harvesting Machinery Harvesters Pulp machines Paper machines Associated Services Consulting Education Research Primary goods Paper Cardboard Pulp Sawn Timber Plywood Particle Board Related Industries Process automation Power generation Chemicals Customers Publishers Merchants Packers Builders C. Palmberg / Etlatieto

11 Forestry cluster becoming knowledge-intensive Early user of electronics and ICTs in 1970 s and 1980 s provider of market for pioneering electronics firms Early development and adoption of process control systems to optimise value chains Changing division of labour within cluster, outsourcing ICT, R&D, project management, logistics, maintenance The contribution of forestry-related industries to knowlede economy development Backward linkages from forestry to engineering/machinery Forward linkages from engineering/machinery to electronics/ict Continuing consolidation, internationalisation and globalistion

12 Share of employment in high tech and medium tech manufacturing and in knowledge intensive services in 2002 Sweden Denmark United Kingdom Finland Belgium Germany Netherlands France EU 15 Ireland Luxembourg Austria Italy Spain Greece Portugal % Source: Eurostat 127/2003

13 Revising the industrial policy thinking From separate science and technology policy to integrated S&T policy From macro-oriented structural policies towards long-term micro policies From selective and target-oriented policies to conditions-providing policies From interventionist policies to enabling policies Acknowledging the increasing importance of knowledge as a competitive asset Acknowledging the importance of interdependency of research organisations, universities and firms and industries Towards systemic view of policy with concepts of national innovation system industrial clusters as basic policy frameworks

14 Knowledge, innovation, R&D as cornerstones Science and Technology Council established the national innovation system as a cornerstone for science and technology policy => knowledge highlighted in the titles of Council s S&T Policy Reviews: 1993: Towards an Innovative Society: A Development Strategy for Finland 1996: Finland: A Knowledge-based Society 2000: Review 2000: The Challenge of Knowledge and Know-How 2003: Knowledge, innovation and internationalization High priority given to R&D investment at a time of severe economic recession of early 1990 s when all other expenditures were cut => a long-term commitment still highly valued!

15 R&D Expenditure from 1991 to 2004 Bill. / % of GDP 5 4,5 4 3,5 University sector Public sector 3 2,5 2 Business Enterprises 1,5 1 0, * Statistics Finland

16 However, competitiveness of a country needs more A country s competitiveness cannot be reduced only to GDP and productivity because enterprises must also cope with political, social and cultural dimensions. Therefore nations need to provide an environment that has the most efficient structure, institutions and policies that encourage the competitiveness of enterprises. Rosselet-McCauley, IMD World Competitiveness Yearbook 2005 Methodology and Principles of Analysis Finland ranking 6 th (among 60 countries) this year, but advise given includes Create new jobs and reduce unemployment Improve public sector productivity and efficiency Ensure sufficient economic growth to finance the welfare state Become more attractive to domestic and foreign investments Lower taxes on labour income to promote the expansion of the private sector

17 Thank you!

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