1 Money laundering and the United Kingdom: a haven for dirty money and an endless cycle? A critical reflection on the United Kingdom s anti-money laundering policies Dr. Nicholas Ryder Professor in Financial Crime Department of Law
2 Introduction What is money laundering? The global scale of money laundering How is money laundered? Where does money laundering occur? United Kingdom money laundering policy
3 Introduction UK Legislative Approach Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 Terrorism Act 2000 The Money Laundering Regulations 2007 The Financial Conduct Authority The National Crime Agency Recent Developments The Financial Crisis and Financial Crime
4 What is money laundering? Processing of criminal proceeds to disguise their origin Concealing Disguising Converting Transferring or removing Facilitates the acquisition Retention Use or control Acquisition Use Possession Above relate to proceeds of criminal activity
5 The Scale of Money Laundering International Monetary Fund: Between 2 and 5 % of Global GDP United Nations: 3.6% of global GDP, with 2.7% (or USD 1.6 trillion) being laundered (2009). Financial Action Task Force: Between $590bn and $1.5tn per year
6 The Scale of Money Laundering The calculation of its extent is hampered There is no visible data on the amount of money laundered. This has been referred to as the: shadow economy, or a nation s unrecorded economic activity. Estimated this amounts to 19% of UK GDP (Yeandle et al, 2005)
7 The Scale of Money Laundering United Kingdom: 10bn via the regulated sector (HMT, 2007), 25bn to 57bn (FSA, 2011), 48bn (Transparency International, 2011), 57bn (Financial Action Task Force 2013) and 100bn (The Independent, September 2015, citing Transparency International).
8 How is money laundered? Three stages: Placement Layering Integration
9 How is money laundered? Financial institutions, Lawyers, Accountants Virtual currencies, Cash intensive businesses (bureau de change), Smurfing, Casino s, Shell corporations, Property transactions, Stocks, shares and other investments, Case intensive businesses, Mobile devices, Cash couriers or money mules, Currency smuggling, Gambling machines and many more.
10 Key Players International Institutions United Nations, European Union, Financial Action Task Force, international industry best practices. Domestic Institutions Financial Conduct Authority, National Crime Agency, Home Office, Solicitors Regulation Authority.
11 The United Kingdom A Policy Overview Implementation of international AML legislative measures Recognition of international best practices A risk based policy Competent authorities Criminalisation Mutual legal assistance Preventative measures Confiscation of the proceeds of crime (Ryder, 2013)
12 The UK Legislative Approach The current system of money laundering legislation is contained within: Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 (as amended) Terrorism Act 2000 Part 7 of the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 The Money Laundering Regulations 2007
13 Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 Three main offences Concealing the proceeds of criminal conduct (s.327) Assisting another to retain the benefits of criminal conduct (s.328) Acquisition, use and possession of the proceeds of crime (s.329)
14 Terrorism Act 2000 Creates several offences of terrorist financing: Fund raising (s.15), Use and possession (s.16), Funding arrangements (s.17), Insurance against payments made in response to terrorist demands (s.17a), Money laundering (s.18), Failure to disclose: regulated sector (s.21a) and Tipping off: regulated sector (s.21d).
15 The Money Laundering Regulations 2007 Scope of the Regulations credit institutions, financial institutions, auditors, insolvency practitioners, external accountants, tax advisers, independent legal professionals, Scope of the Regulations trust or company service providers, estate agents, high value dealers and casinos
16 The Money Laundering Regulations 2007 Regulation 7: requires them to apply customer due diligence measures where they suspect the transaction concerns money laundering or terrorist financing This means that the firm is required to authenticate the identity of the customer and monitor their business relationships
17 The Money Laundering Regulations 2007 If a firm suspects that it is being used for the purposes of money laundering, it is required to notify its Money Laundering Reporting Officer (MLRO) Complete a suspicious activity report (SAR) and file it with NCA, who determines if further action is to be taken
18 The Money Laundering Regulations 2007 How do you define suspicion? R v Da Silva  EWCA Cro, K v National Westminster Bank, HMRC, SOCA  EWCA Civ Shah v HSBC Private Bank (UK) Ltd.  EWCA Civ 31;  Lloyd s Rep F.C. 276 (CA (Civ Div).
19 The Money Laundering Regulations 2007 Defensive Reporting? In 2008, SOCA reported that it had received 210,524 SARs; which increased to 240,582 in 2010, 247,601 in 2011, 278,665 in 2012, 316,527 in 2013 and 354,186 in 2014.
20 The Money Laundering Regulations Compliance costs: 2007 KPMG estimated that annual the costs are 90m (2003), 250m each year to comply with the AML regulations (Z/Yen, 2005), Alexander claims that the annual costs of the AML to banks in the UK are 650m per year (2007), Currently exceed 1bn per (Harvey, 2004),
21 Financial Conduct Authority All FSMA-authorised firms (except of mortgage brokers, general insurers and general insurance brokers) are also subject to FCA AML rules and guidance SYSC A.R. SYSC JG for insurers and managing agents) and SYSC 6.3 (for other firms).
22 Financial Conduct Authority The regulated sector must have systems and controls which: carry out regular assessments of the adequacy of AML systems so as to protect themselves from being used to further financial crime; allocate of a director or senior manager with overall responsibility for establishing and maintaining an AML system; and, the appointment of a Money Laundering Reporting Officer (MLRO).
23 Financial Conduct Authority Regulated firms are required to: establish, implement and maintain adequate policies and procedures sufficient to ensure compliance of the firm including its managers, employees and appointed representatives, with its obligations under the regulatory system and for countering the risk that the firm might be used to further financial crime (SYSC, FCA Handbook)
24 Financial Conduct Authority The FCA is the competent authority for supervising compliance with the Money Laundering Regulations It has adopted a policy referred to as credible deterrence: Issuing private warnings, public statements of misconduct, unlimited financial penalties and a prohibition order.
25 Financial Conduct Authority deliver a message that breaches of law and/or regulation will result in offenders suffering meaningful consequences, levied large fines and bans, on firms and relevant approved individuals who breached its rules, FCA has imposed a record number of financial penalties since 2007.
27 Financial Conduct Authority Firms fined: Coutts & Company ( 8.75m, 2012), EFG Private Bank ( 4.2m. 2013), Guaranty First Bank (UK) Ltd ( 525,000, 2013) and Standard Bank Plc ( 7.6m, 2014). These fines are imposed irrespective is there is any evidence of money laundering.
28 Financial Conduct Authority The FCA is able to prosecute money laundering offences under Part 7 of the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002: R v Rollins  UKSC 39;
29 National Crime Agency The NCA was launched following the enactment of the Crime and Courts Act In relation to money laundering the NCA will have the functions conferred by the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002, which includes: the role as FIU and the management of the confiscation of the proceeds of crime.
30 Recent Developments From Russia with Cash! Property boom and money laundering One of the most popular ways to launder money (NCIS, 2003 and Unger 2011) Tough stance on money laundering (David Cameron, 2015, Singapore) Similarities with infamous Day of Reckoning speech (2009), We take White Collar Crime seriously (2011, 2012 and 2015)
31 Recent Developments Fourth Money Laundering Directive Comes into effect 2017 Continues a risk based approach Enhances compliance measures Revises importance definitions Extends the scope of the Directive Includes tax crimes Increases sanctioning powers
32 Recent Developments Two jailed in 5m money laundering case (September 2015) Woman ordered to pay back 256,000 after money laundering conviction (September 2015) Drug gang members jailed for money laundering (September 2015) Brother in law of corrupt former Nigerian governor jailed for money laundering (September 2015) Law Society (September 2015)
33 The Financial Crisis and Financial Crime Increasing amount of evidence linking financial crime to the financial crisis Increased enforcement by FCA and SFO See R v Hayes (2015) Increasing levels of compliance Increased use of financial penalties Impact of deferred prosecution agreements by the Crime and Courts Act 2013 Bribery Act 2010 to be watered down?
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