Policy Statement on Prudent Commercial Real Estate Loan Workouts

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1 Policy Statement on Prudent Commercial Real Estate Loan Workouts The financial regulators 1 recognize that financial institutions face significant challenges when working with commercial real estate (CRE) 2 borrowers that are experiencing diminished operating cash flows, depreciated collateral values, or prolonged sales and rental absorption periods. While CRE borrowers may experience deterioration in their financial condition, many continue to be creditworthy customers who have the willingness and capacity to repay their debts. In such cases, financial institutions and borrowers may find it mutually beneficial to work constructively together. The regulators have found that prudent CRE loan workouts are often in the best interest of the financial institution and the borrower. Examiners are expected to take a balanced approach in assessing the adequacy of an institution s risk management practices for loan workout activity. Financial institutions that implement prudent CRE loan workout arrangements after performing a comprehensive review of a borrower s financial condition will not be subject to criticism for engaging in these efforts even if the restructured loans have weaknesses that result in adverse credit classification. In addition, renewed or restructured loans to borrowers who have the ability to repay their debts according to reasonable modified terms will not be subject to adverse classification solely because the value of the underlying collateral has declined to an amount that is less than the loan balance. I. Purpose This statement updates and replaces existing supervisory guidance to assist examiners in evaluating institutions efforts to renew or restructure loans to creditworthy CRE borrowers. 3 It is intended to promote supervisory consistency, enhance the transparency of CRE workout transactions, and ensure that supervisory policies and actions do not inadvertently curtail the availability of credit to sound borrowers. This guidance addresses supervisory expectations for an institution s risk management elements for loan workout programs, loan workout arrangements, classification of loans, and regulatory reporting and accounting considerations. 1 The financial regulators consist of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (FRB), the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), the National Credit Union Administration (NCUA), the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC), the Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), and the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council (FFIEC) State Liaison Committee (collectively, the regulators). 2 Consistent with the FRB, FDIC, and OCC joint guidance and the OTS guidance on Concentrations in Commercial Real Estate Lending, Sound Risk Management Practices (December 2006), CRE loans include loans secured by multifamily property, and nonfarm nonresidential property where the primary source of repayment is derived from rental income associated with the property (that is, loans for which 50 percent or more of the source of repayment comes from third party, nonaffiliated, rental income) or the proceeds of the sale, refinancing, or permanent financing of the property. CRE loans also include land development and construction loans (including 1- to 4-family residential and commercial construction loans), other land loans, loans to real estate investment trusts (REITs), and unsecured loans to developers. For credit unions, commercial real estate loans refers to member business loans, as defined in Section of the NCUA Rules and Regulations, secured by real estate. 3 This statement replaces the Interagency Policy Statements on the Review and Classification of Commercial Real Estate Loans (November 1991) and Review and Classification of Commercial Real Estate Loans (June 1993). Page 1 of 33

2 The statement also includes references and materials related to regulatory reporting, 4 but it does not change existing regulatory reporting guidance provided in relevant interagency statements issued by the regulators or accounting requirements under generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP). These general principles also could apply to commercial loans that are secured by real property or other business assets of a commercial borrower. Attachment 1 of this document contains examples of CRE loan workouts illustrating application of this statement to credit classification, determination of accrual versus nonaccrual status, and identification and reporting of troubled debt restructurings. Attachment 2 lists a summary of references to relevant supervisory and accounting guidance for real estate lending, appraisals, allowance for loan and lease losses (ALLL), restructured loans, fair value measurement, and regulatory reporting matters such as nonaccrual status. This statement should be used in conjunction with materials identified in Attachment 2 to reach appropriate conclusions regarding credit classification and regulatory reporting. Attachment 3 discusses valuation concepts for income producing real property. 5 Attachment 4 provides the classification definitions. II. Risk Management Elements for Loan Workout Programs An institution s risk management practices for renewing and restructuring 6 CRE loans should be appropriate for the complexity and nature of its lending activity and should be consistent with safe and sound lending practices and relevant regulatory reporting requirements. These practices should address: Management infrastructure to identify, control, and manage the volume and complexity of the workout activity Documentation standards to verify the borrower s financial condition and collateral values Adequacy of management information systems and internal controls to identify and track loan performance and risk, including concentration risk Management s responsibility to ensure that the regulatory reports of the institution are consistent with regulatory reporting requirements (including GAAP) and supervisory guidance Effectiveness of loan collection procedures Adherence to statutory, regulatory and internal lending limits 4 For banks, the FFIEC Consolidated Reports of Condition and Income (FFIEC Call Report); for savings associations, the Thrift Financial Report (TFR); and for credit unions, the NCUA 5300 Call Report. 5 Valuation concepts applied to regulatory reporting processes also should be consistent with Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) 820, Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures. 6 A restructuring involves a formal modification in the loan s terms with written and legally enforceable documentation. Page 2 of 33

3 Collateral administration to ensure proper lien perfection of the institution s collateral interests for both real and personal property An ongoing credit review function III. Loan Workout Arrangements Loan workouts can take many forms, including a renewal or extension of loan terms, extension of additional credit, or a restructuring with or without concessions. A renewal or restructuring should improve the lender s prospects for repayment of principal and interest and be consistent with sound banking, supervisory, and accounting practices. Institutions should consider loan workouts after analyzing a borrower s repayment capacity, evaluating the support provided by guarantors, and assessing the value of the collateral pledged on the debt. Loan workout arrangements need to be designed to help ensure that the institution maximizes its recovery potential. Further, renewed or restructured loans to borrowers who have the ability to repay their debts under reasonable modified terms will not be subject to adverse classification solely because the value of the underlying collateral has declined to an amount that is less than the loan balance. While institutions may enter into restructurings with borrowers that result in an adverse classification, an institution will not be criticized for engaging in loan workout arrangements so long as management has: A prudent workout policy that establishes appropriate loan terms and amortization schedules and that permits the institution to modify the workout plan if sustained repayment performance is not demonstrated or if collateral values do not stabilize A well-conceived and prudent workout plan for an individual credit that analyzes the current financial information on the borrower or guarantor and that supports the ultimate collection of principal and interest. The key elements of a workout plan include: Updated and comprehensive financial information on the borrower, real estate project, and any guarantor Current valuations of the collateral supporting the loan and the workout plan Analysis and determination of appropriate loan structure (e.g., term and amortization schedule), curtailment, covenants, or re-margining requirements Appropriate legal documentation for any changes to loan terms An analysis of the borrower s global debt 7 service that reflects a realistic projection of the borrower s and guarantor s expenses The ability to monitor the ongoing performance of the borrower and guarantor under the terms of the workout 7 Global debt represents the aggregate of a borrower s or guarantor s financial obligations, including contingent obligations. Page 3 of 33

4 An internal loan grading system that accurately and consistently reflects the risk in the workout arrangement An ALLL methodology that covers estimated credit losses in the restructured loan, measured in accordance with GAAP, and recognizes credit losses in a timely manner through provisions and charge-offs, as appropriate 8 A. Analyzing Repayment Capacity of the Borrower The primary focus of an examiner s review of a commercial loan, including binding commitments, is an assessment of the borrower s ability to repay the loan. The major factors that influence this analysis are the borrower s willingness and capacity to repay the loan under reasonable terms and the cash flow potential of the underlying collateral or business. When analyzing a commercial borrower s repayment ability, examiners should consider the following factors: The character, overall financial condition, resources, and payment record of the borrower The nature and degree of protection provided by the cash flow from business operations or the collateral on a global basis that considers the borrower s total debt obligations Market conditions that may influence repayment prospects and the cash flow potential of the business operations or underlying collateral The prospects for repayment support from any financially responsible guarantors B. Evaluating Guarantees The support provided by guarantees is a consideration in determining the credit classification for a workout. The presence of a guarantee from a financially responsible guarantor may improve the prospects for repayment of the debt obligation and may be sufficient to preclude classification or reduce the severity of classification. The attributes of a financially responsible guarantor include: The guarantor has both the financial capacity and willingness to provide support for the credit through ongoing payments, curtailments or re-margining The guarantee is adequate to provide support for repayment of the indebtedness, in whole or in part, during the remaining loan term The guarantee is written and legally enforceable 8 Additionally, if applicable, institutions should recognize in other liabilities an allowance for estimated credit losses on off-balance sheet credit exposures related to restructured loans (e.g., loan commitments) and should reverse interest accruals on loans that are deemed uncollectible. Page 4 of 33

5 The institution should have sufficient information on the guarantor s global financial condition, income, liquidity, cash flow, contingent liabilities, and other relevant factors (including credit ratings, when available) to demonstrate the guarantor s financial capacity to fulfill the obligation. This assessment includes consideration of the total number and amount of guarantees currently extended by a guarantor in order to assess whether the guarantor has the financial capacity to fulfill the contingent claims that exist. Examiners should consider whether a guarantor has demonstrated its willingness to fulfill all current and previous obligations, has sufficient economic incentive, and has a significant investment in the project. An important consideration will be whether previously required performance under guarantees was voluntary or the result of legal or other actions by the lender to enforce the guarantee. C. Assessing Collateral Values As the primary sources of loan repayment decline, the importance of the collateral s value as a secondary repayment source increases in analyzing credit risk and developing an appropriate workout plan. The institution is responsible for reviewing current collateral valuations (i.e., an appraisal or evaluation) to ensure that their assumptions and conclusions are reasonable. Further, the institution should have policies and procedures that dictate when collateral valuations should be updated as part of its ongoing credit review, as market conditions change, or a borrower s financial condition deteriorates. For CRE loans involved in a workout situation, a new or updated appraisal or evaluation, as appropriate, should address current project plans and market conditions that were considered in the development of the workout plan. The consideration should include whether there has been material deterioration in the following factors: the performance of the project; conditions for the geographic market and property type; variances between actual conditions and original appraisal assumptions; changes in project specifications (e.g., changing a planned condominium project to an apartment building); loss of a significant lease or a take-out commitment; or increases in pre-sales fallout. A new appraisal may not be necessary in instances where an internal evaluation by the institution appropriately updates the original appraisal assumptions to reflect current market conditions and provides an estimate of the collateral s fair value for impairment analysis. 9 The market value in a collateral valuation and the fair value in an impairment analysis are based on similar valuation concepts. However, the market valuation may differ from the collateral s fair value for regulatory reporting purposes. For example, differences may result if the market value and the fair value estimates are determined as of different dates or the fair value estimate reflects different assumptions than those in the market valuation. Such situations may occur as a result of changes in market conditions and property use since the as of date of the appraisal. 9 According to the FASB ASC Master Glossary, fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. Page 5 of 33

6 The documentation on the collateral s market value should demonstrate a full understanding of the property s current as is condition (considering the property s highest and best use) and other relevant risk factors affecting value. Collateral valuations of commercial properties typically contain more than one value conclusion and could include an as is market value, a prospective as complete market value, and a prospective as stabilized market value. The institution should use the market value conclusion (and not the fair value) that corresponds to the workout plan and the loan commitment. For example, if the institution intends to work with the borrower to get a project to stabilized occupancy, then the institution can consider the as stabilized market value in its collateral assessment for credit risk grading after reviewing the reasonableness of the appraisal s assumptions and conclusions. Conversely, if the institution intends to foreclose, then the institution should use the fair value (less costs to sell) of the property in its current as is condition in its collateral assessment. Examiners will analyze collateral values based on the institution s original appraisal or internal evaluation, any subsequent updates, additional information, and relevant market conditions. An examiner should review the appropriateness of the major facts, assumptions, and valuation approaches in the collateral valuation and in the institution s internal credit review and impairment analysis. If weaknesses are noted in the institution s supporting documentation or appraisal or evaluation review process, examiners should direct the institution to address the weaknesses, which may require the institution to obtain a new collateral valuation. However, if the institution is unable or unwilling to address these deficiencies in a timely manner, examiners will have to assess the degree of protection that the collateral affords in analyzing and classifying a credit. This may result in examiners making adjustments, if applicable, to the collateral s value to reflect current market conditions and events. When reviewing the reasonableness of the facts and assumptions associated with the value of an income-producing property, examiners should evaluate: Current and projected vacancy and absorption rates Lease renewal trends and anticipated rents Effective rental rates or sale prices, considering sales and financing concessions Time frame for achieving stabilized occupancy or sellout Volume and trends in past due leases Net operating income of the property as compared with budget projections, reflecting reasonable operating and maintenance costs Discount rates and direct capitalization rates (refer to Attachment 3 for more information) Page 6 of 33

7 Assumptions, when recently made by qualified appraisers (and, as appropriate, by the institution) and when consistent with the discussion above, should be given a reasonable amount of deference by examiners. Examiners also should use the appropriate market value conclusion in their collateral assessments. For example, when the institution plans to provide the resources to complete a project, examiners can consider the project s prospective market value and the committed loan amount in their analysis. Examiners generally are not expected to challenge the underlying valuation assumptions, including discount rates and capitalization rates, used in appraisals or evaluations when these assumptions differ only in a limited way from norms that would generally be associated with the collateral under review. The estimated value of the underlying collateral may be adjusted for credit analysis purposes when the examiner can establish that any underlying facts or assumptions are inappropriate or can support alternative assumptions. Many CRE borrowers may have other indebtedness secured by other business assets such as furniture, fixtures, equipment, inventory, and accounts receivable. For these commercial loans, the institution should have appropriate policies and practices for quantifying the value of such assets, determining the acceptability of the collateral, and perfecting its security interest. The institution also should have appropriate procedures for ongoing monitoring of the value of its collateral interests and security protection. IV. Classification of Loans Loans that are adequately protected by the current sound worth and debt service capacity of the borrower, guarantor, or the underlying collateral generally are not adversely classified. 10 Similarly, loans to sound borrowers that are renewed or restructured in accordance with prudent underwriting standards should not be adversely classified or criticized unless well-defined weaknesses exist that jeopardize repayment. Further, loans should not be adversely classified solely because the borrower is associated with a particular industry that is experiencing financial difficulties. When an institution s restructurings are not supported by adequate analysis and documentation, examiners are expected to exercise reasonable judgment in reviewing and determining loan classifications until such time as the institution is able to provide information to support management s conclusions and internal loan grades. Refer to Attachment 4 for the classification definitions For credit unions, adversely graded loans are loans included in the more severely graded categories under the institution s credit grading system, i.e., those loans that tend to be included in the credit union s watch lists. 11 The NCUA does not require credit unions to adopt a uniform regulatory classification schematic of loss, doubtful, substandard or special mention. A credit union should apply an internal loan grade based on its evaluation of credit risk. The term classify within the credit union industry has typically meant individually review to apply a percentage reserve for ALLL purposes. As used in this statement, classify and classification in relation to a credit union s evaluation of a credit for risk mean grade and assign a credit risk grade. Page 7 of 33

8 A. Loan Performance Assessment for Classification Purposes The loan s record of performance to date should be considered when determining whether a loan should be classified. As a general principle, examiners should not adversely classify or require the recognition of a partial charge-off on a performing commercial loan solely because the value of the underlying collateral has declined to an amount that is less than the loan balance. However, it is appropriate to classify a performing loan when well-defined weaknesses exist that will jeopardize repayment. One perspective of loan performance is based upon an assessment as to whether the borrower is contractually current on all principal and interest payments. In many cases, this definition is sufficient for a particular credit relationship and accurately portrays the status of the loan. In other cases, being contractually current on payments can be misleading as to the credit risk embedded in the loan. This situation can occur when the loan s underwriting structure or the liberal use of extensions and renewals mask credit weaknesses and obscure a borrower s inability to meet reasonable repayment terms. For example, in many acquisition, development and constructions loans, it is common for a loan to be structured with an interest reserve for the construction phase of the project. The interest reserve is established at the time the loan is originated as a portion of the initial loan commitment. The lender recognizes interest income from the reserve during the construction phase. Proceeds from the sale of lots, homes, or buildings or permanent financing based on stabilized occupancy are used for the repayment of principal, which includes any draws from the interest reserve that have been capitalized into the loan balance. However, if the development project stalls for any number of reasons and management fails to evaluate the collectibility of the loan, interest income will continue to be recognized from the initial interest reserve and capitalized into the loan balance even though the project is not generating sufficient cash flows to repay the principal. In such cases, the loan will be contractually current due to the interest payments being funded from the reserve, but the repayment of principal may be in jeopardy, especially when expected leases or sales have not occurred as projected and property values have dropped below the market value reported in the original collateral valuation. In these situations, adverse classification of the loan may be appropriate. B. Classification of Renewals or Restructurings of Maturing Loans Loans to commercial borrowers can have short maturities, including short-term working capital loans to businesses, financing for CRE construction projects, or loans to finance recently completed CRE projects for the period to achieve stabilized occupancy. Many borrowers whose loans mature in the midst of an economic crisis have difficulty obtaining short-term financing or adequate sources of long-term credit due to deterioration in collateral values despite their current ability to service the debt. Page 8 of 33

9 In such cases, institutions may determine that the most appropriate and prudent course is to restructure or renew loans to existing borrowers who have demonstrated an ability to pay their debts, but who may not be in a position, at the time of the loan s maturity, to obtain long-term financing. The regulators recognize that prudent loan workout agreements or restructurings are generally in the best interest of both the institution and the borrower. Restructured workout loans typically present an elevated level of credit risk as the borrowers are not able to perform according to the original contractual terms. The assessment of each credit should be based upon the fundamental characteristics affecting the collectibility of the particular credit. In general, renewals or restructurings of maturing loans to commercial borrowers who have the ability to repay on reasonable terms will not be subject to adverse classification, but should be identified in the institution s internal credit grading system and may warrant close monitoring. However, adverse classification of a restructured loan would be appropriate, if, after the restructuring, well-defined weaknesses exist that jeopardize the orderly repayment of the loan in accordance with reasonable modified terms. C. Classification of Troubled CRE Loans Dependent on the Sale of Collateral for Repayment As a general classification principle, for a troubled CRE loan that is dependent on the sale of the collateral for repayment, any portion of the loan balance that exceeds the amount that is adequately secured by the market value of the real estate collateral less the costs to sell should be classified loss. This principle applies when repayment of the debt will be provided solely by the sale of the underlying real estate collateral and there are no other available and reliable sources of repayment. 12 The portion of the loan balance that is adequately secured by the fair value of the real estate collateral less the costs to sell generally should be adversely classified no worse than substandard. The amount of the loan balance in excess of the fair value of the real estate collateral, or portions thereof, should be adversely classified doubtful when the potential for full loss may be mitigated by the outcomes of certain pending events, or when loss is expected but the amount of the loss cannot be reasonably determined. If warranted by the underlying circumstances, an examiner may use a doubtful classification on the entire loan balance. However, examiners should use a doubtful classification infrequently and for a limited time period to permit the pending events to be resolved. D. Classification and Accrual Treatment of Restructured Loans with a Partial Charge-off Based on consideration of all relevant factors, an assessment may indicate that a credit has well-defined weaknesses that jeopardize collection in full and may result in a partial chargeoff as part of a restructuring. When well-defined weaknesses exist, and a partial charge-off has been taken, the remaining recorded balance for the restructured loan generally should be classified no more severely than substandard. 12 In contrast, for impairment measurement purposes under GAAP, a loan is collateral dependent if repayment of the loan is expected to be provided solely by sale or operation of the underlying collateral. For further guidance on impairment measurement on impaired collateral dependent loans, see the Interagency Policy Statement on the Allowance for Loan and Lease Losses (December 2006). Page 9 of 33

10 A more severe classification than substandard for the remaining recorded balance would be appropriate if the loss exposure cannot be reasonably determined. Such situations may occur where significant risk exposures are perceived, such as a borrower s bankruptcy or a loan collateralized by a property subject to environmental hazards. A restructuring may involve a multiple note structure in which, for example, a troubled loan is restructured into two notes. Lenders may separate a portion of the current outstanding debt into a new legally enforceable note (i.e., the first note) that is reasonably assured of repayment and performance according to prudently modified terms. This note may be placed back on accrual status in certain situations. In returning the loan to accrual status, sustained historical payment performance for a reasonable time prior to the restructuring may be taken into account. The portion of the debt that is not reasonably assured of repayment (i.e., the second note) should be adversely classified and charged-off as appropriate. In contrast, the loan should remain or be placed on nonaccrual status if the lender does not split the loan into separate notes, but internally recognizes a partial charge-off. A partial charge-off would indicate that the institution does not expect full repayment of the amounts contractually due. If facts change after the charge-off is taken such that the full amounts contractually due, including the amount charged-off, are expected to be collected and the loan has been brought contractually current, the remaining balance of the loan may be returned to accrual status without having to first receive payment of the charged-off amount. 13 The institution should have well-documented support for its credit assessment of the borrower s financial condition and the prospects for full repayment. V. Regulatory Reporting and Accounting Considerations Institution management is responsible for preparing regulatory reports in accordance with GAAP and regulatory reporting requirements and supervisory guidance. Management also is responsible for establishing and maintaining an appropriate governance and internal control structure over the preparation of regulatory reports. This structure includes written policies and procedures that provide clear guidelines on accounting matters. Accurate regulatory reports are critically important to enhancing the transparency of an institution s risk profile and financial position and imperative for effective supervision. Decisions related to loan workout arrangements may affect regulatory reporting, particularly interest accruals, troubled debt restructuring treatment, and credit loss estimates. Management should ensure that loan workout staff appropriately communicate with the accounting and regulatory reporting staff concerning the institution s loan restructurings and that the reporting consequences of restructurings are presented accurately in regulatory reports. In addition to evaluating credit risk management processes and validating the accuracy of internal credit grades, examiners are responsible for reviewing management s processes related to accounting and regulatory reporting. While similar data are used for credit risk monitoring, accounting, and reporting systems, this information does not necessarily produce identical outcomes. For example, loss classifications may not be equivalent to impairment measurements. 13 The charged-off amount should not be reversed or re-booked when the loan is returned to accrual status. Page 10 of 33

11 Examiners need to have a clear understanding of the differences between the credit risk management and accounting and regulatory reporting concepts (such as accrual status, restructurings, and the ALLL) when assessing the adequacy of the institution s reporting practices. 14 The following sections provide a summary of these reporting topics. However, examiners should refer to regulatory reporting instructions and guidance and applicable GAAP for further information. A. Implications for Interest Accrual For a restructured loan that is not already in nonaccrual status before the restructuring, the institution needs to consider whether the loan should be placed in nonaccrual status to ensure that income is not materially overstated. A loan that has been restructured so as to be reasonably assured of repayment and of performance according to prudent modified terms need not be maintained in nonaccrual status, provided the restructuring and any charge-off taken on the loan are supported by a current, well-documented credit assessment of the borrower s financial condition and prospects for repayment under the revised terms. Otherwise, the restructured loan must remain in nonaccrual status. The assessment of accrual status should include consideration of the borrower s sustained historical repayment performance for a reasonable period prior to the date on which the loan is returned to accrual status. A sustained period of repayment performance generally would be a minimum of six months and would involve payments of cash or cash equivalents. 15 A restructuring should improve the collectibility of the loan in accordance with a reasonable repayment schedule and does not relieve the institution from the responsibility to promptly charge off all identified losses. For more detailed criteria about placing a loan in nonaccrual status and returning a nonaccrual loan to accrual status, see the FFIEC Call Report, TFR, and NCUA 5300 Call Report instructions. B. Restructured Loans The restructuring of a loan or other debt instrument should be undertaken in ways which improve the likelihood that the credit will be repaid in full under the modified terms in accordance with a reasonable repayment schedule. All restructured loans should be evaluated to determine whether the loan should be reported as a TDR. For reporting purposes, a restructured loan is considered a TDR when the institution, for economic or legal reasons related to a borrower s financial difficulties, grants a concession to the borrower in modifying or renewing a loan that the institution would not otherwise consider. To make this determination, the lender assesses whether (a) the borrower is experiencing financial difficulties, and (b) the lender has 14 These factors also apply when considering loss estimates for off-balance sheet credit exposures (e.g., loan commitments). 15 In returning a loan to an accrual status, sustained historical repayment performance for a reasonable time prior to the restructuring may be taken into account. Page 11 of 33

12 granted a concession. 16 Guidance on reporting TDRs, including characteristics of modifications, is included in the FFIEC Call Report, TFR, and NCUA 5300 Call Report instructions. The determination of whether a restructured loan is a TDR requires consideration of all of the facts and circumstances surrounding the modification. No single factor, by itself, is determinative of whether a restructuring is a TDR. An overall general decline in the economy or some deterioration in a borrower s financial condition does not automatically mean that the borrower is experiencing financial difficulties. Accordingly, lenders and examiners should use judgment in evaluating whether a modification is a TDR. For more detailed information about determining whether a borrower is experiencing financial difficulties and the attributes of a concession, see the sources of relevant supervisory and accounting guidance listed in Attachment 2. C. Allowance for Loan and Lease Losses (ALLL) Guidance for the institution s estimate of loan losses and examiners responsibilities to evaluate these estimates is presented in Interagency Policy Statement on the Allowance for Loan and Lease Losses (December 2006) and Interagency Policy Statement on Allowance for Loan and Lease Losses Methodologies and Documentation for Banks and Savings Institutions (July 2001). 17 Institutions are required to estimate credit losses based on a loan-by-loan assessment for certain loans and on a group basis for the remaining loans in the held-for-investment loan portfolio. All loans that are reported as TDRs are deemed to be impaired and should generally be evaluated on an individual loan basis in accordance with FASB ASC , Receivables - Troubled Debt Restructurings by Creditors 18 and FASB ASC through 30, Receivables Overall - Subsequent Measurement Impairment. 19 Generally, if the recorded amount of an individually assessed loan that is impaired, but is not collateral dependent, exceeds the present value of expected future cash flows, discounted at the original loan s effective interest rate, this excess is reported as a valuation allowance. 16 Refer to FASB ASC , Receivables Troubled Debt Restructurings by Creditors and FASB ASC , Debt Troubled Debt Restructurings by Debtors for the characteristics of experiencing financial difficulties and concession. 17 Credit unions should follow interagency supervisory guidance relative to the ALLL in the financial and regulatory reporting of loans. 18 This guidance was formerly referred to as FASB Statement No. 15, Accounting by Debtors and Creditors for Troubled Debt Restructurings. 19 This guidance was formerly referred to as FASB Statement No. 114, Accounting by Creditors for Impairment of a Loan. Page 12 of 33

13 For an individually evaluated impaired collateral dependent loan, the regulators require that if the recorded amount of the loan exceeds the fair value 20 of the collateral (less costs to sell if the costs are expected to reduce the cash flows available to repay or otherwise satisfy the loan), this excess is included when estimating the ALLL. However, some or all of this difference may represent a confirmed loss, which should be charged against the ALLL in a timely manner. 21 Institutions also should consider the need to recognize an allowance for estimated credit losses on off-balance sheet credit exposures, such as loan commitments, in other liabilities consistent with FASB ASC through 3, Financial Instruments Overall - Subsequent Measurement - Credit Losses on Financial Instruments with Off-Balance-Sheet Credit Risk. 22 For performing CRE loans, supervisory policies do not require automatic increases in the ALLL solely because the value of the collateral has declined to an amount that is less than the loan balance. However, declines in collateral values should be considered when calculating loss rates for affected groups of loans when estimating loan losses under the FASB ASC , Loss Contingencies The fair value of collateral should be measured in accordance with FASB ASC 820, Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures. For impairment analysis purposes, the fair value of collateral should reflect the current condition of the property, not the potential value of the collateral at some future date. 21 Purchased loans with evidence of deterioration in credit quality since the origination of the loan, loans held for sale, and loans accounted for under the fair value option are subject to different accounting rules than originated loans that are accounted for at their amortized cost. When reviewing these other types of loans, examiners should understand the implications of other accounting rules when determining whether a loan is a TDR, what amount should be reported as a TDR, and how to estimate an associated credit loss for a TDR. 22 This guidance was formerly included in American Institute of Certified Public Accountants Statement of Position 01-6, Accounting by Certain Entities (Including Entities with Trade Receivables) That Lend to or Finance the Activities of Others. 23 This guidance was formerly referred to as FASB Statement No. 5, Accounting for Contingencies. Page 13 of 33

14 Attachment 1 Examples of CRE Loan Workouts The following examples are provided for illustrative purposes only and are designed to demonstrate the examiner s analytical thought process to identify appropriate classification, implications for interest accrual, and whether a loan should be reported as a troubled debt restructuring (TDR) for regulatory reporting purposes. 24 Although not discussed in the illustrations below, examiners also need to consider the adequacy of the lender s supporting documentation, internal analysis, and business decision to enter into a loan workout arrangement and its effect on the allowance for loan and lease losses (ALLL), including any impairment measurements, and subsequent reporting requirements related to the loan. Examiners should use caution when applying these examples to real-life situations because all facts and circumstances should be considered and judgment should be exercised before reaching conclusions related to credit classifications, accrual versus nonaccrual status, and TDR reporting. 25 The determination of whether a loan modification is a TDR requires consideration of all of the facts and circumstances surrounding the modification. No single factor, by itself, is determinative of whether a modification is a TDR. To make this determination, the lender assesses whether (a) the borrower is experiencing financial difficulties, and (b) the lender has granted a concession. For purposes of these examples, if the borrower was not experiencing financial difficulties, the example does not assess whether a concession was granted. However, in distressed markets, lenders may make concessions because borrowers are experiencing financial difficulties. Accordingly, lenders and examiners should exercise judgment in evaluating whether a restructuring is a TDR. A. Income Producing Property Office Building BASE CASE: A lender originated a $15 million loan for the purchase of an office building with monthly payments based on an amortization of 20 years and a balloon payment of $13.6 million at the end of year three. At origination, the loan had a 75 percent loan-to-value (LTV) based on an appraisal reflecting a $20 million market value on an as stabilized basis, a debt service coverage ratio of 1.35x, and a market interest rate. The lender expected to renew the loan when the balloon payment became due at the end of year three. The project s cash flow has declined, as the borrower granted rental concessions to existing tenants in order to retain the tenants and compete with other landlords in a weak economy. SCENARIO 1: At maturity, the lender renewed the $13.6 million loan at a market rate of interest that provides for the incremental credit risk and amortized the principal over the remaining 17 years. The borrower had not been delinquent on prior payments and has sufficient cash flow to service the market rate terms at a debt service coverage ratio of 1.12x. 24 The regulators believe that the accrual and TDR treatments in these illustrations fall within the range of acceptable practices under GAAP. 25 In addition, estimates of the fair value of collateral for regulatory reporting purposes require the use of judgment and should be consistent with FASB ASC 820, Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures; see Attachment 2. Page 14 of 33

15 A review of the leases reflects the majority of tenants are now stable occupants with long-term leases and sufficient cash flow to pay their rent. A recent appraisal reported an as stabilized market value of $13.1 million for the property, reflecting an increase in market capitalization rates, which results in a 104 percent LTV. Classification: The lender internally graded the loan pass and is monitoring the credit. The examiner agreed, as the borrower has the ability to continue making payments on reasonable terms despite a decline in cash flow and in the market value of the collateral. Nonaccrual Treatment: The lender maintained the loan on an accrual status. The borrower has demonstrated the ability to make the regularly scheduled payments and, even with the decline in the borrower s creditworthiness, cash flow appears sufficient to make these payments and full repayment of principal and interest is expected. The examiner concurred with the lender s accrual treatment. TDR Treatment: The lender determined that the renewed loan should not be reported as a TDR. While the borrower is experiencing some financial deterioration, the borrower has sufficient cash flow to service the debt and has no record of payment default; therefore, the borrower is not experiencing financial difficulties. The examiner concurred with the lender s TDR treatment. SCENARIO 2: At maturity, the lender renewed the $13.6 million loan at a market rate of interest that provides for the incremental risk and amortized the principal over the remaining 17 years. The borrower had not been delinquent on prior payments. The building s net operating income has decreased and current cash flow to service the new loan has declined, resulting in a debt service coverage ratio of 1.12x. Some of the leases are coming up for renewal and additional rental concessions may be necessary to keep the existing tenants in a weak economy. However, the project s debt service coverage is not expected to drop below 1.05x. A current valuation has not been ordered. The lender estimates the property s current as stabilized market value is $14.5 million, which results in a 94 percent LTV. In addition, the lender has not asked the borrower to provide current financial statements to assess the borrower s ability to service the debt with cash from other sources. Classification: The lender internally graded the loan pass and is monitoring the credit. The examiner disagreed with the internal grade and listed the credit as special mention. While the borrower has the ability to continue to make payments, there has been a declining trend in the property s income stream, continued potential rental concessions, and a reduced collateral margin. In addition, the lender s failure to request current financial information and to obtain an updated collateral valuation represents administrative deficiencies. Nonaccrual Treatment: The lender maintained the loan on an accrual status. The borrower has demonstrated the ability to make regularly scheduled payments and, even with the decline in the borrower s creditworthiness, cash flow is sufficient at this time to make payments and full repayment of principal and interest are expected. The examiner concurred with the lender s accrual treatment. Page 15 of 33

16 TDR Treatment: The lender determined that the renewed loan should not be reported as a TDR. While the borrower is experiencing some financial deterioration, the borrower is not experiencing financial difficulties as the borrower has sufficient cash flow to service the debt, and there was no history of default. The examiner concurred with the lender s TDR treatment. SCENARIO 3: At maturity, the lender restructured the $13.6 million loan on a 12-month interest-only basis at a below market rate of interest. The borrower has been sporadically delinquent on prior payments and projects a debt service coverage ratio of 1.12x based on the preferential terms. A review of the leases, which were available to the lender at the time of the restructuring, reflects the majority of tenants have short-term leases and that some were behind on their rental payments to the borrower. According to the lender, this situation has not improved since the restructuring. A recent appraisal reported a $14.5 million as stabilized market value for the property, which results in a 94 percent LTV. Classification: The lender internally graded the loan pass and is monitoring the credit. The examiner disagreed with the internal grade due to the borrower s limited ability to service a below market rate loan on an interest-only basis, sporadic delinquencies, and the reduced collateral position, and classified the loan substandard. Nonaccrual Treatment: The lender maintained the loan on accrual status due to the positive cash flow and collateral margin. The examiner did not concur with this treatment because the loan was not restructured with reasonable repayment terms, the borrower has limited capacity to service a below market rate on an interest-only basis, and the reduced estimate of cash flow from the property indicates that full repayment of principal and interest is not reasonably assured. TDR Treatment: The lender reported the restructured loan as a TDR because the borrower is experiencing financial difficulties: the project s ability to generate sufficient cash flows to service the debt is questionable, the lease income from the tenants is declining, loan payments have been sporadic, and collateral values have declined. In addition, the lender granted a concession (i.e., reduced the interest rate to a below market level and deferred principal payments). The examiner concurred with the lender s TDR treatment. B. Income Producing Property Shopping Mall BASE CASE: A lender originated a 36-month $10 million loan for the construction of a shopping mall to occur over 24 months with a 12-month lease-up period to allow the borrower time to achieve stabilized occupancy before obtaining permanent financing. The loan had an interest reserve to cover interest payments over the three-year term of the credit. At the end of the third year, there is $10 million outstanding on the loan, as the shopping mall has been built and the interest reserve, which has been covering interest payments, has been fully drawn. At the time of origination, the appraisal reported an as stabilized market value of $13.5 million for the property. In addition, the borrower had a take-out commitment that would provide permanent financing at maturity. A condition of the take-out lender was that the shopping mall had to achieve a 75 percent occupancy level. Page 16 of 33

17 Due to weak economic conditions, the property only reached a 55 percent occupancy level at the end of the12-month lease up period and the original takeout commitment became void. Mainly due to a tightening of credit for these types of loans, the borrower is unable to obtain permanent financing elsewhere when the loan matured in February (i.e., due to market factors and not due to the borrower s financial condition). SCENARIO 1: The lender renewed the loan for an additional year to allow for a higher leaseup rate and for the borrower to seek permanent financing. The extension is at a market rate that provides for the incremental credit risk and on an interest-only basis. While the property s historical cash flow was insufficient at 0.92x debt service ratio, recent improvements in the occupancy level now provides adequate coverage. Recent improvements include the signing of several new leases with other leases currently being negotiated. In addition, current financial statements reflect that the builder, who personally guarantees the debt, has sufficient cash on deposit at the lender plus other liquid assets. These assets provide sufficient cash flow to service the borrower s global debt service requirements on a principal and interest basis, if necessary. The guarantor covered the initial cash flow shortfalls from the project and provided a good faith principal curtailment of $200,000 at renewal. A recent appraisal on the shopping mall reports an as is market value of $10 million and an as stabilized market value $11 million. Classification: The lender internally graded the loan as a pass and is monitoring the credit. The examiner agreed with the lender s internal loan grade. The examiner concluded that the project continues to progress and now cash flows the interest payments. The guarantor currently has the ability and demonstrated willingness to supplement the project s cash flow and service the borrower s global debt service requirements. The examiner concurred that the interest-only terms were reasonable because the renewal was short-term and the project and the guarantor have demonstrated repayment capacity. In addition, this type of loan structure is commonly used to allow a project to achieve stabilized occupancy, but any subsequent loan terms should likely have a principal amortization component. The examiner also agreed that the LTV should be based on the as stabilized market value as the lender is financing the project through the leaseup period. Nonaccrual Treatment: The lender maintained the loan on accrual status as the guarantor has sufficient funds to cover the borrower s global debt service requirements over the one-year period of the renewed loan. Full repayment of principal and interest is reasonably assured from the project s and guarantor s cash flow despite a decline in the collateral margin. The examiner concurred with the lender s accrual treatment. TDR Treatment: The lender concluded that while the borrower has been affected by declining economic conditions, the level of deterioration does not warrant TDR treatment. The borrower was not experiencing financial difficulties because the borrower and guarantor have the ability to service the renewed loan, which was prudently underwritten at a market rate of interest, plus the borrower s other obligations on a timely basis, and the lender s expectation to collect the full amount of principal and interest from the borrower s or guarantor s sources (i.e., not from interest reserves). The examiner concurred with the lender s rationale and TDR treatment. Page 17 of 33

18 SCENARIO 2: The lender restructured the loan on an interest-only basis at a below market rate for one year to provide additional time to increase the occupancy level and thereby enable the borrower to arrange permanent financing. The level of lease-up remains relatively unchanged at 55 percent and the shopping mall projects a debt service coverage ratio of 1.02x based on the preferential loan terms. At the time of the restructuring, the lender inappropriately based the selection of the below market interest rate on outdated financial information, which resulted in a positive cash flow projection even though file documentation available at the time of the restructuring reflected that the borrower anticipates the shopping mall s income stream will decline due to rent concessions, the loss of a tenant, and limited prospects for finding new tenants. Current financial statements indicate the builder, who personally guarantees the debt, is highly leveraged, has limited cash or liquid assets, and has other projects with delinquent payments. A recent appraisal on the shopping mall reports an as is market value of $9 million, which results in a LTV ratio of 111 percent. Classification: The lender internally graded the loan as substandard. The examiner disagreed with the internal grade and classified the amount not protected by the collateral value, $1 million, as loss and required the lender to charge-off this amount. The examiner did not factor costs to sell into the loss classification analysis, as the source of repayment is not reliant on the sale of the collateral at this time. The examiner classified the remaining loan balance, based on the property s as is market value of $9 million, as substandard given the borrower s uncertain repayment capacity and weak financial support. Nonaccrual Treatment: The lender determined the loan did not warrant being placed on nonaccrual status. The examiner did not concur with this treatment because the partial chargeoff is indicative that full collection of principal is not anticipated and the lender has continued exposure to additional loss due to the project s insufficient cash flow and reduced collateral margin, and the guarantor s limited ability to provide further support. TDR Treatment: The lender reported the restructured loan as a TDR because (a) the borrower is experiencing financial difficulties as evidenced by the high leverage, delinquent payments on other projects, and inability to meet the proposed exit strategy because of the inability to lease the property in a reasonable timeframe; and (b) the lender granted a concession as evidenced by the reduction in the interest rate to a below market rate. The examiner concurred with the lender s TDR treatment. SCENARIO 3: Current financial statements indicate the borrower and the guarantor have minimal other resources available to support this credit. The lender chose not to restructure the $10 million loan into a new single amortizing note of $10 million at a market rate of interest because the project s projected cash flow would only provide a 0.88x debt service coverage ratio as the borrower has been unable to lease space. A recent appraisal on the shopping mall reported an as is market value of $9 million, which results in a LTV of 111 percent. Page 18 of 33

19 Therefore, at the original loan s maturity in February, the lender restructured the $10 million debt into two notes. The lender placed the first note of $7.2 million (i.e., the A note) on monthly payments that amortize the debt over 20 years at a market rate of interest that provides for the incremental credit risk. The project s debt service coverage ratio equals 1.20x for the $7.2 million loan based on the shopping mall s projected net operating income. The lender placed the second note of the remaining principal balance of $2.8 million (i.e., the B note) into a 2 percent interest-only loan that is scheduled to reset in five years to an amortizing payment. The lender then charged-off the $2.8 million note due to the project s lack of repayment capacity and to provide reasonable collateral protection for the remaining on-book loan of $7.2 million. Since the restructuring, the borrower has made payments on both loans for more than six consecutive months. Classification: The lender internally graded the on-book loan of $7.2 million as a pass credit due to the fact that the borrower has demonstrated the ability to perform under the modified terms. The examiner agreed with the lender s grade as the lender restructured the original obligation into A and B notes, the lender charged off the B note, and the borrower has demonstrated the ability to repay the A note. Using this multiple note structure with the charge-off of the B note enables the lender to recognize interest income and limit the amount reported as a TDR in future periods. If the lender had restructured the loan into a single note, the credit classification and the nonaccrual and TDR treatments would have been different. Nonaccrual Treatment: The lender restored the on-book loan of $7.2 million to accrual status as the borrower has the ability to repay the loan, has a record of performing at the revised terms for more than six months, and full repayment of principal and interest is expected. The examiner concurred with the lender s accrual treatment. Interest payments received on the off-book loan have been recorded as recoveries because, in this case, full recovery of principal and interest on this loan was not reasonably assured. TDR Treatment: The lender reported the restructured on-book loan of $7.2 million as a TDR. The lender determined that the on-book loan should be reported as a TDR, consistent with the regulatory reporting guidance because (a) the borrower is experiencing financial difficulties as evidenced by the borrower s high leverage, delinquent payments on other projects, and failure to meet the proposed exit strategy because of the inability to lease the property in a reasonable timeframe and the unlikely collectibility of the charged-off loan; and (b) the lender granted a concession. The concessions included a below market interest rate and protracted payment requirements on the charged-off portion of the debt and extending the on-book loan beyond expected timeframes. If the borrower continues to perform according to the modified terms of the restructured loan, the lender plans to stop reporting the on-book loan as a TDR after the regulatory reporting defined time period expires because it was restructured with a market rate of interest. For example, since the restructuring occurred in February, the $7.2 million on-book loan should be reported as a TDR on the lender s March, June, September, and December regulatory reports. The TDR reporting could cease on the lender s following March regulatory report if the borrower continues to perform according to the modified terms. The examiner concurred with this planned treatment. Page 19 of 33

20 SCENARIO 4: Current financial statements indicate the borrower and the guarantor have minimal other resources available to support this credit. The lender restructured the $10 million loan into a new single note of $10 million at a market rate of interest that provides for the incremental credit risk and is on an amortizing basis. The project s projected cash flow reflects a 0.88x debt service coverage ratio as the borrower has been unable to lease space. A recent appraisal on the shopping mall reports an as is market value of $9 million, which results in a LTV of 111 percent. Based on the property s current market value of $9 million, the lender charged-off $1 million immediately after the renewal. Classification: The lender internally graded the remaining $9 million on-book portion of the loan as a pass credit because the lender s analysis of the project s cash flow indicated a 1.05x debt service coverage ratio when just considering the on-book balance. The examiner disagreed with the internal grade and classified the $9 million on-book balance as substandard due to the borrower s marginal financial condition, lack of guarantor support, and uncertainty over the source of repayment. Nonaccrual Treatment: The lender maintained the remaining $9 million on-book portion of the loan on accrual, as the borrower has the ability to repay the principal and interest on this balance. The examiner did not concur with this treatment. The examiner instructed the lender to place the loan on nonaccrual status. Because the lender restructured the debt into a single note and had charged-off a portion of the restructured loan, the repayment of the interest and principal contractually due on the entire debt is not reasonably assured. The loan can be returned to accrual status if the lender can document that subsequent improvement in the borrower s financial condition has enabled the loan to be brought fully current with respect to principal and interest and the lender expects the contractual balance of the loan (including the partial charge-off) will be fully collected. In addition, interest income may be recognized on a cash basis for the partially charged-off portion of the loan when the remaining recorded balance is considered fully collectible. However, the partial charge-off cannot be reversed. TDR Treatment: The lender reported the restructured loan as a TDR according to the requirements of its regulatory reports because (a) the borrower is experiencing financial difficulties as evidenced by the high leverage, delinquent payments on other projects, and inability to meet the original exit strategy because the borrower was unable to lease the property in a reasonable timeframe; and (b) the lender granted a concession as evidenced by deferring payment beyond the repayment ability of the borrower. The charge-off indicates that the lender does not expect full repayment of principal and interest, yet the borrower remains obligated for the full amount of the debt and payments, which is at a level that is not consistent with the borrower s repayment capacity. Because the borrower is not expected to be able to comply with the loan s restructured terms, the lender would likely continue to report the loan as a TDR. The examiner concurs with reporting the renewed loan as a TDR. Page 20 of 33

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