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4 ()() VANGOGHMUSEUM : ROTTERDAM DELFT SILODAMMVRDV : EUWEERK O 141

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8 2004/05 Amsterdam 2009/ / Amsterdam - / Amsterdam Roeterseiland Univercity Luca Bertolini «Planning concepts for cities in transition: Regionalization of urbanity in the Amdsterdam metropolitan area» Eric van der Kooij Metropolitan Team / Spatial Planning Department of the City of Amsterdam Zuiderkerk Amsterdam projects 7

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10 : 13 1 Eiselmeer polder polder Eiselmeer Friesland 1930 Eiselmeer ( ) (DKindersley Amsterdam 2006 explorer ) polder dam - 1 9

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12 1966 (Britanica World Atlas 1966) 3 4 niederdeutsch ( ) (Holland = )

13 (damm) Nederland ( Niederländer) Holland Nederland (iederlande Holland) Netherland Holland ( dutchmann) holland Dutch deutsche Deutschland ( ) Thodisc 2 Thiudisc Diutisc deutsch ( «Germania» Allemagne - alle Mane ) 1 ( ) 3 4 Friesland Lübek «()» (Hansa ) ( ) Oxford Dictionary *theud deot ish ( ) ( Thiuda-reiks + ;;;)

14 (11 ) (15 ) (Colin McEvedy The Penguin Atlas of Medieval History Maryland 1964) «17» 3 ( ) (1602) (1621) (Colin McEvedy The Penguin )

15 1492 ( ) ( 417) «( 19 )» ( ) ( ) ( 341) ( ) 346 «ÿ» ( 16 ( ) 5 6 ( ) () ( )

16 «1619» 7 «17 (19 )» 8 ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 19 (Colin McEvedy The Penguin Atlas of Modern History Middlessex 1972) %

17 ( ) 20 ( farmers) ( ) \ ( ) British Shell Company ( ) Royal Dutch Shell Philips 20 (Colin McEvedy The Penguin Atlas of Recent History New York 1982) 16

18 1918 ( ) Unilever (1927) (1929) ( ) (1946) (1949) (1957) (1951) (Belge-Nederland- Louxenbourg) ( ) (1957) : % 50% Unilever Philips Royal Dutch Shell 1969: eenheid van alle linkse krachten ( 1969) 17

19 Randstad (= + ) Randstad ( ) ( ) Randstadt Peter Hall The World Cities London 1967) 18

20 Randstad 1960 (Peter Hall ) Ijsselmeer ( Ijsel Yssel Ijselmunde «Ijsel» Zuiderzee ( ) Zuidersee 1932 (Michelin Carte de Europe 1: Nord Holland 1961) 19

21 ( ) 1200 (DKindersley ) van Amstel van von = de «()» van Amstel (DKindersley )

22 - (Merian «Europa» 17 ) (DKindersley ) - 7 ÿ (DKindersley ) 21

23 : - (1969) ( 1969) ( ) (DKindersley ) 22

24 Bloemgracht gracht Graben - straat Strasse (bloem Blumen ) (DKindersley ) - (DKindersley ) 23

25 ( 1969) 1960 Randstadt (Michelin ) 24

26 ( ;) ! (!) Shiphol ( (El Venezuelos Kemal Ataturk Ben Gourion Charle de Gaul John Kennedy Nikos Kazantzakis Megas Alexandros Tolis Voskopoulos) 6 ( )! ( - ) Coffee shops chorto shops «zoniana Adialoghs» ;- sex shop (Mari Juana) LSD : ( ) (Tin-Tin au pays de lÿor noir) hand made home made 70!!-! bock () malz () 10 ( «van Gogh» ÿ ) ( van Gogh ) : ICOMOS! 12 ( Jugendherberger Bunnik :!!) ( Ubbergen Nijmegen

27 )! (!) Haarlem Leuden Delft ( ) 200 ( - ) ( ) Delft ( ) ÿ «DAT GEBEURT TOCH NIE IN MIJN OMGEVING ( ( ;) Lijnbaan ÿ50 Bakema ( ) Breuer 1969 Beuerstraverse - ( ) Binnenrotte ( ; ) (Kijk kubus)!!! (!) - ( - ÿ ) ( 26

28 ) «tofu» (;)!! ( ) SMS : ( 50)! Zadkine ( Dutch Shell Company ;;;) Zadkine ( ) 19 ( ) Nieuwe Maas Boompjes Erasmusburg Blaak metro Rotterdam Blaak (;) (;) ( ) «;» ( koningin Emma Plein ) Westelijk Handels Terrein 20 K ! ( 12 ) ( ) Vreewijk ( 20 )! ( ) 17 ( ) - «uzeri restaurant de kleine griek» ( «ouzo - meze»)!! ( ;) (!)

29 13 housing Dirk Hartogh straat Oude Hout Haven containers ( ) (!) ( ) ( ) Enge apel steeg ( )! (5-6 )!! Waterloo 1942 Zuid WTS Minervalaan Plan Zuid Zuideramstelkanal Berlage Berlage 1600! Bijlmermeer Bijlmer/ArenA Bijlmermeer ÿ60 - -Josi-Wood Toulouse-le-Mirail ( ) De Dageraad De Klerk Superblock 28

30 ( ) ( WC WC 19 reserv VIPs) ; 14 Greuzenveld 55 Osdorp -! Bijlmermeer ÿ60 ( ) WOZOGO «50»!!! ; ( ) : ; -! Ijlburg-Haven Eiland ( ;- )! ( ;) ( ; ) Zeeburg-Borneo Borneo ÿ ;!! - - ( ) ( ) 29

31 - ( ÿ ) Nemo (ÿ ) ; TV DSM ( ) ÿ NDSM ( provos ÿ60) ( ) ( ( Studebacker Pondiac Cadilac ÿ50 ) ( ) 15 O ( ) euwe erk 1969!! bar saloon!! ( ) «ÿ ;») : Dam Kalverstraat Magna Plaza ( 30

32 )! Mall Mall (-) ( ) () extra super (!) Dam ( ) Volden Park ) ÿ ( ) Dam 2000 (;) ( )! 16 de Pijp (-) - 19 de Pijp ( ) ( ) (;) Frans Erens ! Olympic Air Olympic Airways ( ;) 31

33 (;) ÿ - (!) ( 70 Bijlmermeer ) 5-6 ( ÿ ) ( ) 32

34 33

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36 : () () (Red Light Districts) RLD ( ) : ) ) ) (Gording 2001) 35

37 /- 30% Belle : "Respect sex workers all over the world" 2007 Oudekerksplein RLD De Wallen RLD De Wallen sex-shops sextheatres 36

38 De Wallen 15 : (1413 ) - - Stoofsteeg De Wallen 37

39 De Wallen Trompettersteeg : (Boys) - ; ; 38

40 3 ; / - - : : - : ( ) (Derrida) - ; - - (Green 1990) - O : Elisabeth Wilson : 39

41 : (Wilson 1991) : : ; ; Aalbers M Big Sister is Watching You! Gender Interaction and the Unwritten Rules of the Amsterdam Red Light District Barber A From the Red Light District to the Red Carpet: The Gentrification of Amsterdam's Red Light District and its Impact on the Decocratic Citizenship Rights of Sex Workers Boys J 1984 Is there a Feminist Analysis of Architecture? The Built Environment 101 Green E 1990 Green E et al Womenÿs Leisure What Leisure? Macmillan London 6 : Gershenson Ol Penner B Introduction: The private Life of Public Conceniences Wilson El 1991 The Sphinx in the city Virago Press London

42 VAN GOGH MUSEUM Van Gogh Museumplein ( Amsterdam) Rijksmuseum Stedelijk Museum : Gerrit Rietveld Exhibition Wing Kisho Kurokawa 1999 Rietveld 1964 J Wheatfield 1888 Vincent van Gogh van Dillen J van Tricht Greiner Van Goor Huijten Architects BV Paulus Potterstraat Van Gogh Rietveld De Stijl Greiner Van Goor Huijten Architects BV Exhibition Wing Kisho Kurokawa Georges Berne Eveline Merkx of Merkx+Girod Architects Paulus Potterstraat : Exhibition Wing Kisho Kurokawa Museumplein Concertgebouw Rijksmuseum Museumplein 41

43 Sven-Ingvar Andersson Museumplein : 42

44 : ÿ Singel Heren-gracht Keizersgracht Prinsengracht Singelgracht - Heren-gracht - 17 Prinsengracht - - (Centraal Sta-tion) - ; : - - Damrak Amstelredam Amsterdam café coffee shops - - café - 43

45 Oude Kerk Damrak Dam Madame Tussaud 15 Neuwe Kerk - ÿ - Dam 263 Prinsengracht Jordaan 17 brown cafes stylish boutiques Jordan artistic Singelgracht Mu-seumplein Royal Concert Hall - Van Gogh - Rijksmuseum - Rembrant Vermeer Stedelijk Museumplein Vondelpark ÿ - Hortus Botanicus Artis Waterlooplein - extra bonus street market window shopping ÿ Dam Kalverstraat Nieuwendijk

46 ÿ to go Iguazu (Prinsengracht 703) T-bone steaks sauce - Parana (Geldersekade 5) 25 Top Thai (Herenstraat 22) - sauce Papaya Pok Pok Eat Mode (Zeedijk 105) Semhar ÿ coffee shops - bar club 100 coffee shops Leidseplein bar club dance clubs Zebra Jimmy Woo Sugar Factory clubbing lounge bar The Mansion Suzi Wong Rembrandtplein Amstel Ice Bar - lounge bar Xtra Cold massive club Escape Live rock jazz blues funk - The Waterhole (Korte Leidse-dwars-str 49) jazz Alto (Korte Leidsedwars-str 115) Bourbon Street (Leidse-kruis-straat 6) : 45

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50 ROTTERDAM ROTTERDAM CENTRAL STATION PROJECT Rotterdam 2004 Team CS ( Benthem Crouwel Architekten Meyer en Van Schooten Architecten West 8) Rotterdam Central Station High Speed Line (HSL) De Provenierswijk 19 Weena Boulevard ÿ Westersingel Rotterdam 1-5: Rotterdam Central Station :http://wwwwest8nl/projects/all/ro tterdam_centraal_station/ 49

51 6-8: Central Station Nationale Nederlande/ : 9:

52 Schouwburgplein West 8 (Adriaan Geuze Edzo Bindels Martin Biewenga Jerry van Eyck) : Schouwburgplein / : Rotterdam City Theatre City Concert Hall ÿÿ 35cm 1980 Schouwburgplein : Schouwburgplein 51

53 : Schouwburgplein LIJNBAAN JH VAN DEN BROEK JB BAKEMA : Lijnbaan Lijnbaan Van Den Broek Bakema 1953 ÿ 52

54 19-22: Lijnbaan Beurstraverseÿ de Architekten Cie Beurstraverseÿ Hoogstraat Lijnbaan Coolsingel 23-24: Beurstraverse / : 25: / : Binnenrotte Binnenrotte ÿ 53

55 project MVRDV 26-30: Binnenrotte / : Kubuswoningen / Cube Houses P Blom

56 31-34: Kubuswoningen Blaak Binnenrotte Kubuswoning Piet Blom (Kijkkubus) 55

57 35-37: / : Nieuwe Maas Erasmusburg Kop van Zuid 38: Nieuwe Maas : : Erasmusburg Maas Rotterdam : Rotterdam Rotterdam 56

58 ( ) ( ) Erasmusbridge (Van Berkel & Bos ) - Maas Kop van Zuid Katebdrecht Afrikaanderbuut Feijenoord Wilhelminaplein Entrepot Landtong Wilhemina Pier Zuidkade Stadstuinen Parkstad Wilhemina Pier Erasmusbridge v Varkennoordse Wilhelminaplein Tramplus : Kop van Zuid ( ) Wilhelmina Pier Kop van Zuid Erasmus Bridge Kop van Zuid 41-43: Kop Van Zuid 57

59 Rotterdam museumpark 80 - (NAi) Rotterdam Kunsthal KUNSTHAL Rem Koolhaas : To Kunsthal Rotterdam Kunsthal Rem Koolhaas ÿÿ 60x60m Museum Park Maasboulevard Museum Park Maasboulevard 46: / : (2006) Koolhaas- 58

60 Koolhaas ( ) 47-48: To Kunsthal MUSEUM PARK Museum Park Rotterdam 80 Boymans-van Beuningen Kunsthal Museum Park Rotterdam 49: Museum Park / : : : Museum Park 51: Museum Park (440m x 130m) 60 ( Jean Prouvé) Boymans-van Beuningen 6m : Kunsthal 59

61 52-53: i / : NAi Jo Coenen 54-55: Boymans-van Beuningen / : Boymans-van Beuningen 1934 Van Der Steur 56: Museum Park 57: Erasmusburg Rotterdam 60

62 20 Capsular architecture ( ) The Capsular Civilization Lieven De Cauter Rotterdam : ÿ De Cauter L 2005 The Capsular Civilization Rotterdam: NAi Publishers 1994 : 2005 : Xochimilko ( ) : Kop Van Zuid 2009 Rotterdam: ÿ 2006 Koolhaas- wwwyouropicom wwwwdwnl 61

63 DELFT D Johannes Vermeer 1600 Delft o Delft H Delft polder 1100 Delft (1) «delve» - 2 Nieuwe Delft (2) ( ) Oude Delft ( ) Oude Nieuwe Delft Historical maps of Blaeu 1652 : Wikipedia

64 (canal) - - (gracht) (singels) Delft -!! - Delft parking - - ( ) ( ) Parking «uzeri restaurant de kleine griek» - «ouzo - meze» 63!!

65 Delft : Markt Markt (euwe Kerk) 1536 Markt 17 - Delft - Hendrick de Keyser 64

66 1536 Pieter de Keyser T : 1886 ( ) William the Silent Hendrick Pieter de Keysero (Guilds) - - restaurant 65

67 Markt 17 : Wikipedia : - Delft !! 66

68 : Anne Benthues Uwe Ahrens Winfried Maas Robert DHuerta 2003 Giants of Delft: Johannes Vermeer and the natural philosophers Associated University Press England wwwwikipediacom wwwtudelftnl 67

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72 SILODAM MVRDV (!!!) (!) (!!) Oude Hout Haven Oude Hout Haven Zoutkeetsplein ( ;;;) 70

73 Zoutkeetsplein!! Oude Hout Haven! : Oude Hout Haven 1 : containers 2 : Silodam MVRDV ( ) CONTAINERS MVRDV: wwwe-architectcouk/amsterdam 1000 MVRDV 12 containers 9 ( 3 ) 71

74 Ij ( ; «! ;;!» ;;!) MVRDV SILODAM Silodam Ij (silos) / Ij Silo ( - 72

75 ) "" 2002 / m2 MVRDV Bouwbedrijf "MJ de Nijs en Zn Cauberg-Huygen Pieters Bouwtechniek Rabo Vastgoed De Principaal BV Silodam MVRDV: wwwe-architectcouk/amsterdam ( ;;; ) Silodam 73

76 Silodam MVRDV : wwwe-architectcouk/amsterdam Silodam: Silodam "" (!) Silodam MVRDV : wwwearchitectcouk/amsterdam 74

77 Silodam ' MVRDV Silodam 75

78 E Silodam :wwwe-architectcouk/amsterdam Silodam : ( ) 76

79 ( ;;;)!! : ( ;;; -!!!!!) ( Amsterdam Holland!!!) 77

80 Zuid WTS (!!!) Waterloo (!!) cafe : 78

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82 1900 "" "" 20 "" 20 : : "Plan Zuid" Hendrik Petrus Berlage : "De Dageraad" Michel de Klerk PL Kramer : "Westelijke Tuinsteden" (Western Garden Suburbs / ) : "Bijlmermeer" polders o polders 65% polder polders 1500 polder polder

83 laissez-faire ÿ 19 (City Council) 1875 ( ) ( " ") " " (lease-hold system) 20 (Municipal Real Estate Department) (Hellenic Public Real Estate Corporation) 1896 (lease-hold system) : 75% (15000 ) 6500 Waterland 1900 " " ( ) 81

84 ' FM Wihoeut ( ) Hendrik Petrus Berlage (Amsterdam School) Michel de Klerk Johan van der Mey PL Kramer : "Plan Zuid" Hendrik Petrus Berlage 1917 Plan Zuid H P Berlage Plan Zuid Plan Zuid Plan Zuid : Plan Zuid 82

85 "Plan Zuid" H P Berlage (1) Zuid (2) Minervalaan (3) De Dageraad Zuid Minervalaan ( ) Zuid 83

86 Minervalaan : "De Dageraad" Michel de Klerk PL Kramer Plan Zuid PL Takbuurt (De Dageraad Onze Woning Rochdale Patrimonium Dr Schaepman Amsterdam Zuid) (Michel de Klerk PL Kramer JH Rinja AW Weissman Tj Kuipers A Ingwersen Gulden Geldmaker) : 84

87 1920 De Dageraad De Klerk Kramer 294 ( ) "ladder windows" Takbuurt 6 De Dageraad De Dageraad de Klerk : " " de Klerk " " Le Corbusier 85

88 : "Westelijke Tuinsteden" (Western Garden Suburbs / ) " " (General Extension Plan) 1935 Cornelius van Eesteren 1949 ÿ

89 General Extension Plan 1935 ( ) CIAM 1933 Plan Zuid blocks blocks 5 Sloterplas ( ) (green belts) 400 Slotermeer Geuzenveld Slotervaart Osdorp 87

90 parking 88

91 : "Bijlmermeer" Bijlmermeer Bijlmermeer Gaasperdam Bijlmermeer Gaasperdam Bijlmermeer : 800 Bijlmermeer block

92 master plan Bijlmermeer Bijlmermeer ( ) pilotis ( ) ÿ ( ) ÿ70 "" pilotis pilotis "" "" 90

93 Bijlmermeer

94 "" : 1 "Plan Zuid" Hendrik Petrus Berlage 2 "De Dageraad" Michel de Klerk PL Kramer 3 "Westelijke Tuinsteden" (Western Garden Suburbs / ) 4 "Bijlmermeer" 92

95 "" 16 project Borneo Sporenburg Borneo Sporenburg Bureau Voorlichting gemeente Amsterdam 1975 Amsterdam Wonen publication of the Bureau Voorlichting gemeente Amsterdam Amsterdam Casciato M 2003 The Amsterdam School 010 Publishers Rotterdam Fainstein Susan 2000 "The egalitarian city: images of Amsterdam" Understanding Amsterdam Essays on economic vitality city life and urban form Aksant Academic Publishers Amsterdam Hommels A 2005 "The spatial renewal of the Bijlmermeer" Unbuilding cities Obduracy in urban socio-technical change The MIT Press Massachusetts Municipal Physical Planning Department 1983 Amsterdam Planning and Development publication of the Physical Planning Department Amsterdam 2003 " Westelijke Tuinsteden ( ) "

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98 : Phython Bridge Borneo Sporenburg Cadillac 50 NDSM 26 Ijburg Ijburg Ijburg Ijmeer 1965 Van Den Broek Jacob Berend Bakema PampusPlan (1996) 1997 Steigereiland ( Jetty Island) 200 Haveneiland ( Harbour Island) Rieteilanden ( Reed Islands) : Centrumeiland ( Centre Island) Middeneiland ( Middle Island) Strandeiland (Beach Island) Buiteneiland (Outer Island) masterplan : 2002 Rieteilanden Haveneiland Steigereiland (: ) 96

99 (: ) 30% 40% 30% ( : : ) Ijburg Grimshaw Piet-Hein-Tunnel Ijburglaan (Ijburg Avenue) (Enneus Heerma Bridge Nesciobrug) ( ) Ijburg Dura Vermeer Johan van der Pol The Truman Show Seaside Krier Duany Plater-Zyberk «-» 97

100 Ijburg (Walter Benjamin1935) 2004 _ : Borneo Sporenburg Borneo Sporenburg West VINEX project Borneo-Sporenburg 30 (Van Herk & De Kleijn MH3 Neutelings Riedijk Architects ) (100 ) A Geuze West 8 ( ) ( ) ( ) ( 30% ) west 8 Python Bridge 93 98

101 Python Bridge (: ) ( The Whale IJTower Fountainhead) Whale () Frits van Dongen Sporenburg Ijburg Borneo Sporenburg 99

102 ÿ (: : ) (: ) (: ) 100

103 «( ) (» (: : ) NDSM Nemo Nemo Renzo Piano 1997 Nemo (: ) «off» (broedplaatsen) 101

104 2000 «Geen cultuur zonder subcultuur Plan van Aanpak Broedplaats» (squatters) NDSM Werf site specific skateboard hip-hop 102

105 NDSM (: ) 19 () NDSM (Dutch Docking and Shipbuilding Company) ÿ 80 (1984) 1999 Kinetisch Noord ( ) «Geen cultuur zonder subcultuur Plan van Aanpak Broedplaats» Kinetisch Noord 'Stad als Casco' ( ) NDSM Stad als cascoÿ NDSM 103

106 « ( )» ( : : ) : (gentrification) 2007 : 5 TICCIH 2010 Ijburg: 2010 : 04/07/2010 wwwavgigr 104

107 Amsterdam 2006 wwwcabeorguk wwwthelearningnetworknet wwwwest8nl

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110 EUWE ERK Luca Bertolini Van Amsterdam - euwe erk euwe erk Albert Jaanszoon Vinckenbring bar saloon euwe erk : ( ) polders polders 9 Vinckenbring St Luke 108

111 (watermanagement) «waterlevels» - polders ( ) 50 : : IJ 109

112 : : ( ) project - IJ ( )- 110

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116 "" (Gemeentevervoerbedrijf/GVB) (ferries) GVB ( ) (NS) Amsterdam Omnibus Company Gemeentetram Amsterdam (GTA) " " 1943 Gemeentevervoerbedrijf (GVB) " " 2002 GVB : (: wwwgvbnl) Gemeentetram Amsterdam (GTA) " " Gemeentevervoerbedrijf (GVB) " " GVB GVB GVB Weesperplein-Gaasperplas light-rail Amstelveen Stadsmobiel (Ring Line) Isolatorweg Gein GVB Combino GVB Westwijk GVB : (light rail) ( Route 51 Amstelveen) 114

117 (Central Station) ( ) ( ) ( ) 4 ( ) 50 o - Zuidas - Muiderpoort Lelylaan 10 Ijburg Almere % 115

118 (: wwwgvbnl) 116

119 : 1 5 (5) (1) : 16 : 5 : 25 : : 117

120 Zuidas - Zuidas (: wwwzuidasnl) 118

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124 Planning Theory & Practice Vol 4 No June 2003 Planning Concepts for Cities in Transition: Regionalization of Urbanity in the Amsterdam Structure Plan LUCA BERTOLINI & WILLEM SALET ABSTRACT Opting for urbanityÿ is the main thread running through the Amsterdam structure plan currently under preparation But what is urbanityÿ? How is it emerging in a multi-centred region? What spatial planning implications does it entail? These questions were at the outset of a research study commissioned by the municipality of Amsterdam to the Amsterdam study centre for the Metropolitan Environment (AME) and summarized in this article There are two main conclusions The first is that traditional inside out development strategiesaccommodating the expansion of a single core and its peripherymust be substituted by outside in development strategies seeking to achieve a new synergy among different sub-centres and places at the urban-regional level The second is that new sub-centres will have to be developed as real centres of urbanity instead of as mono-functional islands as currently still the case In order to implement these strategies the municipality needs to enter coalitions with a variety of public and private actors spanning different spatial scales and policy sectors Introduction: The Multidimensional City Amsterdam is currently making preparations for the cityÿs new structure plan An outline strategy has been put forward for discussion and a host of people in and outside the Planning Department are working towards the final version of this strategic spatial document The main thread running through the new structure plan is contained in the slogan opting for urbanityÿ The municipality sees the urbanity of the city as the most important quality it has to offer in the broader regional field but also in the national and international context and it wants to reinforce this distinctive quality with spatial policies (see also Gadet & Van de Ven 2000) AME was asked by the Planning Department to discuss this choice in more detail 1 There are two important issues connected with this task and both have implications beyond the particular case of Amsterdam The first is the need to define urbanity a complex and multidimensional concept in such a way that it can be related to specific spatial planning choices The second and quite crucial issue stems from the observation that the Amsterdam area is undergoing a transition from an agglomeration strongly oriented towards one core towards an urban regional network of multiple centres and shifting hierarchies Many metropolitan regions in Europe cope with similar challenges of urban transformation This article will first elaborate on the definition of urbanity free from any association with specific urban forms and places (eg the historic inner city) Luca Bertolini AME Amsterdam Study Centre for the Metropolitan Environment Universiteit van Amsterdam Nieuwe Prinsengracht VZ Amsterdam the Netherlands Print/ X On-line/03/ Taylor & Francis Ltd DOI: /

125 132 L Bertolini & W Salet Figure 1 Amsterdam the municipality with the most important locations named in the article Second it will explore spatial opportunities and threats for the development of urbanity across the urban regional field As a preamble this section needs to specify better the nature of the current transition from agglomeration to network and its implications for spatial planning One of the most delicate aspects regarding the general principles of strategic spatial planning policy for Amsterdam is the question of scale and differentiating the public and private spheres of influence at different levels All previous structure plans from the 1930s on had essentially been concerned with the expansion of the central city Anyone looking ahead for the next 30 years however sees not a driving central urban economy creating new opportunities in a circle around it but a metropolitan region with a variety of centres made up of new locations along through-roads and around public transportation nodes related in only a few respects to the central cityÿs former regional function (see Figures 1 and 2) Without a focal point the old centrifugal forces cease to be dominant The important question for the future of the city then is how its scattered areas of urbanity can remain connected within the networks of urban interaction the focus of which is partly outside the traditional municipal boundaries This gives rise to a new situation where Amsterdam will have to exchange its traditional inside-outÿ policy (planning its expansion) for an outside-inÿ approach where the focus shifts to positioning itself in the networks of multiple centres in a broader spatial field The transition is not just a geographical one Virtually all strategic planning issues are under discussion at a higher level than that of the area within the municipal boundaries and the relevant policy making and lobbying organizations concerned with such strategic issues operate on a wide variety of scales The city already plays an important

126 Planning Concepts for Cities in Transition 133 Figure 2 Amsterdam the emerging regional metropolis with main infrastructure and subcentres role in many of these supra-local policy processes The Municipality is for instance involved in a variety of bilateral policy agreements with neighbouring municipalities in the urban district in a number of policy coalitions in the North Wing of the Randstad (the northern part of the western conurbation of the Netherlands including Amsterdam Utrecht Rotterdam and The Hague see Figure 3) and in co-ordinating its policy with provincial policy Furthermore it was one of the instigators of the Delta Metropolis initiative (trying to develop the Randstad as one whole); and it has good access to national government policy making in The Hague and to a lesser extent in Europe The Municipality also has a multiplicity of relationships with non-governmental bodies such as Schiphol airport Some of these are lasting coalitions some are more ad hoc but one thing is certain: these coalitions are not necessarily on the same wavelengths On the contrary there appears to be a latent degree of competition between them as they frequently get to different conclusions about what should be done These bi- and multilateral interactions overlap with a formal administrative structure where municipalities still have a strong autonomy there is no metropolitan government the province lacks strong means to enforce regional co-ordination and national spatial planning policies increasingly get the character of broad guidelines In principle the structure plan can play an important role in helping to lay down priorities for municipal policy in this multidimensional policy context A central choice made in this plan has been the focus on urbanityÿ as the specific quality that Amsterdam can contribute to the emerging multi-centred regional metropolis However urbanity is

127 134 L Bertolini & W Salet Figure 3 The Randstad or Delta Metropolis with main cities (black) and their agglomeration (dark grey) a complex concept There is a need to define it in a way that enables identifying relationships with specific spatial planning choices At the same time the transition to a multi-centred regional metropolis evoked above requires that the whole of the regional field be scannedÿ for spatial opportunities and threats for urbanity In the following an attempt will be made to define the concept of urbanityÿ as well as to discuss the implications of the slogan opting for urbanityÿ for spatial planning policies in Amsterdam and the region Conditions for Urbanity The concept of urbanityÿ is often associated with diversity a multiplicity of extremes in lifestyles with cultural innovations with conflict and dynamism and much less with uniformity averages harmony or stability The notion of movement and resulting renewal seems indeed elementary to any concept of urbanity but it does not seem likely that urban areas can retain their appeal in the long run solely by virtue of their variation and changeability Urbanity thus includes both characteristics albeit the rhythm of harmony and dynamism beats faster in a typical urban environment than a rural one This section will try to indicate the conditions for and dimensions of urbanity from the spatial planning point of view Two general conditions would seem to be of substantial importance (see among others Jacobs 1969; Lynch 1980; Salet 1996): (1) Urbanity presupposes vitality and learning potential Can patterns of spatial activity and the relationships between them respond appropriately to new circumstances which are constantly producing fresh challenges? (2) Urbanity presupposes broad physical and institutional access to the relevant urban

128 Planning Concepts for Cities in Transition 135 qualities not just the physical accessibility of these central places but also in its institutional meaning regarding the ways the public spaces may or not may be used As far as both of these conditions are concerned far-reaching changes are taking place in Amsterdam requiring unconventional answers The first condition points to the spatial implications of structural changes in the economic context and the socio-demographic composition of the urban population Changes in the economy resulted initially in a reduction in industrial activity in the city; the ensuing sharp growth in the service sector resulted then in expansion on such a scale that the finely tuned grid of the old central city could no longer accommodate this growth At first the municipality still tried to find a place for it in the historic city centre The impasse reached at the beginning of the 1990s in the plans for the Netherlandsÿ biggest urban development on the banks of the river Ij (with offices retail and other large-scale urban activities around Central Station CS in Figure 1) marks the symbolic failure of this effort But it also underlines the transition from a mono-centric inner-city structure to a polycentric geographical and economic structure in which the old city centre is reserved for the development of tourism and cultural industries and the periphery for massive offices and large-scale amenities However consolidating this emerging pattern through the structure plan still entails given the continuous dynamism of the economic context many challenges as we shall see As regards the most important structural changes in the socio-demographic context the last 20 years have seen an enormous inflow of foreign immigrants matched by a just as dramatic exodus of middle-class families radically changing the cityÿs socio-demographic composition and making it increasingly selective Here again the question is whether the urban laboratoryÿ given these socio-demographic changes is displaying sufficient elasticityÿ (in the words of Kevin Lynch); that is does it provide adequate accommodation to both newcomers and residents with continuously shifting needs As far as the second condition of urbanity is concerned the need for physical and institutional access to typical places of urbanity there are also important questions Accessibility has several meanings In the first sense of physical accessibility it has to do with the quality of the transport systems within the municipality but also and perhaps most importantly at the scale of the daily urban system (the urban region) Amsterdam is quite successful in this respect (see for example Bertolini & Le Clercq forthcoming) However as will be seen in some detail it still lacks a high-performance public transport system at the urban regional scale Furthermore not all urban interaction is channelled through long-range transport networks For many urban activities physical proximity (or accessibility by slow modes) still has a crucial role Accordingly a sufficient degree of finely grained functional and socio-economic mix throughout the urban fabric is desirable Next to this physical meaning accessibility has also an institutional meaning regarding the degree that space can or cannot be used Is the use of space open for everyone and every goal or is access constrained or monopolized in some way? There are many constraints on the public use of space that can be illustrated by the Amsterdam case The extreme scarcity of private homes in the capital due mainly to the equally extreme proportion of subsidized rented housing (which still accounts for more than 80 per cent of the total number of dwellings) combined with the cityÿs cultural attractiveness has for instance made living in Amsterdam practically impossible for both first-time buyers and newcomers not only in the favoured (highly exclusive) city centre but throughout the city For most people the lengthy waiting list for subsidized rented homes (where

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Amsterdam IJ.Projects 8 Amsterdam IJ Projects 8 Created 01-Dec-09 By Roald Roelofs, Hengelo, Silodam MVRDV housing Kraanspoor Public Library Amsterdam 3 Nemo Renzo Piano museum The Whale 6 IJburg 7 Project Bureau IJburg urban

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