1 ECDL Module 5 REFERENCE MANUAL Databases Microsoft Access 2003 Edition for ECDL Syllabus Four
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4 PAGE 4 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL ECDL APPROVED COURSEWARE... 3 USING THE APPLICATION... 6 DATABASE CONCEPTS... 6 Understanding what a database is... 6 Understanding how a database is organised... 7 Understanding what a primary key is... 8 Understanding what an index is... 8 Understanding the purpose of relating tables in a database... 8 Understanding the importance of setting rules to ensure relationships are valid... 9 FIRST STEPS WITH DATABASES Opening and closing Microsoft Access Opening an existing database Creating a new database Saving a database to a location on a drive Using Help Closing the database...19 ADJUSTING SETTINGS Changing between view modes in a table, form or report Displaying or hiding toolbars TABLES MAIN OPERATIONS Creating and saving a table and specifying fields with their data types Adding and deleting records in a table Adding a field to an existing table Adding and modifying data in a record Deleting data in a record Using the Undo command Navigating within a table Deleting a table Saving and closing a table DEFINING KEYS Defining a primary key Indexing a field without duplications allowed TABLE DESIGN/LAYOUT Changing field format attributes Understanding consequences of changing field size attributes in a table Creating a simple validation rule for number, text, date/time or currency Changing width of columns in a table Moving a column within a table TABLE RELATIONSHIPS Creating a one-to-one or one-to-many relationship between tables Deleting relationships between tables Applying rule(s) to relationships FORMS WORKING WITH FORMS Opening a form Creating and saving a form Using a form to enter, modify or delete records Navigating through records Adding and modifying text Headers and Footers within a form Deleting a form Saving and closing a form RETRIEVE INFORMATION MAIN OPERATIONS Using the search command to find a specific word, number or date within a field... 64
5 PAGE 5 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL Applying a filter to a table or form Removing a filter from a table or form QUERIES Creating and saving a single table query or two-table query using specific search criteria Adding criteria to a query using any operators Editing a query by adding or removing criteria Editing a query by adding, removing, moving, hiding and un-hiding fields Running a query Deleting a query Saving and closing a query SORTING RECORDS Sorting data in a table, form or query REPORTS WORKING WITH REPORTS...83 Creating and saving a report based on a table or query Changing arrangement of data fields and headings within report layout Grouping data under a specific heading (field) in a report in ascending or descending order Presenting specific fields in a grouped report at appropriate break points Adding and modifying text within Headers and Footers in a report Deleting a report Saving and closing a report PREPARE OUTPUTS PREPARING TO PRINT Previewing a table, form or report Changing report orientation or paper size PRINTING OPTIONS Printing a page, selected record(s) or a complete table Printing all records using form layout or specific pages using form layout Printing the result of a query Printing specific page(s) of a report or a complete report
6 PAGE 6 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL Using the Application Database Concepts Understanding what a database is What is data? DATA is made up of text, numbers, images and in some cases sounds which can be processed or stored by a computer. By itself data might not mean very much. In order to understand it, it needs to be interpreted (or processed) to become information. INFORMATION is the meaning given to data by the way in which it is interpreted. To illustrate the difference, MURRAY, and 10 mean little as data. But if we were able to interpret them as the name of a salesman, Murray, his annual basic salary of $15,000 and his commission rate of 10%, it would assume more meaning and could be called information. This is not necessarily the end of the story as this information could be included in another set of data and used to provide other information. Alternatively, the same data could be interpreted in another way. It is often helpful to think of data as the raw ingredients of a recipe which when processed and mixed in different amounts by differing techniques produce different results. What is a database? A simple definition of a database is: A STRUCTURED COLLECTION OF RELATED DATA ABOUT ONE OR MORE SUBJECTS. In normal daily life we make frequent use of databases, and probably don t realise it. Here are a number of simple examples: - The telephone directory - Bus or train timetable - Personal address book - Filing cabinet What is a relational database? A simple relational database, such as Microsoft Access, is a database which is based on tables. Each column within a table defines the fields, while each row defines the records. Different related data can be held in separate tables. For instance information about suppliers can be held in one table, while information about products can be held in a separate table.
7 PAGE 7 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL Understanding how a database is organised What is a table? A table holds data about a particular item, such as products or suppliers. What is a record? A record is a collection of information which relates to a particular item within your database table. For instance a record in an address book may consist of the first and second name of a person, plus their phone number and address details. Each item within a record is called a field. What is a field? Fields are the individual items which make up a record within your database. In the example of an address book database, first and second names of your contacts would both be field names, as would the telephone number. What is meant by 'Field data types'? A field must have a specific data type format. We will see more about this later, but for now the illustration shows you the data types which are available within Microsoft Access, including TEXT, NUMBER, CURRENCY etc. What is meant by 'Field properties'? Each field has a range of field properties associated with it. For instance the Field Size (set to 50 in the example shown), means that the field will hold a maximum of 50 characters.
8 PAGE 8 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL Other properties include items such as data validation, which means that the sort of information which is being entered into a field makes sense! Understanding what a primary key is What is a primary key? Primary keys uniquely identify each record in your table and provide the following advantages: - An index is automatically created for the primary key. This speeds up data retrieval and sorting. Also, the primary key is often used in establishing relationships. - Records in a form or Datasheet are displayed in primary key order. - Duplicate records are not allowed. Therefore all records are unique - A primary key can be made up of one or more fields. Understanding what an index is What is an index? An index allows Microsoft Access to work faster when finding and sorting records. They work in a similar way to the way you would use an index in a traditional book, i.e. Access uses the index to find the location of the required data. Indexes can be created using a single field, or using multiple fields. Understanding the purpose of relating tables in a database
9 PAGE 9 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL Why relate tables? When using Access you normally set up a number of tables, such as Customers, Products, Orders, Employees etc. The next stage is to define relationships between these tables so that the information within each table can be linked with the information in the other tables. Once these table relationships are defined we can create queries, forms and reports to display information which is actually spread across several tables. Understanding the importance of setting rules to ensure relationships are valid Design and document your database! It is extremely important to spend time designing your database as time spent here will often pay dividends later on in the process, as you know where you are going and what you are trying to do. How do you know if you ve got there if you don t know where you are going? Questions to ask yourself When setting out on the difficult design stage of producing the database there are a number of questions which you should ask yourself or your user. WHAT DO I WANT?: You must first establish why you require your database and what you expect to get from it. It is most important to define your output needs first. Mistakes are often made because people try to decide what to put into their database before they know what they want from it. WHAT HAVE I GOT?: Knowing what you want then allows you to look critically at what data you have and make decisions as to how it should be structured in terms of fields and tables. WHAT DO I NEED TO DO?: This question asks you to look at any manipulation you need to carry out in order to achieve your information output: searches, sorts, and calculations. Define your needs In order to clarify your needs it is often useful to draw a simple diagram and/or write a short narrative. If the database is being designed for others, show them your sketch/narrative and use it to check your understanding of their requirements. EXAMPLE: C.C.Toys is a retailer of toys for children of all ages. It buys its toys from a
10 PAGE 10 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL number of suppliers. It employs four staff. The store is laid out according to themes under a number of categories (e.g. Soft toys, Games Software etc.). Orders to suppliers can be for either single or multiple products. The illustration below shows the tables needed for C.C. Toys. CATEGORIES PRODUCTS ORDERS SUPPLIERS EMPLOYEES C.C. Toys Basic design rules If you stick to a set of rules when designing your database, it will make your life much easier when using the database! MAKE EACH RECORD UNIQUE: Each table should be allocated a primary key. A primary key is simply a field or a combination of fields which makes a record unique. Give your table a primary key to ensure you have no duplicate records. Select the primary key yourself. If you let Access define the primary key, it will add a counter field at the beginning of each record. The counter will be incremented on every new record added to the table. Although this guarantees the uniqueness of the record, it does mean that two records could contain identical data (apart from the key itself). MAKE EACH FIELD UNIQUE: If you have repeated the same kind of information in a table, you should put it into another table. MAKE FIELDS FUNCTIONALLY DEPENDENT: Each field in the record
11 PAGE 11 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL should relate to the subject of the record. If it doesn't, it's either redundant or it belongs in another table! ENSURE EACH FIELD IS INDEPENDENT: You should be able to alter any one field in a record without affecting any of the others. ENSURE FIELDS DON T CONTAIN CALCULATED OR DERIVED DATA: As an example, you need only hold gross pay and deductions on a person's salary record. Net pay can be calculated when it is required, when printing the pay slip for instance. ENSURE DATA IS IN ITS SMALLEST LOGICAL PARTS: It might be useful, for instance, to keep customers' postcodes separate from the rest of their addresses so that you can analyze sales based on postal regions. First Steps with Databases Opening and closing Microsoft Access To start Access Click on the Windows START icon. Click on ALL PROGRAMS. Click on MICROSOFT OFFICE. Click on the MICROSOFT OFFICE ACCESS icon from within the submenu displayed. NOTE: The exact location of the MICROSOFT OFFICE ACCESS icon may vary, depending on your particular version of Microsoft Access. To close Microsoft Access Click on the application's CLOSE icon, at the top-right of the application window. Opening an existing database
12 PAGE 12 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL To open a database Click on the FILE drop down menu and select the OPEN command, the OPEN dialog box will be displayed. Select the database you wish to open and then click on the OPEN button. Creating a new database To create a new database Click on the FILE drop down menu & select the NEW command. This allows you to open an existing database, or it gives you options for creating a new database. BLANK DATABASE: Allows you to create a new, blank database. TEMPLATES ON MY COMPUTER: Displays the TEMPLATES dialog box allowing to the select from a wide range of Access templates.
13 PAGE 13 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL You can click on the DATABASES tab (at the top of this dialog box), to see more options as illustrated. Once you have selected the type of database you wish to create the FILE NEW DATABASE dialog box will be displayed.
14 PAGE 14 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL Enter a name for your new database into the FILE NAME box and click on the CREATE button. Saving a database to a location on a drive To save a database Choose SAVE AS from the FILE menu. To save a database file to a diskette NOTE: Many PCs are now supplied without a floppy disk drive installed. There is no easy way within the Access application to save a database opened from the hard disk to a floppy disk. However, you may use the Windows Explorer to copy a file to your floppy disk. Start the WINDOWS EXPLORER program. Select the database file on your hard disk which you wish to copy to a floppy disk. Right click on the file and select SEND TO 3 1/2" FLOPPY command. Using Help What is the Microsoft Office Assistant? By default this friendly little creature, will watch what you do and offer tips on how to work more productively. You can ask it questions in plain English!
15 PAGE 15 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL Occasionally the Office Assistant will display information on the screen. If you are unsure about how to use this product you should always read the help offered. You can choose to implement the tip, have it explained, or to ignore the tip. To display the Microsoft Office Assistant Select the SHOW THE OFFICE ASSISTANT command from the HELP drop down menu. To hide the Microsoft Office Assistant Right click on the Office Assistant and from the menu displayed, click on the HIDE command. To disable the Microsoft Office Assistant Right click on the Office Assistant and from the menu displayed, click on the OPTIONS command. De-select the USE THE OFFICE ASSISTANT option.
16 PAGE 16 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL Click on the OK button. The Help drop down menu Click on the HELP drop down menu and select the command which you require. Remember that if you move the mouse arrow to the down arrow at the bottom of the menu, the menu will expand to show all available commands, as illustrated. Help Menu - Microsoft Access Help command Click on HELP drop down menu and select the MICROSOFT ACCESS HELP command. By default this will display the MICROSOFT ACCESS HELP side panel.
17 PAGE 17 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL Help Menu - Microsoft Office Online Clicking on this option under the HELP drop down menu will open your web browser and display the Office Online web site. Through this web site you can download additional templates and software updates for Access and other Office applications. Click on the area of the map relating to your location, and follow the onscreen directions. Help Menu Activate Product You need to select this option when you first install Access onto a PC. It is a way of registering the Product with Microsoft and represents Microsoft attempts to prevent illegal copying of their products. You only need to activate the product once, and if you try a second time you will see the following message.
18 PAGE 18 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL Help Menu - Detect and Repair Selecting this option under the HELP drop down menu will display the following dialog box. Click on the START button and follow through the onscreen prompts. Help Menu - About Microsoft Access Clicking on this option under the HELP drop down menu will display the following dialog box. This screen will display the exact release version of the application. It will also display your Product ID (removed in the illustration for security reasons).
19 PAGE 19 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL Closing the database To close a database Choose CLOSE from the FILE menu OR click on the CLOSE icon in the top right of the DATABASE window. Adjusting Settings Changing between view modes in a table, form or report To switch between views when using tables, forms or reports There are two views for tables, forms and reports. THE DESIGN VIEW: This view is used by the person who creates the database in the first place (as opposed to the end user, who will later enter data into the database). This view is used, as the name suggests, to design the table, form or report. An example of a table displayed in Design View is shown below. As you can see there are all sorts of options which you can set relating to the fields within the database.
20 PAGE 20 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL THE DATASHEET VIEW: This is used by the person entering data into a database.
21 PAGE 21 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL To switch between Design and Datasheet View Click on the VIEW icon on the toolbar. or Displaying or hiding toolbars To display or hide a toolbar (using the View menu) To display a toolbar, select the TOOLBARS command from the VIEW menu to display the TOOLBARS drop down menu. A list of toolbars is displayed which includes: Standard, Formatting, Borders, Database, and Drawing etc. Choose the TOOLBAR you want to display by clicking on it from the list. To display or hide a toolbar by right-clicking A quick way of displaying/hiding toolbars is to right click on an existing toolbar, this will display the TOOLBARS drop down menu, from which you can select or deselect toolbars.
22 PAGE 22 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL Tables Main Operations Creating and saving a table and specifying fields with their data types To create a table and specify field data types. In the OBJECTS section of the main dialog box, make sure that TABLES is selected. Double click on the CREATE TABLE IN DESIGN VIEW option, which will open a dialog box allowing you to create a table. In the FIELD NAME section of the dialog box, enter the name of the first field. In this example we have entered 'FIRST NAME'.
23 PAGE 23 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL Press the TAB key (the key with the two opposing, horizontal arrows on it). This will take you to the next column, called 'Data Type'. Notice that the default data type displayed is TEXT. Click on the down arrow which is now displayed within the right side of this column and a popup menu will be displayed. You can use this popup menu to change the data type for that field. As the field will be the first name of a record, i.e. text, we will keep the default data type of text. Press the TAB key again and this will take you to the DESCRIPTION field. This optional field allows you to describe the purpose of the field.
24 PAGE 24 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL As the field name in this case is self-evident we have no need for this optional field and can press the TAB key again. This will take you to the next row down in the 'FIELD NAME' column. We can enter another field, such as 'SECOND NAME'. Pressing the TAB key again allows you to set the data type, which again we will keep as text. We will now add a field called 'COMPANY REFERENCE NUMBER', which this time we will set as a number. When we have finished the table will look like this.
25 PAGE 25 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL We can now save the table by clicking on the SAVE icon. You will see a dialog box in which you can enter your table name. Clicking on the OK button may display a further dialog box. Clicking on the YES button will save and set a primary key. Close the table (by clicking on the close icon at the top-right of the table window). You will see the table displayed within the DATABASE dialog box. In the example shown the table is called 'MY TABLE'.
26 PAGE 26 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL Adding and deleting records in a table To add records to a table In the previous section we saw how to create a table. Double click on the name of the table which you wish to open. The table will be displayed, into which you can enter your data. We can enter data as illustrated (using the Tab key to jump from field to field). If we try entering letters, rather than numbers into the company reference, we will see the following message displayed (as we set the data type to number, not text).
27 PAGE 27 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL When we have finished entering our records, we can save and close the table. To delete records within a table Select the entire record row as in the example shown. Press the DELETE key. A warning dialog box will be displayed. Click on the YES button to confirm the record deletion. Adding a field to an existing table To add a field to an existing table In the previous sections we saw how to create a table and then how to add records to the table. Let s say that after using the table for a while, we have decided that there should have been one or more extra fields within the table. First we need to open the table, which we can do by double clicking on the table name, displayed within the DATABASE window.
28 PAGE 28 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL Click on the VIEW icon (top-left within the Access window). This will change the view to the design view, allowing you to modify the structure of the table. The screen will resemble that illustrated. Within the FIELD NAME column, click in the cell under the 'COMPANY REFERENCE NUMBER'. We will enter a field relating to whether the person is in the company retirement scheme or not. We will call the field 'IN COMPANY PENSION?'. In the Data Type section we will set the option to YES/NO.
29 PAGE 29 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL The finished table will look like this. If we click on the VIEW icon (top-left within the Access window) we can see the new field displayed You may first be prompted to save your changes. You will then see the tables as illustrated.
30 PAGE 30 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL We can either click or not click these company pension check boxes, as illustrated. Adding and modifying data in a record To add data to a record Open the table containing the record which you wish to add data to. Click within the field you wish to enter your data into. Enter your data. To modify data within a record Open the table containing the record which you wish to modify. Edit the data within the record which you wish to modify (using the same techniques as you when using a word-processor). Deleting data in a record
31 PAGE 31 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL To delete data within a record Open the table containing the records which you wish to modify. Delete the data within the record which you wish to remove (using the same techniques as you would when using a word-processor, i.e. select and then press the DELETE key). Using the Undo command To use the Undo command Click on the UNDO icon in the toolbar. Navigating within a table To navigate through a table to edit records Whether you edit your records through a Datasheet or a form, there is, as usual, a variety of ways to do it. As far as your user is concerned, you should make it as straightforward and uncomplicated as possible: for the user, there should only be one right way. Many editing operations first involve selection. To replace a field, you first select it and then type in the new value. The grey area to the left of each record in the Datasheet is called the record selector. The following symbols indicate the status of the record: Current record. Record is selected. Record is being edited. Last (empty) record. To move to a field using the mouse Move the mouse pointer over the required field and click.
32 PAGE 32 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL NOTE: If you click in the leftmost position in the field, the whole field is selected. To move through the table using the keyboard To move from field to field and record to record, use one of the following methods: TAB: to the next field. SHIFT+TAB: to the previous field. HOME: to the first field of the current record. END: to the last field of the current record. (DOWN ARROW KEY): to the next record. (UP ARROW KEY): to the previous record. CTRL+HOME: to the first field of the first record. CTRL+END: to the last field of the last record. PAGE UP: scroll up one page. PAGE DOWN: scroll down one page. To move from record to record using the scroll bar and mouse To move from record to record: to the next record to the previous record to the last record to the first record To move to a specific record using the Edit menu Choose GO TO from the EDIT menu and select FIRST, LAST, NEXT, PREVIOUS or NEW RECORD.
33 PAGE 33 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL To move to a specific record using the keyboard Press F5 to highlight the record number on the scroll bar. Type the number of the record you want. Press ENTER. Deleting a table To delete a table Select the table which you wish to delete, such as a table in the example below.
34 PAGE 34 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL Press the DELETE key and you will see a warning dialog box. Clicking on the YES button will delete the selected table. Saving and closing a table To save a table To save a table, click on the FILE drop down menu and select the SAVE command. To close a table To close a table, click on the CLOSE icon at the top-right of the table window. Defining Keys
35 PAGE 35 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL Defining a primary key To define a primary key (automatically when creating a table) When you create a new table part of the process will automatically assign a primary key to the table, as in the following example where we used the CREATE TABLE IN DESIGN VIEW option. We created the following fields. We then save the table, as illustrated. A dialog box is then displayed, offering to create a primary index. Clicking on the YES button will create a primary index as illustrated (using an AUTONUMBER Data Type). To define a primary key (manually after a table has been created) You can add a primary key to a table which does not already have a primary key set. In the following example we have a table with no primary key.
36 PAGE 36 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL Click on the VIEW icon which will display the table in design view. You will notice that the PRIMARY KEY icon is visible within the Design View toolbar. In this case, select the COMPANY ID field and then click on the PRIMARY KEY icon. If you look at the information displayed towards the bottom of your screen, you will see that by default NO DUPLICATES will be allowed. Save the table. If in this example we were to switch back to the Datasheet View and try to enter a record containing a Company ID field number which had already been used, as below:
37 PAGE 37 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL You would see the following error message. Indexing a field without duplications allowed Modifying the way a field is indexed Your primary key field will automatically be indexed so that duplicated entries are not allowed. Thus in the previous example, we created a primary key based on the Company ID Number. This Company ID Number was automatically indexed, so that no two people could have the same Company ID Number. If you wish to change this indexing, you need to display the table in Design View and then select the field to which a primary key has been applied. The field properties will be displayed towards the bottom of your screen. If you click on the down arrow to the right of the INDEXED property, you will see the various options listed from which you can select. Table Design/Layout Changing field format attributes
38 PAGE 38 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL To change field format attributes. Open the table which you wish to modify. If necessary, click on the VIEW icon (top-left within the Access window) so that we can see the table displayed in design view. The screen should resemble that illustrated. Click on the field which you wish to modify the attributes of. In this example if we click in the DATA TYPE cell for the FIRST NAME field. We will see the following information displayed. Towards the bottom of the screen you can see information displayed relating to field attributes. TO MODIFY FIELD SIZE: Click within the FIELD SIZE section of the dialog box. You can see a description of the attributes function displayed to the right (in blue). Enter the maximum size that you wish to set for this field. The size being the maximum number of characters which can be entered into this field. TO MODIFY NUMBER FORMAT: Within a table (in design view), click on a field which has a NUMBER Data Type.
39 PAGE 39 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL Click within the FORMAT section of the dialog box, a description of the attributes function is displayed to the right (in blue). When you click on the down arrow to the right of the FORMAT section you will see the different number formatting options displayed. Click on the required format. TO MODIFY DATE FORMAT: Within a table (in design view), click on a field which has a DATE/TIME Data Type. Click within the FORMAT section of the dialog box (towards the bottom of your screen). When you click on the down arrow to the right of the FORMAT section you will see the different options displayed, click on the required date or time format. Understanding consequences of changing field size attributes in a table Make sure that your field size attributes are long enough! If you make a field attribute too small you will not be able to enter all your data (when entering data in Datasheet view). In the following example the field is set to a maximum of 20 characters, which is too short for some
40 PAGE 40 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL names. If we wished to enter information for a company called CHELTENHAM OFFICE SUPPLIES it would not fit into the available field space. NOTE: The consequences of changing field size to a smaller value is that data already entered in the table would be truncated or lost. Creating a simple validation rule for number, text, date/time or currency To create a validation rule for a number In table design view, select a field which has a NUMBER Data Type. In the FIELD PROPERTIES section of the dialog box (towards the bottom of the screen), click on the VALIDATION RULE section. The screen will resemble that illustrated. Click on the small icon with the 3 dots to the right of the Validation Rule section. This will display the Expression Builder, as illustrated.
41 PAGE 41 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL Let s say we want to limit numbers to between 1 and 10,000. We can use the Expression Builder to achieve this. Within the left section of the dialog box, click on OPERATORS. The dialog box will display a range of operators, as illustrated. In this case we wish to limit valid entries to between 1-10,000, so we DOUBLE CLICK on the following item: The screen will be as illustrated.
42 PAGE 42 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL We can then type in the value The screen will be as illustrated. Click on the OK button and the Field Properties section of the dialog box will be as illustrated.
43 PAGE 43 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL If we were to switch to Datasheet View and enter a number into the validated field which was over 10,000, we would see a rather confusing message such as the one below. We can make this message clearer by creating a custom message. To do this we would click within the VALIDATION TEXT area of the dialog box and enter our message, such as 'PLEASE RE-ENTER A NUMBER BETWEEN 1 AND 10,000'. If we were to switch to Datasheet View and enter a number which is between 1 and 10,000, it would be accepted. If however the number was over 10,000, we would see the following error message. To create a validation rule for text In table design view, select a field which has a TEXT Data Type. In the FIELD PROPERTIES section of the dialog box (towards the bottom of the screen), click on the VALIDATION RULE section.
44 PAGE 44 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL Click on the small icon with the 3 dots to the right of the Validation Rule section. DOUBLE CLICKING on the + to the left of FUNCTIONS will display the following:
45 PAGE 45 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL Clicking on the BUILT-IN FUNCTIONS icon will display the following: In the central column, click on TEXT to display text validation functions. You can pick the text validation function that you require. You can use the WHAT IS THIS help icon to get more information about these functions. To use this click on the question mark at the top-right of the dialog box and then click on an item to get more help.
46 PAGE 46 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL A sample help screen is illustrated. Get into the habit of using the help which is available! To create a validation rule for a date or time In table design view, select a field which has a DATE/TIME Data Type. In the FIELD PROPERTIES section of the dialog box (towards the bottom of the screen), click on the VALIDATION RULE section. You can enter an expression such as the following, which would only allow a date to be entered using the year >=#1/1/02# AND < # 1/1/03# To create a validation rule for currency In table design view, select a field which has a CURRENCY Data Type. In the FIELD PROPERTIES section of the dialog box (towards the bottom of the screen), click on the VALIDATION RULE section. You can enter an expression such as the following, which would only allow an amount to be entered in the range of 1 to >0 AND <=10000 Changing width of columns in a table To change the width of a column Move the mouse pointer to the line at the right of the field (column heading). It will change to resemble a solid vertical bar intersected by a double-headed arrow.
47 PAGE 47 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL Drag the column border to the size you want. Moving a column within a table To move a column(s) Select the column(s) and release the mouse button. Click on the field selector and drag the column(s) to the new location. As you drag the columns a solid bar between columns indicates the current position of the columns being moved. Table Relationships Creating a one-to-one or one-to-many relationship between tables To create a relationship between tables Open the Access application. Open a database Click on the RELATIONSHIPS icon on the toolbar.
48 PAGE 48 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL The RELATIONSHIPS window will be displayed. In this example, drag the CUSTOMERID field from the CUSTOMERS table and drop it on top of the CUSTOMERID field in the ORDERS table. The EDIT RELATIONSHIPS dialog box will be displayed. Click on the CREATE button to establish a one-to-many relationship between the 2 fields. Edit the relationship you have just created by double clicking on the line which connects the 2 fields. The EDIT RELATIONSHIPS dialog box will be displayed once more.
49 PAGE 49 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL Select the ENFORCE REFERENTIAL INTEGRITY check box. Select the CASCADE UPDATE RELATED FIELDS check box. Select the CASCADE DELETE RELATED RECORDS check box. Selecting these options will ensure that changes made to the CustomerID field in one table are reflected in the related field in the other table. Click on the OK button to apply the changes. Close the database. Close the Access application. Deleting relationships between tables To delete a relationship between tables Click on the TOOLS drop down menu and select RELATIONSHIPS. Click on the relationship line which you wish to delete. Press the DELETE key, and you will see a warning dialog box, asking if you wish to PERMANENTLY delete the relationship. Click on the YES button to confirm the deletion. Applying rule(s) to relationships To enforce referential integrity When you create a relationship, or when you double click on an existing relationship line (within the RELATIONSHIPS window), you will see the EDIT RELATIONSHIPS dialog box. You can apply relationship rules, by clicking on the ENFORCE REFERENTIAL INTEGRITY check box. This ensures that relationships between records in related tables are valid. It means that you will not be able to accidentally modify related data.
50 PAGE 50 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL Selecting CASCADE UPDATE RELATED FIELDS means that if you change the primary key in the record of a table, Access updates the corresponding fields in related records with the new value. Example: If you change the number of an order, i.e. the primary key of the Orders record, Access will update the order number field on all of the associated Order Details records. Selecting CASCADE DELETE RELATED RECORDS means that if you delete a primary record, the corresponding records in related tables will be deleted. Example: If you delete an Order record, all of the Order Detail records relating to that order will be deleted.
51 PAGE 51 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL Forms Working with Forms Opening a form To open a form Within the main DATABASE window, select FORMS from the Objects list and then select the form you wish to open, such as SUPPLIERS within the database in the example shown. Double click on the selected form to open, as illustrated. Creating and saving a form
52 PAGE 52 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL To create a form using the AutoForm Wizard In the DATABASE window select either TABLE or QUERY from the Objects list. Click on a TABLE or QUERY name to select it. Click the down arrow next to the NEW OBJECT icon (within the STANDARD toolbar) and from the drop down menu displayed, select the AUTOFORM command. This will display a form which you can use to enter the information into the table or query.
53 PAGE 53 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL The Form Wizard If possible, use the FORM WIZARD to create your forms. It is easy to use and effective. You can modify the design later if you wish. To create a form using Form Wizard In the DATABASE window select FORMS from the Objects list. Choose the NEW button, which will display the NEW FORM dialog box.
54 PAGE 54 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL Select the FORM WIZARD. Choose the table or query where the objects data will come from.
55 PAGE 55 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL Click on the OK button to display the next page of the FORM WIZARD. Click on the field which you wish to add to the form, click on the right printing arrow button to add it to the SELECTED FIELDS section of the dialog box. Repeat this procedure so that all the required fields are added. Remember that you can use the down arrow in the TABLES/QUERIES
56 PAGE 56 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL section of the dialog box to select a different data source which will contain other fields. When you have added the required fields click on the NEXT button. The next page of the dialog allows you to define the layout of the form. Choose the desired option and then click on the NEXT button. The next page of the FORM WIZARD allows you to choose a pre-defined style.
57 PAGE 57 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL Select the required option and click on the NEXT button to continue. This next page of the FORM WIZARD allows you to name the form and set final options for using the form. Click on the FINISH button to create the form. If you chose to "OPEN THE FORM TO VIEW OR ENTER INFORMATION", then the form will be displayed as illustrated.
58 PAGE 58 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL Using a form to enter, modify or delete records To enter data into a form Open the form you wish to use by selecting FORMS from the Objects list in the DATABASE window and double clicking on the name of the form. The FORM WINDOW will be displayed. Entering data into a form is much like entering data into a table. Type your data into the form field, once finished press the TAB key to move to the next field. Pressing TAB in the last field will take you to the next record. To create a new record, click on the NEW (BLANK) RECORD icon at the bottom of the FORM WINDOW. To modify data using a form Use the record control arrows to display a record which you wish to alter and modify the data as required. To delete records using a form Display the form for the record which you wish to delete.
59 PAGE 59 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL To try and delete this record click on the DELETE RECORD icon on the toolbar. Navigating through records To navigate through a form At the bottom left of the record screen you will see the standard form navigation icons. TO GO TO THE NEXT RECORD: Click on the NEXT icon. TO GO TO THE PREVIOUS RECORD: Click on the PREVIOUS icon. TO GO TO THE FIRST RECORD: Click on the FIRST RECORD icon.
60 PAGE 60 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL TO GO TO THE LAST RECORD: Click on the LAST RECORD icon. TO GO TO A SPECIFIC RECORD. Click within the record number section and enter the required record number, then press the ENTER key. Adding and modifying text Headers and Footers within a form To add text into headers or footers within a form Open the form you wish to edit and switch to Design View. The Form window should now resemble the illustration below: Text must be added beneath either the FORM HEADER or FORM FOOTER bars. If the FORM HEADER or FORM FOOTER bars are not visible, select the FORM HEADER/FOOTER command from the VIEW drop down menu.
61 PAGE 61 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL Move the mouse to the bottom edge of either the FORM HEADER or FORM FOOTER bar at the top or bottom of the Form window, your mouse pointer will change into a double-headed arrow. Click and drag the mouse downward to expand the header or footer section. You should now have space into which you can enter your text.
62 PAGE 62 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL Select the LABEL tool from the TOOLBOX. If the TOOLBOX is not displayed, select TOOLBOX from the VIEW drop down menu. Click within the form header or footer section at the location you want to insert your text. Enter your text. Switch back to Form View to see the results of your changes. To modify the header or footer text within a form Open the form you wish to edit and switch to Design View. Click on the text in the header or footer which you wish to edit. Use standard editing techniques to modify the text. Switch back to Form View to see the results of your changes. Deleting a form To delete a form Select the form in the DATABASE window, as in the example below where we have selected SUPPLIERS from of the database. Press the DELETE key. You will see a warning dialog box. Click on the YES button to confirm the deletion. NOTE: YOU CANNOT UNDO THIS DELETION!
63 PAGE 63 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL Saving and closing a form To save a form Click on the FILE drop down menu and select the SAVE command. To close a form Click on the form window CLOSE icon (top-right).
64 PAGE 64 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL Retrieve Information Main Operations Using the search command to find a specific word, number or date within a field To begin a search Click in the field on which you want to search. Choose FIND from the EDIT menu OR click on the FIND icon on the standard toolbar OR press CTRL+F. This brings up a dialog box headed FIND AND REPLACE. Enter the value you want to find in the box marked FIND WHAT:. There are a number of options you can use to refine your search as follows. LOOK IN Allows you to specify whether the whole table or an individual field should be searched. MATCH The default is MATCH WHOLE FIELD. The other options are to match ANY PART OF FIELD and the START OF FIELD. SEARCH You can select the direction of the search from UP, DOWN or ALL. The default is ALL. MATCH CASE If this box is checked, Access will only find instances of the value where the case matches.
65 PAGE 65 - ECDL MODULE 5 (USING OFFICE 2003) - MANUAL SEARCH FIELDS AS FORMATTED You can select this option if you want to search the data as it is formatted rather than how it is held in the table. To search using wildcard characters If you are not sure of all of the characters in your search string (i.e. the value you enter in the FIND WHAT box) you can use wildcard characters as a substitute. They are as follows: QUESTION MARK? Any single character in the same position as the question mark. EXAMPLE: J?ne finds June and Jane. ASTERISK * Any group of characters in the same position as the asterisk. EXAMPLE: B*ge finds Baggage, Barge and Brokerage etc. HASH SIGN # Use this for a single digit in the same position as the hash sign. EXAMPLE: 199# will find all years between 1990 and SQUARE BRACKETS [ ] Use these around two or more characters when you want your search field to include any of them. EXAMPLE: JO[HA]N finds JOHN and JOAN. Include an exclamation mark! after the first square bracket to exclude the characters following it. EXAMPLE: MIN[!T] finds MINE and MIND but excludes MINT. To find a specific value Type the value you want to find into the FIND WHAT box. NOTE: If when adding a record to a table you do not enter anything in a field, Access stores a null value in the field. If, on the other hand, you type a space or, Access counts this as a zero length string. If you want to find a null value, type in the text IS NULL. If you want to find a zero length string, type. Click on the FIND NEXT button or press ENTER. Access moves to the first record in which the value exists and highlights the field.
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