PREVIEW OF CHAPTER Intermediate Accounting 15th Edition Kieso Weygandt Warfield

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1 PREVIEW OF CHAPTER Intermediate Accounting 15th Edition Kieso Weygandt Warfield

2 21 Accounting for Leases LEARNING OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter, you should be able to: Explain the nature, economic substance, and advantages of lease transactions. 2. Describe the accounting criteria and procedures for capitalizing leases by the lessee. 3. Contrast the operating and capitalization methods of recording leases. 4. Explain the advantages and economics of leasing to lessors and identify the classifications of leases for the lessor. 5. Describe the lessor s accounting for directfinancing leases. 6. Identify special features of lease arrangements that cause unique accounting problems. 7. Describe the effect of residual values, guaranteed and unguaranteed, on lease accounting. 8. Describe the lessor s accounting for salestype leases. 9. List the disclosure requirements for leases.

3 Investment in Debt Securities Different motivations for investing: To earn a high rate of return. To secure certain operating or financing arrangements with another company LO 1

4 The Leasing Environment A lease is a contractual agreement between a lessor and a lessee, that gives the lessee the right to use specific property, owned by the lessor, for a specified period of time. Largest group of leased equipment involves: Information technology equipment Transportation (trucks, aircraft, rail) Construction Agriculture 21-4 LO 1

5 The Leasing Environment Illustration 21-2 What Do Companies Lease? 21-5 LO 1

6 The Leasing Environment Who Are the Players? Banks Independents Captive Leasing Companies Wells Fargo Chase Citigroup PNC International Lease Finance Corp. 23% Caterpillar Financial Services Corp. Ford Motor Credit (Ford) IBM Global Financing 47% Market Share 26% 21-6 LO 1

7 The Leasing Environment Advantages of Leasing % financing at fixed rates. 2. Protection against obsolescence. 3. Flexibility. 4. Less costly financing. 5. Tax advantages. 6. Off-balance-sheet financing LO 1

8 21-8 LO 1

9 21-9

10 The Leasing Environment Conceptual Nature of a Lease Capitalize a lease that transfers substantially all of the benefits and risks of property ownership, provided the lease is noncancelable. Leases that do not transfer substantially all the benefits and risks of ownership are operating leases LO 1

11 Buying vs Renting So you need to use a machine in your business... You could own it You could rent (lease) it You could borrow and buy it You could rent it You make monthly payments You make monthly payments You use it over its life You use it over its life What s the difference between the two? Who takes on the risks of ownership and obsolescence? 21-11

12 21-12

13 21 Accounting for Leases LEARNING OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter, you should be able to: Explain the nature, economic substance, and advantages of lease transactions. 2. Describe the accounting criteria and procedures for capitalizing leases by the lessee. 3. Contrast the operating and capitalization methods of recording leases. 4. Explain the advantages and economics of leasing to lessors and identify the classifications of leases for the lessor. 5. Describe the lessor s accounting for directfinancing leases. 6. Identify special features of lease arrangements that cause unique accounting problems. 7. Describe the effect of residual values, guaranteed and unguaranteed, on lease accounting. 8. Describe the lessor s accounting for salestype leases. 9. List the disclosure requirements for leases.

14 Accounting by the Lessee If the lessee capitalizes a lease, the lessee records an asset and a liability generally equal to the present value of the rental payments. Records depreciation on the leased asset. Treats the lease payments as consisting of interest and principal. Journal Entries for Capitalized Lease Illustration LO 2

15 Accounting by the Lessee For a capital lease, the FASB has identified four criteria. 1. Lease transfers ownership of the property to the lessee. 2. Lease contains a bargain-purchase option. 3. Lease term is equal to 75 percent or more of the estimated economic life of the leased property. 4. The present value of the minimum lease payments (excluding executory costs) equals or exceeds 90 percent of the fair value of the leased property. One or more must be met for capital lease accounting LO 2

16 Accounting by the Lessee Lease Agreement Leases that DO NOT meet any of the four criteria are accounted for as Operating Leases. Illustration LO 2

17 Accounting by the Lessee Capitalization Criteria Transfer of Ownership Test If the lease transfers ownership of the asset to the lessee, it is a capital lease. Bargain-Purchase Option Test At the inception of the lease, the difference between the option price and the expected fair market value must be large enough to make exercise of the option reasonably assured LO 2

18 Accounting by the Lessee Capitalization Criteria Economic Life Test (75% Test) Lease term is generally considered to be the fixed, noncancelable term of the lease. Bargain-renewal option can extend this period. At the inception of the lease, the difference between the renewal rental and the expected fair rental must be great enough to make exercise of the option to renew reasonably assured LO 2

19 Accounting by the Lessee Illustration: Home Depot leases Dell PCs for two years at a rental of $100 per month per computer and subsequently can lease them for $10 per month per computer for another two years. The lease clearly offers a bargain-renewal option; the lease term is considered to be four years Advance slide in presentation mode to reveal answer. LO 2

20 Accounting by the Lessee Capitalization Criteria Recovery of Investment Test (90% Test) Minimum Lease Payments: Minimum rental payment Guaranteed residual value Penalty for failure to renew or extend the lease Bargain-purchase option Executory Costs: Insurance Maintenance Taxes Exclude from present value of Minimum Lease Payment Calculation LO 2

21 Accounting by the Lessee Capitalization Criteria Discount Rate Lessee computes the present value of the minimum lease payments using its incremental borrowing rate, with one exception. If the lessee knows the implicit interest rate computed by the lessor and it is less than the lessee s incremental borrowing rate, then lessee must use the lessor s rate LO 2

22 Accounting by the Lessee Asset and Liability Accounted for Differently Asset and Liability Recorded at the lower of: 1. present value of the minimum lease payments (excluding executory costs) or 2. fair-market value of the leased asset LO 2

23 Accounting by the Lessee Asset and Liability Accounted for Differently Depreciation Period If lease transfers ownership, depreciate asset over the economic life of the asset. If lease does not transfer ownership, depreciate over the term of the lease LO 2

24 Accounting by the Lessee Asset and Liability Accounted for Differently Effective-Interest Method Used to allocate each lease payment between principal and interest. Depreciation Concept Depreciation and the discharge of the obligation are independent accounting processes LO 2

25 Accounting by the Lessee Illustration: Caterpillar Financial Services Corp. (a subsidiary of Caterpillar) and Sterling Construction Corp. sign a lease agreement dated January 1, 2014, that calls for Caterpillar to lease a front-end loader to Sterling beginning January 1, The terms and provisions of the lease agreement, and other pertinent data, are as follows. The term of the lease is five years. The lease agreement is noncancelable, requiring equal rental payments of $25, at the beginning of each year (annuity-due basis). The loader has a fair value at the inception of the lease of $100,000, an estimated economic life of five years, and no residual value. Sterling pays all of the executory costs directly to third parties except for the property taxes of $2,000 per year, which is included as part of its annual payments to Caterpillar. The lease contains no renewal options. The loader reverts to Caterpillar at the termination of the lease. Sterling s incremental borrowing rate is 11 percent per year. Sterling depreciates, on a straight-line basis, similar equipment that it owns. Caterpillar sets the annual rental to earn a rate of return on its investment of 10 percent per year; Sterling knows this fact LO 2

26 Accounting by the Lessee What type of lease is this? Capitalization Criteria: 1. Transfer of ownership 2. Bargain purchase option 3. Lease term = 75% of economic life of leased property 4. Present value of minimum lease payments => 90% of FMV of property Capital Lease? NO NO Lease term = 5 yrs. Economic life = 5 yrs. PV = $100,000 FMV = $100,000. YES YES LO 2

27 Accounting by the Lessee Compute present value of the minimum lease payments. Payment $ 25, Property taxes (executory cost) - 2, Minimum lease payment 23, Present value factor (i=10%,n=5) x PV of minimum lease payments $ * Sterling uses Caterpillar s implicit interest rate of 10 percent instead of its incremental borrowing rate of 11 percent because (1) it is lower and (2) it knows about it. * Present value of an annuity due of 1 for 5 periods at 10% (Table 6-5) LO 2

28 Accounting by the Lessee Sterling records the capital lease on its books on January 1, 2014, as: Leased Equipment (under capital leases) 100,000 Lease Liability 100,000 Sterling records the first lease payment on January 1, 2014, as follows. Property Tax Expense 2, Lease Liability 23, Cash 25, LO 2

29 Accounting by the Lessee Illustration 21-6 Lease Amortization Schedule for Lessee Annuity-Due Basis Sterling records accrued interest on December 31, LO 2

30 Accounting by the Lessee Illustration 21-6 Lease Amortization Schedule for Lessee Annuity-Due Basis Prepare the entry to record accrued interest at Dec. 31, Sterling records accrued interest on December 31, 2014 Interest Expense 7, Interest Payable 7, LO 2

31 Accounting by the Lessee Prepare the required on December 31, 2014, to record depreciation for the year using the straight-line method ($100,000 5 years). Depreciation Expense (capital leases) 20,000 Accumulated Depreciation Capital Leases 20,000 The liabilities section as it relates to lease transactions at December 31, Illustration LO 2

32 Accounting by the Lessee Illustration 21-6 Lease Amortization Schedule for Lessee Annuity-Due Basis Sterling records the lease payment of January 1, 2015, as follows. Property Tax Expense 2, Interest Payable 7, Lease Liability 16, Cash 25, LO 2

33 Accounting by the Lessee Operating Method (Lessee) The lessee assigns rent to the periods benefiting from the use of the asset and ignores, in the accounting, any commitments to make future payments. Illustration: Assume Sterling accounts for the lease as an operating lease. Sterling records the payment on January 1, 2014, as follows. Rent Expense 25, Cash 25, LO 2

34 21 Accounting for Leases LEARNING OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter, you should be able to: Explain the nature, economic substance, and advantages of lease transactions. 2. Describe the accounting criteria and procedures for capitalizing leases by the lessee. 3. Contrast the operating and capitalization methods of recording leases. 4. Explain the advantages and economics of leasing to lessors and identify the classifications of leases for the lessor. 5. Describe the lessor s accounting for directfinancing leases. 6. Identify special features of lease arrangements that cause unique accounting problems. 7. Describe the effect of residual values, guaranteed and unguaranteed, on lease accounting. 8. Describe the lessor s accounting for salestype leases. 9. List the disclosure requirements for leases.

35 Accounting by the Lessee Illustration 21-8 Comparison of Charges to Operations Capital vs. Operating Leases Differences using a capital lease instead of an operating lease. 1. Increase in amount of reported debt. 2. Increase in amount of total assets (specifically long-lived assets). 3. Lower income early in the life of the lease. LO 3

36 21-36 LO 3

37 21 Accounting for Leases LEARNING OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter, you should be able to: Explain the nature, economic substance, and advantages of lease transactions. 2. Describe the accounting criteria and procedures for capitalizing leases by the lessee. 3. Contrast the operating and capitalization methods of recording leases. 4. Explain the advantages and economics of leasing to lessors and identify the classifications of leases for the lessor. 5. Describe the lessor s accounting for directfinancing leases. 6. Identify special features of lease arrangements that cause unique accounting problems. 7. Describe the effect of residual values, guaranteed and unguaranteed, on lease accounting. 8. Describe the lessor s accounting for salestype leases. 9. List the disclosure requirements for leases.

38 Accounting by the Lessor Benefits to the Lessor 1. Interest revenue. 2. Tax incentives. 3. High residual value LO 4

39 Accounting by the Lessor Economics of Leasing A lessor determines the amount of the rental, basing it on the rate of return the implicit rate needed to justify leasing the asset. If a residual value is involved (whether guaranteed or not), the company would not have to recover as much from the lease payments LO 4

40 Accounting by the Lessor E21-10 (Computation of Rental): Morgan Leasing Company signs an agreement on January 1, 2014, to lease equipment to Cole Company. The following information relates to this agreement. 1. The term of the non-cancelable lease is 6 years with no renewal option. The equipment has an estimated economic life of 6 years. 2. The cost and fair value of the asset at January 1, 2014, is $245, The asset will revert to the lessor at the end of the lease term, at which time the asset is expected to have a residual value of $43,622, none of which is guaranteed. 4. Cole Company assumes direct responsibility for all executory costs. 5. The agreement requires equal annual rental payments, beginning on January 1, Collectability of the lease payments is reasonably predictable. There are no important uncertainties surrounding the amount of costs yet to be incurred by the lessor. LO 4

41 Accounting by the Lessor E21-10 (Computation of Rental): Assuming the lessor desires a 10% rate of return on its investment, calculate the amount of the annual rental payment required. Fair market value of leased equipment $ 245,000 Present value of residual value (calculation below) (24,623) Amount to be recovered through lease payment 220,377 PV factor of annunity due (i=10%, n=6) x Annual payment required $ 46,000 Residual value $ 43,622 PV of single sum (i=10%, n=6) PV of residual value $ 24, LO 4

42 Accounting by the Lessor Classification of Leases by the Lessor a. Operating leases. b. Direct-financing leases. c. Sales-type leases LO 4

43 Accounting by the Lessor Classification of Leases by the Lessor Illustration A sales-type lease involves a manufacturer s or dealer s profit, and a direct-financing lease does not LO 4

44 Accounting by the Lessor Classification of Leases by the Lessor Illustration A lessor may classify a lease as an operating lease but the lessee may classify the same lease as a capital lease LO 4

45 21 Accounting for Leases LEARNING OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter, you should be able to: Explain the nature, economic substance, and advantages of lease transactions. 2. Describe the accounting criteria and procedures for capitalizing leases by the lessee. 3. Contrast the operating and capitalization methods of recording leases. 4. Explain the advantages and economics of leasing to lessors and identify the classifications of leases for the lessor. 5. Describe the lessor s accounting for directfinancing leases. 6. Identify special features of lease arrangements that cause unique accounting problems. 7. Describe the effect of residual values, guaranteed and unguaranteed, on lease accounting. 8. Describe the lessor s accounting for salestype leases. 9. List the disclosure requirements for leases.

46 Accounting by the Lessor Direct-Financing Method (Lessor) In substance the financing of an asset purchase by the lessee. Lessor records: A lease receivable instead of a leased asset. Receivable is the present value of the minimum lease payments LO 5

47 Accounting by the Lessor E21-10: Amortization schedule for the lessor LO 5

48 Accounting by the Lessor E21-10: Prepare all of the journal entries for the lessor for 2014 and /1/14 Lease Receivable 245,000 Equipment 245,000 Cash 46,000 Lease Receivable 46, LO 5

49 Accounting by the Lessor E21-10: Prepare all of the journal entries for the lessor for 2014 and /31/14 Interest Receivable 19,900 Interest Revenue 19,900 1/1/15 Cash 46,000 Lease Receivable 26, Interest Receivable 19,900

50 Accounting by the Lessor E21-10: Prepare all of the journal entries for the lessor for 2014 and /31/15 Interest Receivable 17,290 Interest Revenue 17, LO 5

51 Accounting by the Lessor Operating Method (Lessor) Records each rental receipt as rental revenue. Depreciates leased asset in the normal manner LO 5

52 Accounting by the Lessor Illustration: Assume Morgan accounts for the lease as an operating lease. It records the cash rental receipt as follows: Cash 46,000 Rental Revenue 46,000 Depreciation is recorded as follows: ($245,000 46,622) 6 years = $33,063 Depreciation Expense 33,063 Accumulated Depreciation 33, LO 5

53 21 Accounting for Leases LEARNING OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter, you should be able to: Explain the nature, economic substance, and advantages of lease transactions. 2. Describe the accounting criteria and procedures for capitalizing leases by the lessee. 3. Contrast the operating and capitalization methods of recording leases. 4. Explain the advantages and economics of leasing to lessors and identify the classifications of leases for the lessor. 5. Describe the lessor s accounting for directfinancing leases. 6. Identify special features of lease arrangements that cause unique accounting problems. 7. Describe the effect of residual values, guaranteed and unguaranteed, on lease accounting. 8. Describe the lessor s accounting for salestype leases. 9. List the disclosure requirements for leases.

54 Special Lease Accounting Problems 1. Residual values. 2. Sales-type leases (lessor). 3. Bargain-purchase options. 4. Initial direct costs. 5. Current versus noncurrent classification. 6. Disclosure LO 6

55 21 Accounting for Leases LEARNING OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter, you should be able to: Explain the nature, economic substance, and advantages of lease transactions. 2. Describe the accounting criteria and procedures for capitalizing leases by the lessee. 3. Contrast the operating and capitalization methods of recording leases. 4. Explain the advantages and economics of leasing to lessors and identify the classifications of leases for the lessor. 5. Describe the lessor s accounting for directfinancing leases. 6. Identify special features of lease arrangements that cause unique accounting problems. 7. Describe the effect of residual values, guaranteed and unguaranteed, on lease accounting. 8. Describe the lessor s accounting for salestype leases. 9. List the disclosure requirements for leases.

56 Special Lease Accounting Problems Residual Values Meaning of Residual Value - Estimated fair value of the leased asset at the end of the lease term. Guaranteed versus Unguaranteed Lessee agrees to make up any deficiency below a stated amount that the lessor realizes in residual value at the end of the lease term LO 7

57 Special Lease Accounting Problems Residual Values Lease Payments - Lessor may adjust lease payments because of the increased certainty of recovery of a guaranteed residual value. Lessee Accounting for Residual Value - The minimum lease payments, include the guaranteed residual value but excludes the unguaranteed residual value LO 7

58 Special Lease Accounting Problems Illustration: Caterpillar Financial Services Corp. (a subsidiary of Caterpillar) and Sterling Construction Corp. sign a lease agreement dated January 1, 2014, that calls for Caterpillar to lease a front-end loader to Sterling beginning January 1, The terms and provisions of the lease agreement, and other pertinent data, are as follows. The term of the lease is five years. The lease agreement is noncancelable, requiring equal rental payments of $25, at the beginning of each year (annuity-due basis). The loader has a fair value at the inception of the lease of $100,000, an estimated economic life of five years, and an estimated residual value of $5,000. Sterling pays all of the executory costs directly to third parties except for the property taxes of $2,000 per year, which is included as part of its annual payments to Caterpillar. The lease contains no renewal options. The loader reverts to Caterpillar at the termination of the lease. Sterling s incremental borrowing rate is 11 percent per year. Sterling depreciates, on a straight-line basis, similar equipment that it owns. Caterpillar sets the annual rental to earn a rate of return on its investment of 10 percent per year; Sterling knows this fact LO 7

59 Special Lease Accounting Problems Illustration: Caterpillar assumes a 10 percent return on investment (ROI), whether the residual value is guaranteed or unguaranteed. Caterpillar would compute the amount of the lease payments as follows. Illustration Advance slide in presentation mode to reveal answer. LO 7

60 Special Lease Accounting Problems Guaranteed Residual Value (Lessee Accounting) Computation of Lessee s capitalized amount assuming a guaranteed residual value. Illustration LO 7

61 Guaranteed Residual Value (Lessee) Illustration LO 7

62 Guaranteed Residual Value (Lessee) At the end of the lease term, before the lessee transfers the asset to Caterpillar, the lease asset and liability accounts have the following balances. Illustration Assume that Sterling depreciated the leased asset down to its residual value of $5,000 but that the fair market value of the residual value at December 31, 2018, was $3,000. Sterling would make the following journal entry LO 7

63 Guaranteed Residual Value (Lessee) Illustration Loss on Capital Lease 2, Interest Expense (or Interest Payable) Lease Liability 4, Accumulated Depreciation Capital Leases 95, Leased Equipment (under capital leases) 100, Cash 2, LO 7

64 Special Lease Accounting Problems Unguaranteed Residual Value (Lessee Accounting) Assume the same facts as those above except that the $5,000 residual value is unguaranteed instead of guaranteed. Caterpillar will recover the same amount through lease rentals that is, $96, Sterling would capitalize the amount as follows: Illustration LO 7

65 Unguaranteed Residual Value (Lessee) Illustration LO 7

66 Unguaranteed Residual Value (Lessee) At the end of the lease term, before Sterling transfers the asset to Caterpillar, the lease asset and liability accounts have the following balances. Illustration LO 7

67 Comparative Entries Illustration LO 7

68 Special Lease Accounting Problems Lessor Accounting for Residual Value The lessor works on the assumption that it will realize the residual value at the end of the lease term whether guaranteed or unguaranteed. Illustration: Assume a direct-financing lease with a residual value (either guaranteed or unguaranteed) of $5,000. Caterpillar determines the payments as follows. Illustration LO 7

69 Lessor Accounting for Residual Value Illustration LO 7

70 Lessor Accounting for Residual Value Caterpillar would make the following entries for this direct-financing lease in the first year. Illustration /1/14 Lease Receivable 100,000 Equipment 100, LO 7

71 Lessor Accounting for Residual Value Caterpillar would make the following entries for this direct-financing lease in the first year. Illustration /1/14 Cash 25, Lease Receivable 23, Property Tax Expense/Property Taxes Payable 2, LO 7

72 Lessor Accounting for Residual Value Caterpillar would make the following entries for this direct-financing lease in the first year. Illustration /31/14 Lease Receivable 7, Interest Revenue 7, LO 7

73 21 Accounting for Leases LEARNING OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter, you should be able to: Explain the nature, economic substance, and advantages of lease transactions. 2. Describe the accounting criteria and procedures for capitalizing leases by the lessee. 3. Contrast the operating and capitalization methods of recording leases. 4. Explain the advantages and economics of leasing to lessors and identify the classifications of leases for the lessor. 5. Describe the lessor s accounting for directfinancing leases. 6. Identify special features of lease arrangements that cause unique accounting problems. 7. Describe the effect of residual values, guaranteed and unguaranteed, on lease accounting. 8. Describe the lessor s accounting for salestype leases. 9. List the disclosure requirements for leases.

74 Special Lease Accounting Problems Sales-Type Leases (Lessor) Primary difference between a direct-financing lease and a sales-type lease is the manufacturer s or dealer s gross profit (or loss). Lessor records the sale price of the asset, the cost of goods sold and related inventory reduction, and the lease receivable. There is a difference in accounting for guaranteed and unguaranteed residual values LO 8

75 Sales-Type Leases (Lessor) Direct-Financing versus Sales-Type Leases Illustration LO 8

76 Sales-Type Leases (Lessor) LO 8

77 Sales-Type Leases (Lessor) Illustration: To illustrate a sales-type lease with a guaranteed residual value and with an unguaranteed residual value, assume the same facts as in the preceding direct-financing lease situation. The estimated residual value is $5,000 (the present value of which is $3,104.60), and the leased equipment has an $85,000 cost to the dealer, Caterpillar. Assume that the fair market value of the residual value is $3,000 at the end of the lease term LO 8

78 Sales-Type Leases (Lessor) Computation of Lease Amounts by Caterpillar Financial Sales-Type Lease Illustration LO 8

79 Sales-Type Leases (Lessor) Comparative Entries Illustration LO 8

80 21-80 LO 8

81 Special Lease Accounting Problems Bargain Purchase Option (Lessee) Lessee must increase the present value of the minimum lease payments must include the present value of the option. Only difference between the accounting treatment for a bargain-purchase option and a guaranteed residual value of identical amounts is in the computation of the annual depreciation LO 8

82 Special Lease Accounting Problems Initial Direct Costs (Lessor) Accounting for initial direct costs: Operating leases, the lessor should defer initial direct costs. Sales-type leases, the lessor expenses the initial direct costs. Direct-financing lease, the lessor adds initial direct costs to the net investment LO 8

83 Special Lease Accounting Problems Current versus Noncurrent GAAP does not indicate how to measure the current and noncurrent amounts. Both the annuity-due and the ordinary-annuity situations report the reduction of principal for the next period as a current liability/current asset LO 8

84 Current versus Noncurrent Illustration The current portion of the lease liability/receivable as of December 31, 2014, would be $18, LO 8

85 21 Accounting for Leases LEARNING OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter, you should be able to: Explain the nature, economic substance, and advantages of lease transactions. 2. Describe the accounting criteria and procedures for capitalizing leases by the lessee. 3. Contrast the operating and capitalization methods of recording leases. 4. Explain the advantages and economics of leasing to lessors and identify the classifications of leases for the lessor. 5. Describe the lessor s accounting for directfinancing leases. 6. Identify special features of lease arrangements that cause unique accounting problems. 7. Describe the effect of residual values, guaranteed and unguaranteed, on lease accounting. 8. Describe the lessor s accounting for salestype leases. 9. List the disclosure requirements for leases.

86 Special Lease Accounting Problems Disclosing Lease Data General description of the nature of leasing arrangements. The nature, timing, and amount of cash inflows and outflows associated with leases, including payments to be paid or received for each of the five succeeding years. The amount of lease revenues and expenses reported in the income statement each period. Description and amounts of leased assets by major balance sheet classification and related liabilities. Amounts receivable and unearned revenues under lease agreements LO 9

87 Unresolved Lease Accounting Problems To avoid leased asset capitalization, companies design, write, and interpret lease agreements to prevent satisfying any of the four capitalized lease criteria. The real challenge lies in disqualifying the lease as a capital lease to the lessee, while having the same lease qualify as a capital (sales or financing) lease to the lessor. Unlike lessees, lessors try to avoid having lease arrangements classified as operating leases LO 9

88 21-88 LO 9

89 21-89 LO 9

90 21-90 LO 9

91 APPENDIX 21A SALE-LEASEBACKS The term sale-leaseback describes a transaction in which the owner of the property (seller-lessee) sells the property to another and simultaneously leases it back from the new owner. Advantages: 1. Financing 2. Taxes LO 10 Describe the lessee s accounting for sale-leaseback transactions.

92 APPENDIX 21A SALE-LEASEBACKS Determining Asset Use To the extent the seller-lessee continues to use the asset after the sale, the sale-leaseback is really a form of financing. Lessor should not recognize a gain or loss on the transaction. If the seller-lessee gives up the right to the use of the asset, the transaction is in substance a sale. Gain or loss recognition is appropriate LO 10

93 APPENDIX 21A SALE-LEASEBACKS Lessee If the lease meets one of the four criteria for treatment as a capital lease, the seller-lessee should Account for the transaction as a sale and the lease as a capital lease. Defer any profit or loss it experiences from the sale of the assets that are leased back under a capital lease. Amortize profit over the lease term LO 10

94 APPENDIX 21A SALE-LEASEBACKS Lessee If none of the capital lease criteria are satisfied, the sellerlessee accounts for the transaction as a sale and the lease as an operating lease. Lessee defers such profit or loss and amortizes it in proportion to the rental payments over the period when it expects to use the assets LO 10

95 APPENDIX 21A SALE-LEASEBACKS Lessor If the lease meets one of the lease capitalization criteria in Group I and both in Group II, the purchaser-lessor records the transaction as a purchase and a direct-financing lease. If the lease does not meet the criteria, the purchaser-lessor records the transaction as a purchase and an operating lease LO 10

96 APPENDIX 21A SALE-LEASEBACKS Sale-Leaseback Example American Airlines on January 1, 2014, sells a used Boeing 757 having a carrying amount on its books of $75,500,000 to CitiCapital for $80,000,000. American immediately leases the aircraft back under the following conditions: 1. The term of the lease is 15 years, noncancelable, and requires equal rental payments of $10,487,443 at the beginning of each year. 2. The aircraft has a fair value of $80,000,000 on January 1, 2014, and an estimated economic life of 15 years. 3. American pays all executory costs. 4. American depreciates similar aircraft that it owns on a straight-line basis over 15 years. 5. The annual payments assure the lessor a 12 percent return. 6. American s incremental borrowing rate is 12 percent LO 10

97 APPENDIX 21A SALE-LEASEBACKS Sale-Leaseback Example This lease is a capital lease to American because the lease term exceeds 75 percent of the estimated life of the aircraft and because the present value of the lease payments exceeds 90 percent of the fair value of the aircraft to CitiCapital. CitiCapital should classify this lease as a direct-financing lease LO 10

98 APPENDIX 21A SALE-LEASEBACKS Illustration 21A

99 RELEVANT FACTS - Similarities Both GAAP and IFRS share the same objective of recording leases by lessees and lessors according to their economic substance that is, according to the definitions of assets and liabilities. Much of the terminology for lease accounting in IFRS and GAAP is the same. Under IFRS, lessees and lessors use the same general lease capitalization criteria to determine if the risks and rewards of ownership have been transferred in the lease LO 11 Compare the accounting for leases under GAAP and IFRS.

100 RELEVANT FACTS - Differences One difference in lease terminology is that finance leases are referred to as capital leases in GAAP. GAAP for leases uses bright-line criteria to determine if a lease arrangement transfers the risks and rewards of ownership; IFRS is more general in its provisions. GAAP has additional lessor criteria: payments are collectible and there are no additional costs associated with a lease. IFRS requires that lessees use the implicit rate to record a lease unless it is impractical to determine the lessor s implicit rate. GAAP requires use of the incremental rate unless the implicit rate is known by the lessee and the implicit rate is lower than the incremental rate LO 11

101 RELEVANT FACTS - Differences Under GAAP, extensive disclosure of future non-cancelable lease payments is required for each of the next five years and the years thereafter. Although some international companies (e.g., Nokia) provide a year-by-year breakout of payments due in years 1 through 5. IFRS does not require it. The FASB standard for leases was originally issued in The standard (SFAS No. 13) has been the subject of more than 30 interpretations since its issuance. The IFRS leasing standard is IAS 17, first issued in This standard is the subject of only three interpretations. One reason for this small number of interpretations is that IFRS does not specifically address a number of leasing transactions that are covered by GAAP. Examples include lease agreements for natural resources, sale-leasebacks, real estate leases, and leveraged leases. LO 11

102 ON THE HORIZON Lease accounting is one of the areas identified in the IASB/FASB Memorandum of Understanding. The Boards have issued proposed rules based on right of use, which requires that all leases, regardless of their terms, be accounted for in a manner similar to how finance leases are treated today. That is, the notion of an operating lease will be eliminated, which will address the concerns under current rules in which no asset or liability is recorded for many operating leases. A final standard is expected in You can follow the lease project at either the FASB (http://www.fasb.org) or IASB (http://www.iasb.org) websites LO 11

103 IFRS SELF-TEST QUESTION Which of the following is not a criterion for a lease to be recorded as a finance lease? a. There is transfer of ownership. b. The lease is cancelable. c. The lease term is for the major part of the economic life of the asset. d. There is a bargain-purchase option LO 11

104 IFRS SELF-TEST QUESTION Under IFRS, in computing the present value of the minimum lease payments, the lessee should: a. use its incremental borrowing rate in all cases. b. use either its incremental borrowing rate or the implicit rate of the lessor, whichever is higher, assuming that the implicit rate is known to the lessee. c. use either its incremental borrowing rate or the implicit rate of the lessor, whichever is lower, assuming that the implicit rate is known to the lessee. d. use the implicit rate of the lessor, unless it is impracticable to determine the implicit rate LO 11

105 IFRS SELF-TEST QUESTION A lease that involves a manufacturer s or dealer s profit is a (an): a. direct financing lease. b. finance lease. c. operating lease. d. sales-type lease LO 11

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