STUDY ON LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT IN JESUIT BUSINESS EDUCATION

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1 STUDY ON LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT IN JESUIT BUSINESS EDUCATION REPORT ON PRELIMINARY FINDINGS June 2010 Prof. Guillermo Cisneros Garrido, ESADE. Prof. Enrique López Viguria, ESADE ESADE Business School Avda. Pedralbes BARCELONA SPAIN Leadership Development in Jesuit Business Education Page 1

2 Abstract This is a report on the preliminary findings of our study in which we discuss the role, presence and practice of leadership development in Jesuit business education programs. For this purpose, we analyze the mission statements from all the universities studied (information available on their websites) and responses from 34 Jesuit universities to an online questionnaire. We also visited 7 Jesuit universities and conducted 38 personal interviews. The importance of leadership in Jesuit business education programs has been growing over the last few years, and it is expected to keep growing in the coming years due to market and social demands and due to alignment with the Jesuit higher education mission as well. According to our results, leadership development is seen as a key element of Jesuit business education mission and strategy and it is consistent with Jesuit tradition and its pedagogical approach. Furthermore, an overwhelming majority of these universities considers that leadership development should be a priority and a distinctive trait of Jesuit universities. We analyze the existing programs and practices and compare them with those of non Jesuit institutions. We highlight some cases which serve as good examples of different ways of applying leadership development in Jesuit business education programs. In spite of leadership development s diversity and heterogeneity in terms of its situation and the little information shared between Jesuit universities, we have found some commonalties that are highly related to the Jesuit mission, tradition and values. There are also solid academic foundations and prestigious faculty in this field as well. Although Jesuit universities can be considered different horses for different courses, there is an opportunity to develop common distinctive characteristics regarding leadership development. Three possible directions can include: Leadership Formation, service and leadership, and institutional integration. However, we feel that the following are required for any possible future actions: Connecting with the mission, developing reliable methodologies, building on strengths and tradition, and ensuring academic excellence. Working as a network in the field of leadership development could provide many opportunities. However, the critical issue is to define whether and how leadership development is included in the educational mission. This is a leadership question, not an academic one. Leadership Development in Jesuit Business Education Page 2

3 CONTENTS Page O. Introduction: Objectives, motivation and methodology 4 1. The role of leadership development: What do we say and stand for? The practice of leadership development: What do we do? Provisional diagnosis: Situation, commonalties and differences What can we do now that we know more? 36 Annex 1: General results of the online questionnaire 44 Annex 2: US vs. non US Jesuit universities 46 References 48 ADDITIONAL ANNEXES 1. Online questionnaire 2. Excerpts from university Mission, Vision and Strategic statements Leadership Development in Jesuit Business Education Page 3

4 0. Introduction: Objectives, motivation and methodology Acknowledgments Conducting this study has been a privilege. We ve had the opportunity to garner insights, perspectives and experiences from many colleagues and university leaders and we would like to thank all of them. We would like also to thank other people that have been instrumental to providing us access to the universities and the Jesuit network: Father R. Spitzer S.J., Father Gregg Ulfferts S.J., and Chris Lowney. We are also very grateful to ESADE and its General Director, Carlos Losada, who supported this project from the outset and sponsored it. We hope to fulfill the expectations of all those that have participated in this study as we believe we are dealing with a critical issue for Jesuit higher education. This is a report on preliminary findings The purpose of this report is to present to the 2010 Colleagues in Jesuit Business Education Conference the preliminary findings and conclusions of our study. The purpose of this document is to make possible the reflection and discussion to enhance conclusions. Other reports and outputs of the study will be delivered in the future according to the inputs received and other information gathered during our field work What is this study about? This is not a theoretical study, and its purpose is not to try to define and apply a new theory or leadership model. This is a practical study related to the very practical purpose of education: To prepare and help our students manage their professional and personal lives, achieve their objectives and have an impact on society. As Father Kolvenbach stated, the real measure of our Jesuit universities lies in who our students become (Santa Clara, Oct. 2000). And above all we want our students to succeed in life as "men and women for others." We do not know if this statement is consistent with the definition of leadership, but it might be a good one. It is not achieved only through the delivery of knowledge or the development of intellectual capacities; rather, it can be attained especially through the development of the person as a whole, in line with the Jesuit educational tradition. We want our graduates to become leaders to serve [ ]. This has been the objective of the Jesuitical education since the 16 th century and it is still today (Kolvenbach, 1989). Leadership Development in Jesuit Business Education Page 4

5 If we accept that leaders are made and not born, then, as Drucker indicates, leadership development can and must be taught. Hence, leadership development is a responsibility we owe to our students, society and our mission. Finally, as stated in one of the interviews we conducted, in this society, if anybody should have the leadership positions in our society, let s try to help the right people get there. The context: Leadership development in business education Leadership as a an organizational need Business education has undergone very significant changes responding to the evolving needs of organizations. In the beginning, corporations just needed good functional managers to be able to cope with the technical issues of the companies respective activities. However, the human factor s increasing importance made it necessary to introduce the soft skills approach to prepare managers to be able to deal better with people related issues. The higher levels of competition at the global level have also forced organizations to look for managers that can make a difference and be agents of change, that is, leaders (Noel and Dotlich, 2008). Today, when uncertainty, globalization, complexity and speed are the new paradigms, organizations cannot rely just on a few individuals talent, and the idea of leadership (not just leaders) as a function and part of the culture is being consolidated as the new stage in organizational development. Leadership as an academic field It is evident that leadership has probably become a very relevant academic field in management and business education. But it is also clear that it is still in the process of being developed, with many emerging theories and diverse interpretations about what leadership is exactly. Although leadership was initially considered an inherited gift, now there is agreement and evidence that leadership is not a genetic trait (Arvey, Rotundo, Johnson, Zhang, McGue, 2006) and can therefore be developed. Consequently, after first paying attention to the situational and contextual factors when explaining the differences on how leadership appears and is exercised, the belief that leadership was the result of a series of competences later arose, with the notion of emotional intelligence starting the first revolution in the field of leadership development. However, the situation and context, the possession of some inherited traits and the mastery of specific competencies cannot fully explain why some behave as leaders, Leadership Development in Jesuit Business Education Page 5

6 with a strong impact on their environment, while others do not. Moreover, the moral and normative dimensions of leadership have become more and more relevant. The transformational versus transactional leadership approach has become the new paradigm and serves as the basis for new perspectives and concepts such as charismatic, authentic, servant, responsible and spiritual leadership (Burke 2006, Dent, Higgins. and Wharff, 2006, Avolio and Gardner 2005, Maak & Pless 2006). The concepts of shared and distributed leadership, resulting from less hierarchical organizations and a more cooperative and agile conception of work, have reinforced the idea that leadership is not about a few exceptional individuals, but something that happens at all levels in organizations and in every aspect of life. Leaders and leadership development Consistent with organizations new needs and changes in the concept of what being a leader is, leadership development has become a discipline in its own right through new approaches to overcome the limitations of the classic teaching methodology used in business education. Growing as an effective leader requires developing competencies, learning from personal experiences (especially those that have been called crucibles because of their transformational effect) and acquiring a high level of self awareness. Action learning, outdoor training, service learning, storytelling, 360 degree feedback, coaching, and mentoring, just to mention a few, are some of the most well known new techniques used in leadership development. Approaches offering a more holistic focus by introducing ontological, moral and spiritual dimensions are also becoming areas of intense research and experimentation (Avolio 2009, Jensen 2008). Moreover, the conception of leadership development itself has evolved in terms of its objectives. The aim today is not only to identify and help individuals to become leaders, but to also transform the whole organization s culture by spreading leadership and creating a dynamic of change and transformation within (Conger 2008, Noel and Dotlich 2008), that is, developing leaders and developing leadership. Changes in business education Leadership development has become a driver transforming the business education industry. The first to demand a different approach in leadership development were the leading corporations themselves. Due to the new methodologies necessary for leadership development and the companies need for close knit integration between the organizational business processes and corporate culture, firms started to develop their own in house solutions. For example, General Electric with its Jack Welch Leadership Leadership Development in Jesuit Business Education Page 6

7 Development Center (also known as Crottonville ) is still today the best practice which most companies use as a benchmark. Business schools claim to be the source of potential leadership development, especially through the MBA programs that have become the global standard for the management education industry. But new players, like consultancies and educational centers specialized in leadership development have seen the opportunity to innovate by introducing new methodologies according to the changes in corporate needs. These new agents are becoming strong competitors for traditional business schools especially in the corporate education field. Responding to these challenges and the needs of their stakeholders, academic institutions have transformed their approach and are giving increasing attention to leadership. As we will see later, in a sample of 15 top US business schools, 10 already have a specialized academic center to teach, research and establish a dialogue with their stakeholders on leadership. The case of ethics and values: Value based and responsible leadership Very recently, a study presented at the World Economic Forum revealed an overwhelming concern: Two thirds of the world s population believed that the current economic global downturn is also a crisis of values, and 62% feel that personal values are acquired in the family and through education. It is clear in what direction we have to look for responsibilities and solutions. The argument of being the world s suppliers of leadership has backfired on business schools and their MBA programs, and the business education industry has been criticized and blamed for this first global crisis. However, there are no signs of significant change, and, surprisingly, MBA students still don t see ethics and values as a relevant concept. But some companies do. Procter and Gamble s CEO announced that the company s future strategy would be based on what has been called value based leadership. The moral dimension of leadership development is now a practical issue, not just a theory, and it goes beyond the concept of corporate responsibility. The objectives of the study The purpose of our study is to analyze the role of leadership development in Jesuit business education programs, considering the following aspects: Its presence in the universities mission and strategy and The leadership programs offered. Leadership Development in Jesuit Business Education Page 7

8 The study is descriptive in nature. Therefore, it provides a picture of the current state of these business education programs. A logical outcome is that it will serve to identify best practices and areas of potential innovation and cooperation between Jesuit universities. But the information obtained can also be a trigger for reflection and discussion on three critical questions: How are Jesuit business education programs responding to the mission of developing leaders and leadership? Should leadership development be a priority for and a distinctive trait in these Jesuit business education programs? How should this be achieved? Our study may also identify what additional research is necessary in the future to provide a more precise answer to those same questions. The methodology We used the following sources in our study: Information about programs and initiatives on leadership development available on the universities' websites; The mission statements when available on internet; A questionnaire sent to 84 Jesuit IAJBS members. The purpose of the questionnaire was to understand the role of leadership development within these institutions (see Annex 1 below). We received 36 responses from 34 different universities (a 40% rate of response). Respondents were from the USA (20), Asia (3), Latin America (8) and Europe (3). 71% of US Jesuit universities participated in the study; Visits and personal interviews at the following universities and schools: Seattle University, Gonzaga University, Detroit Mercy, Boston College, Santa Clara University, Georgetown University and ESADE Business school. 38 personal interviews were conducted during these visits; and A review of leadership and leadership development literature. Limits and considerations There are two questions to consider due to their impact on the methodology. a. The use of the terms leaders and leadership as discriminating filters: Leadership Development in Jesuit Business Education Page 8

9 In our study we only considered leadership or leader development activities as those labeled specifically with these words. However, the words leader and leadership have different meanings in different languages and cultural contexts; in some languages there isn t a specific word for leadership, adopting the term directly from English. Moreover, what being a leader means and showing leadership has changed. Does it mean that universities are not using these words in their mission statements or that their programs are not developing leaders? Surely not. Does it mean that all activities that are labeled as "leadership development" initiatives are truly and effectively developing leaders or leadership? We cannot assert this is true. Therefore, using these words as discriminating criteria may seem a source of bias. However, we have adopted it not only for practical reasons (otherwise, the study would have been impossible) but, overall, because it is a necessary distinction. Leadership development is an intentional process and it also requires conducting purposefully specific educational activities. Therefore, it requires a concrete language to describe the concepts, tools, processes and methodologies. Intentional leadership development is not possible if we don t call it leadership development. b. What is business education?: The way in which business education is offered at Jesuit universities is not homogeneous. Some universities have a separate business school with its own identity and programs while others only have a business and management education department. Additionally, business and management courses are also taught in continuing education programs. Leadership is a relevant topic in Education, Health and Engineering degrees, just to mention a few. We will address this point later when analyzing conclusions, and, even though we focus specifically on business education activities, leadership initiatives are not the exclusive territory of MBA programs; we must highlight the extremely interesting initiatives provided in other university schools and departments. c. The US bias: The conclusions of our study may be partially biased due to the characteristics and results of our fieldwork. Most of the interviews and visits were conducted in the US, and, as we have seen, 58% of the institutions responding to our questionnaire come from that country. We should refer again to the importance of the cultural context because these results are Leadership Development in Jesuit Business Education Page 9

10 correlated with the much lower presence of leadership development programs in Jesuit universities outside the US. For this reason, we will briefly compare the results of responses to the questionnaire from the US to those from other countries. Because 71% of the US Jesuit institutions participated in the study, we can consider results to be highly representative for that country. Part 1: The role of leadership development: What do we say and stand for? Leadership in mission statements We would like to introduce the results of our study by analyzing the presence of the leadership concept in the different university mission statements. The latter reflects the institution s end objective, and the vision completes it by identifying the path to achieve this mission. We started by analyzing the university s statements and completed our analysis with the business school s or the business education department s declaration, when available. We should say that some mission statements were not available on internet. We also considered the broadest statement available, including the vision and strategic objectives. According to our analysis, 29 Jesuit universities/business schools mention leadership or leader development in a specific way. To some degree, these are either in their mission, vision and strategy statements. 22 of these universities were in the United States and another 6 in Asia. We found only a single mention to leadership in Latin American universities/business schools. No mention to leadership was found in the European Jesuit universities or business schools. This evidences the importance of the cultural context when talking about leadership or using words to describe it. If we analyze the context, not just the presence of the words, worth noting is that, in most of the cases, leadership is not an objective per se. It is accompanied by various adjectives and words associated to values. For example: Andhra Loyola College Vijayawada: To impart higher education with integral formation which involves academic excellence, spiritual growth, social commitment and value based leadership. Marquette University : [ ] and the development of leadership expressed in service to others. Leadership Development in Jesuit Business Education Page 10

11 Rockhurst University Vision Statement [ ] be nationally recognized for transforming lives and forming leaders in the Jesuit tradition. Inspired by the example of St. Ignatius of Loyola, this Catholic university community seeks to make God s good world better through learning, leadership, service, and the pursuit of justice [ ]. Seattle University: [ ] is dedicated to educating the whole person, to professional formation, and to empowering leaders for a just and humane world. Seattle University Albers School of Management mission: Inspired by the Jesuit traditions of academic excellence, education for justice, and service to others, we are committed to providing an integrated business education for ethical and socially responsible leadership. Xavier Institute of Management. Bhubaneswar mission: We shall continue to be an institute with a difference by developing competent, committed and compassionate leaders through management education, knowledge generation and dissemination, capacity building, technology enabled learning and organizational development. Moreover, in the case of 5 universities, leadership is part of the claim and the general promise to the society. Loyola University Chicago: Preparing people to lead extraordinary lives. Regis University: Learners becoming leaders in the Jesuit Catholic Tradition. LeMoyne College: Spirit. Inquiry. Leadership. Jesuit. Canisius College: Where leaders are made. Wheeling Jesuit University: Life, Leadership, Service Finally, in a few cases, there is a remarkable commitment to leadership as an essential part of the universities pedagogical approach. Loyola University Chicago: Five Characteristics of a Jesuit Education [ ]Values based leadership: Ensuring a consistent focus on personal integrity, ethical behavior in business and in all professions, and the appropriate balance between justice and fairness. Rockhurst: Learning, Leadership and Service in the Jesuit tradition. [ ] Through leadership students take responsibility for their own learning and apply that learning in the complex world beyond the boundaries of the campus. Students who take initiative will become leaders who strive continually to develop themselves and others [ ]. Leadership Development in Jesuit Business Education Page 11

12 Throughout the campus, leadership is a theme in classroom discussions, student organizations, service opportunities and international service trips. The educational experience integrates these essential leadership skills. The importance of leadership development In this section we analyze both the results of the online questionnaire (see Annex 1) and the personal interviews conducted during our visits to various Jesuit universities. Leadership development is a most relevant part of our mission and consistent with Jesuit tradition. 44% of the respondents to the online questionnaire said that leadership development was extremely relevant for the educational mission of their institutions. This figure reaches up to 65% if we include those who believe that it is very important. With very few disagreements, this is also the majority opinion expressed in the personal interviews. Leadership development is seen as strongly connected to the mission, though not only as a university but also as a Jesuit university Leadership is why we have colleges and high schools to influence leaders Leadership development is an obligation. Leadership Development is a very clear objective of Jesuit education, and has been part of the Jesuit Vision and Mission from the very beginning. This is why the vast majority (92% of respondents) indicates that they very much or strongly agree with the statement, Leadership Development is consistent with Jesuit Values and Tradition. The increasing importance of leadership development There is a clear opinion that leadership development is becoming more important for Jesuit business education. 80% of questionnaire respondents believes that leadership development has grown in importance in the last few years, and 92% believes that it will be even more important for their institutions in the future. The reasons for this increasing importance assigned to leadership in Jesuit business education can be classified into the following 4 categories: Leadership Development in Jesuit Business Education Page 12

13 a) Market demand: A higher demand for leadership focused programs by students, organizations and stakeholders. Leadership development is seen not only as a set of programs that attracts students and corporate customers, but also as a way to increase student employability. b) Social reasons: Reflecting society s needs with respect to leadership. The challenging economic environment makes this necessity more acute. c) Mission alignment: The need to offer a better fit with the purpose as a Jesuit university. d) Growing academic relevance and the need to increase the weight of leadership in the curricula: Due to its increasing popularity and/or the interest of faculty in developing this academic area. e) Pedagogy: Changes/improvements in pedagogy according to new needs and requirements. f) Strategy: Increasing the institution s competitiveness. According to this classification, the distribution of the various reasons explaining the evolution of leadership development is as follows according to the institutions responding to our multi response questionnaire: Distribution of reasons mentioned which explain the greater importance given to leadership development by Jesuit institutions. Growth in the past Growth in the future Mission alignment 40% 44% Market demands 48% 60% Academic 44% 16% Social demands 52% 64% Strategy 28% 36% Pedagogy 12% 0% External forces (market and social demands) have been the primary forces in the past, and are essentially the driving forces for the future. In terms of internal motivations, alignment with the university s mission has been an important reason for growth in the past and will also be a driver for the increased importance of leadership development in the future. Leadership Development in Jesuit Business Education Page 13

14 Leadership development and Jesuit pedagogical tradition There is also a general perception that leadership development is strongly connected to the Jesuit pedagogical approach. 83% of questionnaire respondents very much or strongly agree with this statement. In the personal interviews, there were very categorical statements about this issue. Not only is leadership development very much in line with the Jesuit pedagogical approach based on action and reflection; it is also relevant due to the fact that Jesuit tradition has very powerful tools for leadership development based on Spiritual Exercises: Discernment and self awareness. However, we should note that in most of the personal interviews, we found a lack of concretion when linking leadership development to Jesuit pedagogical tradition. In other words, even though there is agreement on the consistency between leadership development and Jesuit pedagogy in theory, there is not enough concretion in practice. As such, it seems that it has not been very well developed yet at the methodological level. In addition, in some of our personal interviews, there were explicit mentions to the differences in pedagogical needs when dealing with different kinds of students: undergraduates, MBA students and Executive Education program participants. Their reference frameworks, demands, motivations and expectations are very different and should be considered in the pedagogical approach for leadership development. Leadership development and the university s strategy 60% of the respondents stated that leadership development is already very important or extremely important for their competitive strategy with respect to other business education universities. Also according to the questionnaire, the opinion is that leadership development should not only be a priority but also a distinctive trait as well. 94% of questionnaire respondents very much or strongly agree that leadership development should be a priority in Jesuit business education programs (69% strongly agree). 88% very much or strongly agree with the vision that leadership development should be a distinctive trait of Jesuit business education programs (69% strongly agree). This represents an overwhelming majority of the institutions participating in the questionnaire. The results in the personal interviews are very similar. Leadership Development in Jesuit Business Education Page 14

15 We shall discuss the implications of these results below, but, before going further, we should also pay attention to the few discrepant voices, especially with regards to the idea of leadership development as a distinctive trait. Understanding this reluctance obliges us to consider two very relevant questions: Leadership development as a distinctive trait. A few of the interviewees were puzzled by the idea of having leadership development serve as a distinctive trait, believing that all universities can and should have that trait; therefore, it cannot be unique or exclusive to Jesuit business education programs. However, distinctiveness (that is, a source of differentiation) can happen in one of two ways: a) possessing a unique trait, something that is an exclusive technology or b) doing what others do but in a different, unique or better way. Only in very exceptional cases is it possible to have something that is exclusive. Hence, the secret of success is, most of the times, not what you do but how you do it. Therefore, the question should be posed as follows: Should Jesuit business education institutions be recognized because excelling in leadership development is an important part of their education? Leadership development as the distinctive trait There were some warnings about this issue, and it is probably the most important consideration in the few discrepancies we did find. Leadership development is seen as something soft, a not very well defined discipline as yet. Success in the very competitive higher education industry comes from academic excellence and rigor. Leadership development is not included in the current rules of the game. Therefore, when confronted with the idea of leadership development, some fear jeopardizing their academic excellence if they focus on something that is still immature and not well developed. There is a lot of truth in this concern. However, If we think in terms of strategy, there are always some aspects in every industry considered a part of the rules of the game, the basic requirements to compete. If you don t have these traits, you cannot survive. This is the case with academic excellence in the educational sector as is technology and reliability in the car industry. If you don t receive top scores on these factors, you cannot be at the top of the industry. If you don t score at all, you could be forced out of the industry. As such, these are necessary conditions to compete but not always sufficient to differentiate. A distinctive trait is something in addition to other characteristics; it is Leadership Development in Jesuit Business Education Page 15

16 the area of innovation and what makes you different and appealing and that for which you stand. What kind of leaders? Given the myriad of leadership models and definitions, one of the challenges was finding one that fit with the Jesuit tradition. The answers to this question in our interviews were clear and provided us with an easy solution to the dilemma: This is not about defending a specific leadership model; it is about values. Leadership is a response to a specific context, and there are different ways of exercising leadership. The context that leaders have to face varies from country to country. Even within the United States, the leadership model needed in Silicon Valley is very different from the kind of leaders needed in Washington DC or in Motown (Detroit). Hence, the relevant question is what values leaders should have, enabling them to make the right choices in the different contexts they have to serve. In our online questionnaire, we asked about the specific leadership values that should be characteristic of Jesuit business education programs. The question was open ended, and, after classifying the responses, the results are as follows: The leadership values mentioned the most are ethics (50%) and service (50%), that is, men and women for others. Social justice, compassion, consciousness and Social Responsibility are found in the second block of the most cited values (mentioned by at least 30% of the respondents). And, finally, we should highlight Magis, self awareness, discernment and development of the whole person (cited by 10 to 15% of the respondents). The rest of the leadership values cited cannot be grouped into a single category. These results are consistent with the interviews we conducted, and, therefore, there is a clear and shared idea about the values and the kind of leadership these universities want to develop among current and future leaders. The following question, then, is: How are we doing it? Leadership Development in Jesuit Business Education Page 16

17 Part 2: The practice of leadership development: What do we do? In this section, we analyze the real practice of leadership development in Jesuit business education programs according to the information gathered in our study. A complete list of all the programs identified can be provided on demand. The precautions already mentioned in the introduction, however, should be taken into account. Analysis of leadership development programs and initiatives: A preliminary examination According to our questionnaire, leadership development plays a more important role in non curricular activities than in curricular ones. Student development and service to community (actually, most student development activities are related with service learning) are the areas where leadership development has the most important role. Within curricular academic programs, it is in the area of Executive Education where leadership development is considered very to extremely important. However, only 60% of the schools responding to our questionnaire offer any kind of Executive Education program. Executive Education is followed by MBAs, undergraduate and graduate programs (in this order) in terms of the importance leadership development has in the respective program contents. As a result of the limited presence of doctoral programs (only 25% of the schools participating in the study have programs at that level), leadership development thus has a reduced presence also in absolute terms at the PhD level. A logical consequence is that research activity focusing on leadership is also somewhat limited. Analysis of the information available through university websites The data gathered from our analysis of the program and activity information available on participating university websites corroborates our results from the online questionnaire. We found evidence of leadership programs providing enough, quality information to analyze them in 29 Jesuit universities. 25 of these were in the US, 2 in Asia, 1 in Europe and the other in Latin America. Leadership Development in Jesuit Business Education Page 17

18 We cannot say that these are the only existing programs; they are the only programs we found with enough information for our analysis. However, it is a large enough sample for a good understanding of the nature and characteristics of the existing leadership programs at Jesuit universities. In our analysis, we also included student development activities at the university level as well as programs in the leadership area taught by education departments. Although these programs are apparently beyond the scope of this study, we have included them because: 1) they are of intrinsic interest to our study; 2) they affect business and management students to some extent (for example, through university wide student development programs); and 3) they aim to prepare managers for a specific field of activity (education). Seattle University, San Francisco, Le Moyne and Boston College are strongly positioned in the leadership area in the education field. Synergies with business education are quite evident. This is the summary of our main findings: In the above mentioned 29 universities, we found evidence and descriptions of 144 leadership programs and activities. 89 of these were run by the universities business and management schools or departments (including continuing and professional studies); 38 were leadership programs at the university wide level for student development; 16 were in education schools and departments; and, finally, 3 were in other schools and departments. 70% of these universities have one or more student leadership development programs. These are, by far, the most important category in Jesuit leadership education. 9 of these universities (31%) have a Master s degree program in their portfolio specializing in leadership; 28% run leadership programs at the executive education level; 24% have certificate programs in the field; and 17% have a major in leadership. 3 universities have a doctoral degree in leadership, and Ateneo de Manila has recently started a new one, raising the total to four. We found evidence of service learning being used as a means for leadership development at 9 universities (31%), all of them, however, in the US. This doesn t mean that service or service learning is not present in other programs and universities; it is simply not related to leadership development. Leadership Development in Jesuit Business Education Page 18

19 We also identified 8 centers in the Jesuit network specializing in leadership: University & school Boston College, Carroll School of Management Creighton University, School of Business. Santa Clara University. Leavey School of Business Seattle University, Albers School of Management University of Detroit Mercy The Xavier Institute of Leadership The Xavier Institute Cincinnati. Williams College of Business Center Winston Center for Leadership and Ethics Anna Tyler Waite Center for Leadership Global Women's Leadership Network The Center for Leadership Formation Leadership Development Institute The Xavier Institute of Leadership Xavier Leadership Center ESADE Chair in LeadershipS and Governance And, if we add the centers at the Fordham and San Francisco Schools of Education, this number ascends to 10. University & school University of San Francisco Fordham University, Graduate School of Education Center Institute for Catholic Educational Leadership The Center for Catholic School Leadership and Faith Based Education These centers promote a variety of diverse activities, not just a single type of program. Gonzaga University also offers a PhD in Leadership Studies. Seattle University and San Francisco University have a PhD in Leadership within the field of Education. Ateneo de Manila has recently started a doctoral degree in leadership studies, too. There isn t enough evidence to examine the level of research in the leadership field, but, according to the available information, there are also scholars carrying out research and publishing and developing knowledge in the field at Leadership Development in Jesuit Business Education Page 19

20 Santa Clara, Boston College, Detroit Mercy and ESADE in addition to the three above mentioned universities (Gonzaga, Seattle and San Francisco). Below is a chart detailing the Master s degree programs offering a full specialization in Leadership in the Business and Management field (we do not include Master s degrees in educational leadership here). University School Program Canisius College. Georgetown University Gonzaga University College of Arts and Sciences McDonough School of Business School of Professional Studies MS in Communication and Leadership Executive Master's in Leadership Master of Arts in Communication and Leadership Studies Marquette University College of Professional Studies Master in Leadership Studies Regis University School of Management Master of Science in Organization Leadership Seattle University Albers School of Management Leadership Executive MBA Wheeling Jesuit University Business Department Master of Science in Organizational Leadership Even before comparing with other universities, it seems that the Jesuit network has strong academic foundations from which to further develop the field of leadership. Comparison with other universities Any comparison should be done in terms of quantity and quality. Leadership is not just a positive concept; it is something related to values and, therefore, it is a normative concept in which the kind of leaders and leadership matters, a lot. Moreover, the quality of the initiatives is what makes the difference, Understanding this quality is the only way to find hints to help improve and achieve excellence. However, as a start, we will focus only on the most basic analysis, a quantitative and descriptive one. Because the universe in which Jesuit business education programs compete is huge and not manageable for our analysis, we are going to limit the geographic scope only to US Jesuit universities. Previous work done by Ling and Phillips will serve as a valuable reference. Leadership Development in Jesuit Business Education Page 20

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