drinking water medication short guide

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1 drinking water medication short guide Dr. Klaas van Aken DVM

2 Optimal use of antibiotics through correct administration 2 This brochure presents a step-by-step approach to responsibly and successfully administering drinking water medication, with a view toward preventing resistance to antibiotics. To prevent resistance, it is necessary to use fewer antibiotics, since resistance can develop with each exposure of bacteria to antibiotics. When antibiotics are required, they must be used correctly if the animal is to receive an effective dosage. A dosage that is too low or treatment that is administered for too short a period increases the likelihood of resistance developing.

3 Use the right active substance The choice of active substance depends strongly on the situation on the farm. It is therefore important to always consult your veterinarian. 3 Targeted use of antibiotics Injection and drinking water medication Administering antibiotics via injection is the best way to medicate. Each injected animal receives the correct dosage, unaffected by water and feed intake. However, individual administering via injection is often not feasible in practice. Medication can then be administered via the feed or drinking water. Why drinking water medication is preferred Advantage The knowledgeable and targeted use of antibiotics. Improved absorption of the medication. Accurate dosing. In a properly implemented drinking water system, it is possible to medicate per section, and animals do not come in contact with antibiotics unnecessarily. Change the medicine and the dosage whenever it suits you. Remark No unseen use of antibiotics, such as medicating via premix. Sick animals generally stop eating sooner than they stop drinking. Top dressing does not always mix properly via the feed, so that some animals receive more, and others less, than the intended dosage. The likelihood of contamination is greater when using medicated feed. The charges that follow a charge of medicated feed contain (small) amounts of antibiotics, which of course is not the intent. Thus, animals are unnecessarily exposed to an underdosage of antibiotics, which leads to resistance. No need to wait until the feed silo is empty.

4 4 What are the criteria for a good drinking system? Good water quality Administering drinking water medication successfully is only possible when the water quality is good. If tap water is used, few problems can be expected. The chemical composition of well water, on the other hand, can vary strongly per region and well depth. Especially the presence of iron, manganese and calcium total hardness can lead to problems. Well water treatment techniques There are a number of well water treatment techniques available. In any case, the treated well water must meet the standards of the Animal Health Service. And even then, there can still be problems with deposits and reduced solubility of medication. If this is the case, a water specialist needs to be called in to determine the cause. Common problems Problem Deposits in the system. Taste abnormalities. Dirty pipes to which microorganisms can easily attach. Interactions with medication. Result Blockages and pressure loss in the lines. Wear and tear on drinking water system. Reduced water intake by livestock. Stomach and intestinal disorders, and poorer technical results. Medication is less effective and/or causes deposits. Ensure good well water quality Have the well water tested at least once a year by a laboratory, and compare the results with the standards. Take the sample at a moment of peak water use. Purchase an iron and hardness test-set to quickly and accurately check your water treatment system. Assess the smell, colour and taste of the water monthly, and take appropriate action if abnormalities are detected. Consult a specialist if necessary. Install a water filter with transparent casing, so that abnormal water quality can be spotted quickly. Have the water treatment system maintained yearly. Ensure that the capacity of the water treatment system is also sufficient during peak periods and after possible expansion of the farm. Good drinking water system To successfully administer medication via drinking water, it is extremely important that the drinking water system is up to the task. A one-off investment in a properly functioning drinking water system will result in years of work satisfaction and less chance of microbiological contamination.

5 Advice and commentary on installation of the drinking water system 5 Piping materials and diameters Piping diameters should not be too large: mm is sufficient. In the section itself, a piping diameter of 20 mm is adequate. This prevents the water from heating up. Quicker transport through the piping, supplements reach the drinking points quicker. PVC piping materials are preferred. Limited permeability. No sags and sediment (when a sufficient number of mounting brackets are used). Inexpensive material. Use PP (thick-walled plastic) or stainless steel piping material at vulnerable points. Do NOT use galvanised piping. Avoid dead-end piping. Avoid dirt and medication remnants forming sediment in the piping, for example due to installation over and around pen fencing. Pressure distribution and nipple yield Replace float tanks with pressure regulators. Ensure that there is a good distribution of pressure regulators throughout the stable, and that proper adjustment of the system is possible. Flushing possibilities Install flush valves at the end of transport piping and within circuits in the section. Install a bypass around the pressure regulators to allow high pressure flushing. Water metering Install a water meter in each section where medication is possible. PVC is not suitable for places where animals can come in contact with the piping system. This can corrode, causing interactions with drinking water medication. Stagnant water heats up, and leads to bacteriological contamination of the drinking system. Sediment is a breeding ground for bacteria. Better for water hygiene. The water temperature can rise quickly in float tanks, and the likelihood of contamination with substances and medication remnants is great. Float tanks are difficult to clean. Pressure regulators ensure precise nipple yield and keep the system closed. Flushing is the first step in the cleaning process following medication. The flush valves are also useful for bringing the medication quickly to its destination in the case of young animals. Abnormal water intake can be an early indicator of sickness. Moreover, knowledge of water intake is necessary for preparing the correct solution.

6 6 Medication options Administer medication and other supplements with a central dosing pump. Ensure targeted medication per section by means of a double piping system. A valve set allows choosing between ordinary water and medicated water. Install a third transport pipe and an extra central dosing pump if drinking water supplements are used regularly. This allows a different product to be administered in different sections, for example a cleaning agent and medication. Ensure that the dosing pump capacity is also sufficient for peak periods to be certain of adequate dosing. Prevent deterioration of the microbiological water quality within the system by reducing the likelihood of heating up, sediment and adhesion of contamination to the piping. The right dosing pump Mechanical dosing pump Water pressure powered. No water meter. More likelihood of dosage deviations in young animals and in the case limited water intake. Shorter life. Chance of dosage deviations due to wear and tear. Lower purchase price. Electromagnetic dosing pump Electromagnetic pump powered by pulse water meter. Includes water meter for monitoring the operation of the dosing pump and knowledge of water consumption. Accurate, also in the case of low water intake. Limited wear and tear, built to last, remains accurate. More expensive than mechanical dosing pump.

7 Administering the correct dosage 1 Determine the product to be used. 2 Check the time within which the solution must be administered. This is often 24 hours, but sometimes 12 hours or less. 3 Be sure to know the water consumption of the animals during this period. It is best to use data obtained from a water meter on the farm. If this is not possible, the drinking water consumption table gives an indication (next page). 4 Configure the dosing pump for the desired dosage, generally 1% or 2%. 5 Calculate the total amount of solution to be prepared (litres). 6 Calculate the amount of medication the solution must contain. This is indicated as the amount of medication per 1000 litres or number of mg per kg body weight (see package leaflet). 7 Calculation example Product being used Soludox 50% Period of time 24 hours Water intake 850 litres Dosage setting 2% Total solution 2% of 850 litres = 17 litres Number of animals 200 pigs Body weight 45 kg per animal Total weight 9,000 kg Prescribed dosage 10 mg doxycycline hyclate per kg body weight = 20 mg Soludox 50% per kg body weight Total dosage 9,000 kg * 20 mg = 180,000 mg = 180 gram Soludox 50% Total solution 17 litres of water grams of Soludox 50% Regularly verify the correct dosage by comparing the amount of dosed product to the amount of water used and the dosage setting of the pump.

8 8 Indication of drinking water consumption pigs* Age (weeks) after being placed in pen Weight (kg) Water intake (litres) * Water intake depends among other things on the ambient temperature, nipple yield, taste of the water and the health of the pigs. * Water intake in piglets up to 25 kg is approximately 10% of the body weight. Follow proper procedures Preparing the solution Clean equipment Be sure to use the right tools, such as a large enough dosing vessel with graduations, scale, measuring scoop, measuring cup and ph meter for monitoring the solution s acidity. Clean this equipment after each medication. Read the package leaflet When preparing the solution, follow the instructions concerning temperature, ph (acidity) and mixing of the product. Make short, clearly readable preparation procedures for products that are used regularly. Preparing in tap water Minor abnormalities in water quality incorrect ph or the presence of minerals can result in the medication not being properly dissolved. (Low) water temperature when dissolving Not all medication can stand a high temperature. This can result in a deactivation of the medication. Dissolving at the right ph Colistin and doxycycline work best in an acidic solution. Enrofloxacin, sulfa drugs and amoxicillin work best in an alkaline solution. Most other antibiotics work best in a solution with a neutral ph. Avoid the simultaneous administration of multiple medications The simultaneously administration of multiple veterinary medicines is seldom studied. Therefore, it is important to be cautious! The same applies to using cleaning agents together with veterinary medicines.

9 Cleaning the piping Mistakes are often made when cleaning drinking water systems. For proper water hygiene, it is important to clean and disinfect the drinking water system at regular intervals. This fixed routine assures that the system is clean when you are ready to start medication and thus that there will be no contamination due to interactions with the drinking water system. This will also prevent blockages, taste abnormalities, and stomach and intestinal problems due to low microbiological water quality. It is also important to perform extra cleaning immediately after medication. Many medicines contain carrier substances that can lead to the accelerated accumulation of a biofilm in the piping system. After medication, first flush the drinking water system under high pressure, and then add the prescribed dosage of a cleaning product. Visually check water quality at regular intervals. Cleaning and disinfecting products that contribute to water hygiene Main component Action Hydrogen peroxide Creates an effervescent effect that loosens dirt from the piping. Proper and effective cleaning, especially after medication. In the case of strong contamination, an extra high dosage can be used in empty stalls. Some products contain a stabilising and disinfecting component. Chlorine sodium Quite strong disinfecting action, but this decreases at a ph > 7.5. hypochlorite Only disinfects the surface; contamination is not removed from the system. Possibility of smell and taste abnormalities and the development of harmful remnants. Chlorine dioxide Powerful disinfectant that is prepared on site from 2 components. Continuous low dosage. Disinfecting action does not depend on the ph. Low probability of smell and taste abnormalities. Shelf life after preparation is approx. 1 month. Organic acids ph decreases to approx. 3.8, an environment in which many microorganisms are unable to survive. Dosage depends on the water composition; a too low dosage can lead to the proliferation of certain microorganisms. Promotes stomach and intestinal health, and gives better technical results. 9

10 10 Use properly formulated veterinary medicines Properly formulated veterinary medicines reduce problems and increase effective use. The difference lies in the quality of the active substance and the non-active components. This ensures the correct dosage without waste, thereby reducing the likelihood of resistance developing. Good solution and long stability It is not easy to obtain a solution with the correct ph. For this reason, use products that have been formulated to dissolve well and that remain stable for a long time. For example, Soludox and Octacillin have been formulated to dissolve well without the addition of acids or bases, and remain stable for a long time. This means that no product remains behind in the solution, and waste due to decomposition while medicating is reduced to a minimum. Medication without lactose Ask your veterinarian for products without lactose or other sugars (Soludox, Octacillin ). These fillers are ideal breading grounds for bacteria. They can lead to the formation of a biofilm and the breakdown of the antibiotics. Ask your veterinarian for products that remain stable for a long time and that contain no lactose.

11 Using antibiotics correctly The use of antibiotics on the farm is something to be discussed with your veterinarian. If you decide to use antibiotics, make sure you do so correctly. This means: Use the right active substance, always in consultation with your veterinarian Administer the right dosage Administer antibiotics in a targeted way via injection or drinking water Follow the procedures Ensure proper drinking water quality and the right drinking water system Use properly formulated veterinary medicines 11

12 We re proud to be market innovators in veterinary products and services A business unit of Dechra Pharmaceuticals PLC, Dechra Veterinary Products specialises in the development and marketing of licensed branded pharmaceuticals and specialist premium pet foods for companion animals in the global veterinary market. Dechra, putting you first. We re committed to developing new products and services that support the work of veterinary professionals and enhance the lives of their patients. Dechra will continue to invest in products and added-value services that deliver our promise to veterinary professionals and pet owners. SoluStab Technology In 2012 Dechra acquired Netherlands-based Eurovet Animal Health B.V. This company is specialised in Water Soluble Products, developed under the SoluStab Technology. SoluStab Technology combines a maximum solubility together with an optimal stability after dissolution of these products. Examples of products developed under the SoluStab Technology are: Soludox, Octacillin and Methoxasol. Dechra Veterinary Products

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