PRACTICES OF RESULT-ORIENTED TEACHERS PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS OF CENTRAL ZONE OF TIGRAY REGION RIESOM TEWELDEMEDHIN ARAYA

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1 PRACTICES OF RESULT-ORIENTED TEACHERS PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS OF CENTRAL ZONE OF TIGRAY REGION BY RIESOM TEWELDEMEDHIN ARAYA ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES COLLEGE OF EDUCATION AND BEHAVIORAL STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT JUNE, 2014

2 ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES COLLEGE OF EDUCATION AND BEHAVIORAL STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PRACTICES OF RESULT-ORIENTED TEACHERS PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS OF CENTRAL ZONE OF TIGRAY REGION A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF EDUCATION IN EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP BY RIESOM TEWELDEMEDHIN ARAYA JUNE, 2014 ADDIS ABABA ii

3 ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES COLLEGE OF EDUCATION AND BEHAVIORAL STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PRACTICES OF RESULT-ORIENTED TEACHERS PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS OF CENTRAL ZONE OF TIGRAY REGION BY RIESOM TEWELDEMEDHIN ARAYA DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Approved by Board of Examiners Advisor Signature Date Internal Examiner Signature Date External Examiner Signature Date

4 Acknowledgements My greatest and heartfelt thanks goes to may advisor Ato Ayalew Shebeshi for his scholarly comments and unreserved guidance on critical issues underlying this research activity. His friendly approach, his kindness and always positive towards giving assistance are his remarkable characters which I never forget in my life. I extend my heartfelt thanks to my instructor Ato Kenenisa Dabi for his contribution and encouragement to carryout and to accomplish this thesis work. I express my heartfelt thanks to my family in general my Mother W/ro Yeshu Kidanemariam and Solomon Marawi in particular for their moral and material support. I express also my deepest thanks to Ato Tadele Bekele, who supplied me the necessary information and doing necessary things on behalf of me in Addis Ababa University. I would like also to thank all teachers, principals, vice principals and Woreda Education Officials for providing their genuine data regarding my study. i

5 Table of Contents Content Page Acknowledgements... i Table of Contents... ii List of Tables... iv Acronyms... v Abstract... vi CHAPTER ONE... 1 Introduction Background of the study Statement of the problem Objectives of the study Significance of the Study Delimitation of the Study Limitation of the Study Operational Definition of Terms Organization of the Study...7 CHAPTER TWO... 8 Review of Related Literature Definition and Concepts of Performance Appraisal Purposes of performance appraisal Approaches of performance evaluation Formal appraisal Informal appraisal Formative evaluation Summative evaluation Methods of performance appraisal The Criteria of ROTPA The role of the human resource manager Turning motivation in to performance Organizational control process Concepts and functions of control Types and functions of control in an organization The Impact of control function The balanced score card Components and functions of balanced score card Principles of staff performance appraisal Principles of effective communication Principle of evaluators training Principle of staff participation ii

6 2.9.6 Principle of contextual factors Problems undermining performance appraisal The appraisers of teachers performance The appraisals process Teachers Performances Appraisal in Ethiopia CHAPTER THREE Research Design and Methodology Research Design Sample and Sampling Techniques Instruments of data collection Procedures of data collection Method of data analysis Ethical considerations CHAPTER FOUR Data presentation, analysis and Interpretation presentation and analysis of the demographic characteristics of the respondents Presentation, analysis and discussion of the findings Teachers principals and vice principals attitude towards ROTPA and BSC criteria Teachers participation in developing ROTPA criteria Participations of teachers in setting measurements and performance standards Appraiser competency CHAPTER FIVE Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations Summary Conclusion Recommendations References List of Appendixes i iii

7 Table List of Tables Page Table 1: Samples of Woreda, Secondary schools and teachers Table 2: Characteristics of the Respondents Table 3: Teachers and principals attitudes towards ROTPA Table 4: Teachers and principals in categorizing job dimension Table 5: Teachers participation in setting measurement and performance standards Table 6: Teachers and principals preference to teachers appraiser(s) Table 7: Appraiser s knowledge and skill Table 8: Purpose of post appraisal interview Table 9: Implementations of formative evaluation of teacher performance Table 10: Instruments used to collect on performance Table 11: Problems related to appraisal criteria iv

8 Acronyms BSC CZTR FCSC MBO MOE NFDC PBM PPAI PTA REB ROTPA TDP TPA Balanced Score Card Central Zone of Tigray Region Federal Civil Service Commission Management by Objectives Ministry of Education Normal Frequency Distribution Curve Performance Based Management Purpose of Post Appraisal Interview Parents and Teachers Association Regional Education Bureau Result-oriented Teacher Performance Appraisal Teacher Development Program Teachers Performance Appraisal v

9 Abstract Result oriented teachers performance appraisal (ROTPA) has been implemented in Tigray Region in general and central zone secondary schools in particular since In addition to this an approach to result-oriented teacher performance measurement known as Balanced Score Card (BSC) also introduced. The pre 2004 teachers performance appraisal was based on trait and performance based-criteria. ROTPA criteria are a new scheme and complex in its form. Because of this, principals, vice principals and teachers have face problems in its practice. So the purpose of this study was to investigate how teachers and principals have been practicing the current teachers performance appraisal criteria and what major problems were encountered. The research was conducted in central zone of Tgray region across 7 woredas based on randomly and purposefully selected government secondary schools out of which, 130 teachers were selected based on quota sampling techniques 27 school principals and vice principals were selected based on availability sampling techniques. The research design is to collect information through mixed approach that includes both quantitative and qualitative sources of data. A survey questionnaire of both closed and open ended questions were designed and distributed to 130 teachers and 27 principals and vice principals and officials of Woreda education were also included in the study for interview. Documents like teachers summative evaluation report and ROTPA training manual were also analyzed. Data collected through survey questionnaire was tabulated in tables and expressed in simple statistical tools. Percentage and mean value is used to describe what portion of respondents agree or disagree on the given items. Data collected through open ended questions, documents analysis and interview were presented in narrative forms. The findings of the study revealed that. Teachers, principals and vice principals did not have favorable attitude towards ROTA criteria based on the BSC system that focuses on business matters. Teachers were not fully involved in developing appraisal criteria. The appraiser was not, competent enough to appraise teachers performance objectively; the formative evaluation was not based on teachers future performance. Most school principals and vice principal didn t Conduct post appraisal conversation with all teachers being appraised. The research also revealed the following as a major problems of ROTPA, based on BSC, characterized by in adequate training given to teachers, principals and vice principals, ROTPA criteria neglected teacher behavior, the normal distribution curve was not in line with school environment, teachers were appraised by the vice principals alone, no grievance committee was formed at school level. Giving reward and increasing salary in accordance with performance result oriented, avoiding or improving unachievable performance standards and making them flexible and achievable under normal condition, implementing normal distribution curve in line with school environment and apprising teachers performance based on performance output rather than performance outcome are recommended to improve the practice of ROTPA based on BSC and can solve the problems revealed. vi

10 CHAPTER ONE Introduction 1.1 Background of the study Leadership in Education is a complex task that requires being influential to lead human resource in particular. According to Mathis and Jackson (1997:203) educational leaders should plan, organize, direct, monitor, and evaluate organizational tasks in relation to employees performance through the intended goals and objectives. Thus, the success and the failure of any organization can also realize when performance appraisal is properly done or not. Every organization has its own ways of performance appraisal to measure the performance of its employees based on specific standards and targets. According to Yilma (2007:46) in Ethiopia, performance evaluation started in the 1930s, and its main purpose was to control and inspect the institutional process. Later on it continued to operate by changing its name to supervision and its function was largely remained unchanged. Berhanu (2006:7) reported that, since 1995, in addition to administrative evaluation, students and parents evaluation of teachers performance had been in effect at elementary and secondary government schools. Recently, since 2004 result-oriented teachers performance appraisal was introduced in line with Federal Civil Service Commission (FCSC). However, there have been problems in the implementation, thereby, many teachers complain and do not have a positive attitude toward result-oriented teacher performance appraisal (Yilma 2007). According to Davies and Ellison cited by Berhanu (2006:2) the purpose of evaluation is primarily concerned with doing things better, both now and in the future, the development of formative function of performance appraisal is to improve quality and to assist in the process of improving the effectiveness of meeting the organizational goals. Performance appraisal is one of the strategies to test whether the organization achieves its goals or not. Properly designed performance evaluation criteria serves as a tool for better communication and development of the employees as well as for the attainment of the institutional goals and objectives. It also serves for employees promotion development, transfer and termination based on the performance of the employees. Heneman (1996) explained the purpose of performance measurement for line managers is that managers should use performance appraisal to influence 1

11 employee performance through administrative decisions and employees feedback. Human resource management is also involved in these activities, but it uses performance measures additionally to evaluate its own policies and practices. According to Robbins and Decenzo (1988:119) regarding administrative decisions explained that questions pertaining to promoting an employee choosing employees for layoff transfer and making salary increase and recommendations are examples of such administrative decisions. Using performance assessment employees can be placed in right position where their potential can be exhaustively used. The result of administrative decisions must be related to employees motivational potential. Rewarding to performance with such thing as salaries increase and promotional opportunities promote high performance. Hence this in turn maximizes organizational as well as individual productivity. According to Oslon (1981:271) a true appraisal includes review and development in which a boss and subordinates look at how things are going and plan future work based on their joint view. The same author also listed down the following points as the major objective of performance appraisal: (1) Provides the basis for improving job performance, (2) Evaluate employees performance as objectively as possible, against specific job goals, (3) Provide a flow of information about the performance and developmental needs of employees, to enhance future personnel decisions about job assignments, promotions, transfers, and terminations and (4) Achieve greater use of employees skills and capacity, directly and indirectly influencing productivity. Likewise, schools as social organizations are established to facilitate the teaching learning process. The goals of the teaching learning process are to change and mould the behavior of students. Hence, the accomplishment of this goal depends mainly on the performance of teachers. Therefore, teachers have to be continuously motivated and upgraded so as to improve the quality of teaching. To do this, a system of performance appraisal is a mechanism aiming at improving teacher competence. According to Webb and Norton (1999:381) explained the purpose of teachers performance appraisal is to ensure that students are provided high quality instruction, meet statutory and contractual requirements, organize outstanding teacher performance, provide opportunities for teacher to develop their professional skills, provide an avenue for two way communication about school system and individual staff member goals, objectives and other performance related concerns, document performance data in a fair manner and administrators need decisions regarding to employee assignments, transfers, granting of tenure, promotion, 2

12 termination and the like and also provide evidence to the community that care is taken to hire, develop, and retain good teachers. According to Atsede (1999:2) teacher performance appraisal has been introduced in Ethiopia since 1930s and its purpose was to control and inspect the instructional process. Later on, it continued to operate by changing its name to supervision and teachers were evaluated by administrators and the purpose seems largely the same. Berhanu (2006) stated that result-oriented performance appraisal (ROTPA) was introduced in Ethiopia since 2004 in line with Federal Civil Service Commission (FCSC). Berhanu also explain that the overall objectives of the appraisal system was to enable civil service institutions to objectively measure and provide feedback on the result of employees performance using openness, transparent and result-based criteria that promote performance effectiveness and efficiency in the civil service institutions According to Yilma( 2007) the Ministry of Education introduced result-oriented teachers performance appraisal (ROTPA)since Because of its complexity and lack of implementation effectiveness, a number of problems have been created in relation to teacher dissatisfaction. In addition to this more recently a new form of teacher performance measurement was also introduced which is known as balanced system score card (BSC) system. This is newly introduced system and has its own limitations in the selection of criteria and in the implementation. Even though result- oriented teacher performance was introduced by the ministry of education in 2004, however teachers and principals had negative attitude towards result- oriented teacher performance appraisal criteria (Yilma 2007). The performance appraisal which is the 2004 appraisal criteria system in one hand and the newly introduced BSC system in the other hand are both working side by side as result - oriented teacher performance appraisal but both created problems in their authentic and genuine implementation. Because of lack of clear criteria set up and complex nature of the evaluation system, both teachers principals and vice principals have faced problems in practicing it. Therefore, conducting a study that focused on investigating how result - oriented teacher performance is important to solve the existing current problems Statement of the problem Different evaluation criteria processes are employed in different institutions. According to Webb and Norton (1999: 384) there are four types of evaluation criteria, these are trait or attribute criteria, out come criteria, process criteria and performance based criteria. The fourth 3

13 type of evaluation criteria is the most commonly used form of evaluation to appraise teachers. According to Mathis and Jackson (1997) classified appraisal criteria in to three forms.they are trait- based criteria, behavior based criteria, and result based criteria. The trait- based criteria identifies subjective characters of traits such as personality, initiative or creativity and has little to do with the specific job. According to Yilma (2007) before 2004, in Ethiopia teacher s performance appraisal had its own limitations it was highly subjective and the criteria were not valid and reliable to appraise teacher performance objectively. Because this and other reasons the ministry of education (MoE) introduced new Result-oriented teacher performance appraisal criteria. However, there were many problems and limitations to implement on the ground. Regarding ROTPA, a survey study was conducted in Oromiya and South Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Regional State (SNNPRS) on 130 and 64 secondary and primary school teachers respectively and reported that, teachers and principals had negative attitude towards ROTPA criteria (Berhanu, 2006 and Yilma 2005). However these studies did not answer many questions regarding the root problems in the implementation of the current ROTPA based on the BSC system that still caused teachers and principal to have negative attitude towards its implementation. Therefore this particular study is conducted in Central Zone of Tigray Region which is found at far distance from the capital Addis Ababa. In the Tigray Region, resultoriented teachers performance appraisal has also many problems in its implementation, that is why the researcher is interested to carry out this problem is that firstly, the researcher has been working at the area where under consideration for many years as a teacher, unit leader, department head and as a principal. Secondly, the researcher has been observing, practicing and also facing challenges of the implementations of result-oriented teacher performance appraisal and the BSC system on the ground. Therefore, conducting a research on this area is useful to solve or minimize implementation problems of result-oriented teachers performance appraisal. Due to the above reasons in order to fill the gap and to further strengthen in bringing improvements the following leading questions were raised. 1. Do teachers and principals have favorable attitude towards the current evaluation system of result -oriented teacher performance appraisal based on the BSC system? 2. To what extent do teachers participate in developing the appraisal criteria? 3. Do teachers were appraised appropriately? 4

14 4. What form of appraisal mechanisms were implemented (formative or summative)? 5. Is there pre and post appraisal discussion between the appraiser and the appraisee? 6. What are the major problems encountered in practicing the current teacher performance appraisal system? 1.3 Objectives of the study Based on the intended research problem the following objectives would be expected to be achieved based on the research findings. There are general and specific objectives. General objective The main objective of this particular study is to assess and recommend those practices that affect result-oriented teacher performance appraisal in secondary schools of Central Zone of Tigray Region. Specific objectives To investigate how teachers, principals and vice principals been practicing the current appraisal system. To give feedback to the concerned bodies about the current result-oriented teachers performance implementations. To suggest recommendation to modify and improve the implementation of ROTPA. To minimize the problems of the practices of the result -oriented teachers performance appraisal in secondary schools of Central Zone of Tigray Region and elsewhere. To create a base for the concerned bodies to play their roles in improving teacher performance appraisals. 1.4 Significance of the Study This study attempted to investigate how ROTPA based on the BSC system has been practiced in Central Zone of Tigray Region and the problems revealed during its practice. So, the result of this study may help those concerned bodies such as; Ministry of Education, Regional Education Bureau, Woreda Education Office, school principals and teachers and also helps to modify and improve the practice of the current appraisal system. Moreover, the study can also serve as a spring board for those who interested researchers to study this problem in depth. 5

15 1.5 Delimitation of the Study The Central Zone of Tigray Region consists of 22 Woredas, and 30 government secondary schools of ninth and tenth grade levels and also 447 teachers and principals. Out of 22 Woredas 7 Woredas were selected and out of 30 schools 9 were selected, and out of 447 teachers and principals 157 were considered to get valid and reliable information to study this research topic. 1.6 Limitation of the Study The collection data has involved primary and secondary sources. In the primary sources, some subjects were carelessly responded the open-ended questions and a few of them didn t respond. Some subjects were limited not to give adequate information when interviewed. The officials of Woreda education showed reluctance to give adequate time for interview. However, regardless of those minor limitations the research was completed successfully. 1.7 Operational Definition of Terms The following definitions are used for terms in the thesis. Performance Appraisal: The process of evaluating how well employees do their job compared to a set of standards and the communication of that information to the employees (Mathis and Jackson, 1997) Appraisee: Refers to a subordinate whose performance is subject to appraisal. (MoE, 2003:23) Performance Weights: Level or emphasis given to the tasks. (MoE, 2003:23) Quality: A degree to which a product or service meets customer requirement and expectation. (MoE, 2003:21) Region: State formed under the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia on the basis of settlement patterns, language, identity and consent of the people concerned (Proclamation No 1, 1995) Result Oriented Performance Appraisal: Appraisal method that is used to appraise the employee s performance based on the result achieved not on performance activities or process. (MoE, 2004:29) 6

16 Stakeholders: Any group or individual who is affected by or who can affect the future of an organization. Employees, suppliers owners and other agencies can be cited as an example. (2001) V.1 Zone: Administrative structure which divided in too many Woredas and directly accountable to regional state. Woreda: An area marked of and developed for administrative purpose with defined authority and responsibilities representing a population of upto 100,000 people and directly accountable to zonal administration (Proclamation No 8/1992). 1.8 Organization of the Study The study is organized into five chapters. The first chapter deals with the introduction, Background of the study, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, significance of the study, delimitation and limitation of the study and operational definition of terms. Chapter two focuses on the review of related literature and the Third chapter deals with research methodology. The fourth chapter deals with Data presentation, analysis and interpretation of the findings. Finally the last chapter which is chapter five presents the summary conclusion and recommendations of the study. 7

17 CHAPTER TWO Review of Related Literature This chapter deals with different review related literature topics such as definition and concept of performance appraisal, purpose of performance appraisal, approaches of performanceevaluation, methods of performance appraisal, the role of human resource manager, types and functions of control in an organization, measuring, actual performance, the balanced score lard, principles of staff performance appraisal and performance appraisal in Ethiopia are discussed briefly below. 2.1 Definition and Concepts of Performance Appraisal. Different organizations have different ways of performance appraisals to measure the performance of their employees based on the stated objectives of the organizations. The term performance appraisal is applied in personnel management to a formal and systematic evaluation made in prescribed and uniform manner at a certain time. According to Pennington and Edwards (2000:163) presented the following definitions of performance appraisal. It is systematic review of the performance of staff on a written basis at regular time intervals and holds appraisal interviews at which staffs have the opportunities to discuss performance issues, past, present and future, on one to one basis, with their immediate line manager. Mathis and Jackson (1997:343) also defined performance appraisal as The process of evaluating how well employees do their job compared to a set of standards and the communication of that information to those employees. Employees need feed - back on their performance as a guide to know their strong side and weak side for their future performance behavior. Different scholars give different names to performance appraisal; it is also called employees rating, employee evaluation performance review, performance evaluation and result appraisal. As most scholars agree that the term appraisal in this sense means the evaluation of the performance or potential of employees. Performance appraisal is an integral part of management function. In other words employees performance appraisal is part had parcel of any organizational management activates. Other scholars like Werther and Davis (1982:233) define performance appraisal as The process by which an organization evaluate employees job performance. Systematic and accurate performance evaluation can clearly indicate where the weakness or the short comings of the employee s performance are the result of the 8

18 performance appraisal is useful to make compensation, placement, training development and career guidance decisions to be more effective. In short performance appraisal serves as a quality control check on employees and personal development performance. As described by William (1993:388) when performance appraisal is done properly, it can give a benefit to employees, supervisors, the human resource development and finally the organization itself in this regard, as noted by Werther and Davis (1982) without an effective appraisal system decisions regarding to subordinate promotion, transfers, salary incremement and lay off will be subject to trial and error. Performance appraisal can be conducted both informally and formally. Informal appraisal tends to take place an ongoing basis like formative evaluation within the organization. But systematic and formal appraisal of an individual employee is likely to occur at certain intervals throughout that person s history of employment just as summative evaluation. In general performance appraisal is both periodic (summative) and ongoing process (Formative). In this sense appraisal process as it applies to an individual subordinate is cyclical in that it tends to repeat itself again and again on regular intervals. 2.2 Purposes of performance appraisal Thomas and Carl (1993:138) explained performance appraisal is the assessment of employees job performance appraisal serves three basic purposes: 1. To provide information on the basis of administrative decisions like promotions and pay. 2. To foster developmental feed back to employees concerning their performance by describing what improve well and what the employee needs to improve. 3. To provide documentation of human resource development activities that can justify human resource (HR) decisions. As indicated by walker (1992:274) performance evaluation is important to employees because it answers their basic questions. people want feedback how they are doing for the organization. This feedback provides the reassurance that employees are contributing and doing the right things and the awareness of the impact of performance on desired results (e.g. Customer satisfaction). The four suggested principal benefits of performance appraisal as stated by Graham and Bennett (1998:240) (1) To determine the future uses of an employee. Eg. 9

19 Whether the employee shall remain in his or her present job or be transferred, promoted, demoted or dismissed. (2) To indicate training needs, that is area of performance where improvements would occur if appropriate training could be given. (3) To help a manager decide what increases of pay shall be given on grounds of merit. (4) To motivate the employee to do better in his or her present Job by providing the worker, recognition of merits and the opportunities to discuss work with his or her manager. As many scholars agree, performance appraisal has two roles in any organization. The first role is in relation to administrative uses and the second one is in relation to development uses. In this regard Mathis and Jackson (1997) described the first role that is administrative use as a role to measure performance for the purpose of rewarding: or other-wise making administrative decisions about employees, promotion and layoffs. The second role of performance appraisal helps as a primary source of information and feed back for employee s future development. In this case the appraiser should act as counselor rather than decision maker. Therefore when the supervisor identifies the potential of employee work behavior and training needs through performance appraisal feedback, Employees can be informed about their performance or progress they discuss what skills they need to develop and what support they prefer has to be planned and work accordingly. According Jobn and John (1992:604) performance appraisal is the process of evaluating some one s work and providing feedback on his or her performance. This is an important element in the comprehensive control system of an organization. It provides a formal basis for direct superior -subordinate interaction for purposes of performance control and improvement. When properly done performance appraisal serves both Evaluation and development purposes. On the other hand Mullins (1996:639) has pointed out some benefits of performance appraisal. It can improve communication by giving staff opportunities to talk about their ideas and expectations and how well they are progressing, it can identify and individuals strength and weakness and also indicate how much strengths may be utilized and weakness over come, and it can provide information for human resource planning, to assist successive planning to determine suitability for promotion and for particular types of employment and training. The process of appraisal can improve the quality of working life by increasing mutual understanding between manager and their staff or subordinate. The purposes of teacher s performance appraisal are also two types, as Davies and Ellison (1994) suggested that: the first 10

20 one is formative evaluation which is developmental and used to identify the short coming and take remedial action to improve the quality of performance. Whereas summative evaluation in contrast to the developmental approach is a formal evaluation made twice a year. The purpose of summative evaluation does not seem to be about developing the strength of the school but of defining the outcomes of evaluation and assessing their achievements by individual schools. In addition to the above mentioned purposes of performance appraisal James and Edward (1992:394) stated that the movement of personnel within an organization their promotion, transfer, demotion and separation are the major aspects of human resource management in relation to employee s performance appraisal. According to Mathis and Jackson (1997:193) the appraisal of staff performance is expected to provide answer to many questions in managing human resource in all organizations, including school systems. The performance of staff members is evaluated for many reasons. Performance appraisal of staff members may serve the following objectives. To knowing and improving the quality of teachers, to using administrative decisions: a Systematic performance of staff members provides necessary information of assistance in conducting and put actions such as promotion, salary increase discharge, layoff and transfer, to supporting employees know their current status and providing them motivation: performance makes psychological pressure on the job. If staff members are clear that their performance is being appraised properly and their future largely depends on such appraisal results they can be motivated. It can also create satisfaction to staff members and building their moral: when there is regular and appropriate performance appraisal program, it is an important incentive to employees. This in turn provides information to staff members that their performance can contribute to the education system. Hence, this benefits their personal satisfaction and for the benefit of their organization (2010:37). According, to Randel, (1984) as indicated by Thomson and Mabey(1999:201) explained the outcomes of performance appraisal such as auditing, successive planning, identifying training needs, motivating staff, developing individuals performance, checking effectiveness and efficiency. Evaluation is a systematic collection and analysis of information about the quality of performance of tasks by employees and then the formation of values, judgments with a view to further decision and action or development. Evaluation should be an acceptable growth and development of the organization. Evaluation is ultimately concerned with doing things better by considering the past performance and comparing to present performance and planning to the 11

21 future performance of employees and the organization at large. This developmental function of evaluation is to assist in the process of improving of the effectiveness of meeting the organizational objectives. According to Webb and Norton (1992:381) described the purpose of teachers appraisal is evaluation should determine how well the school objectives are being carried out and implemented. The success of educational program is dependent on the quality of classroom instruction, supervision and administration, should foster the basis for motivation and for self improvement. The employees must be aware of their strengths and weaknesses in order to improve the performance of individual and organizational objectives, evaluation has to provide the basis for in service training and supervisory activities. Such activities can be validated when objectives are used up on clear measurement instruction to enhance employee s performance and also evaluation is vital for administrative decisions. Such decisions include the employment of personnel, their assignment promotion, demotion or termination. According to James (1991:525) described performance appraisals are related to rein forcemeat theory as consequence to certain behavior of performance. There are four types of reinforcement. Positive and negative reinforcement, punishment, and extinction. Their purposes are: Positive reinforcement: giving a reward after the desired performance behavior occurs. Negative reinforcement: the removal or lack of occurrences of a negative condition when the desired performance behavior occurs. Punishment: reinforcement in which an undesired performance behavior is followed by an un pleasant consequence. Extinction: ignoring (not reinforcement) undesired behaviors in the hope that it will not be repeated. 2.3 Approaches of performance evaluation Performance appraisal is one of the manager s most important tasks, but most managers freely admit it gives them difficulty. It is not always easy to judge a subordinate s performance accurately, and often it is even harder to convey that judgment to the subordinate should be in a constructive and painless manner. This applies to both formal and informal appraisals (1991:395) 12

22 2.3.1 Formal appraisal Formal appraisal usually occurs semiannually or annually. Formal appraisal has four major processes. (i) To let subordinates know formally now their current performance is being rated. (ii) To identify subordinates who deserve merit raise, (iii) To locate subordinates who need additional training (iv) To identify candidates for promotion. It is important for managers to differentiate between the current performance and the promo ability (potential performance) of subordinates. Managers in many organizations fail to make this distinction because they assume that a person with the skills and ability to perform well in one job will automatically perform well in a different or more responsible position. This is why people are after promoted to positions in which they cannot perform adequately (James 1991) Informal appraisal According to James and Edward (1992) the term informal performance appraisal to mean the continual process of feeding back to subordinates information about how well they are doing their work for the organization. Informal appraisal is conducted on a day to day basis. The manager spontaneously mentions that a particular piece of work was performed well or poorly or the subordinate stops by the manager s office to find out how a particular piece of work was received. Because of the close connection between the behavior and the feedback on it. Informal appraisals quickly encourage desirable performance and discourage undesirable performance before it becomes ingrained. An organization s employees must perceive informal appraisal not merely as a causal occurrence but as an important activity, an integral part of the organization s culture. In some organizations evaluation conducted once a year and in other it is conducted twice or less a year. In this regard Lewis (1982) Webb and Norton (1992) and Duke (1995) describe two approaches of evaluation. The first one is formative evaluation while the second one is summative evaluation Formative evaluation According to Duke (1995:46) The formative aspect of the evaluation cycle occurred when judgment in the form of narratives were reported to teachers during the course of conference scheduled with a few days of class room observations. As discussed by Webb and Norton (1992) the formative evaluation is an ongoing evaluation designed to provide feedback to the person being evaluated for the purpose of self improvement. Formative evaluation helps to 13

23 develop communication skill between the subordinates and the supervisor and thereby take corrective action and recommendations on the short comings revealed in the performance process. During formative evaluation process no managerial decision is taken on the employee rather than the employee take decision of how to improve his or her performance better Summative evaluation According to Duke (1995:45) stated that the summative evaluation system was intended to allow organizational decision such as promotion, tenure, contract renewal, and staff development programs to be made on the basis of observed conditions of practice. Lewis (1982:9) also proposed summative evaluation is used to collect abroad sample of information about a teachers overall performance in order to make administrative decision, such as salary increment, promotion or dismissal. Summative evaluation conducted with specific time interval. Its objectives is not to improve or take remedial action to the short comings seen during ongoing performance, rather it is more used for managerial decision on employee promotion or layoff. In similar way, Webb and Norton (1992:379) stated that summative evaluation is designed to assess the terminal behavior or overall performance. Summative evaluation is formal somewhat in frequent and focuses only on the person being does not participate in judging his behavior face to face with the supervisor as the case of formative evaluation Methods of performance appraisal Different organizations employ different forms of methods of employ performance appraisal. There are different evaluation forms most of which represent an attempt to objectify or quantify observed and interpretations of employee performance. Management by objective (MBO) According to Thomas and Carl (1993:139) Management by objective, which is a process to establish goals for an employee who has been agreed up on by both the employee and their supervisors Mathis and Jackson (1997:358) called MBO type of appraisal as appraisal by result, targeting coaching, review performance objective and mutual goal setting. According to Byars and Rue (1987:246) mbo type of appraisal has the following process; Objectives should be clearly and precisely stated for the work to be done by employees. Developing an action plan to indicate how these objectives are to be achieved, allowing the 14

24 employee to implement, taking corrective action when necessary and establishing new objectives for the future. In mbo type of appraisal is to be effective or successful. Several requirements must be met. As described by Byars and Rue (1987:247) objectives should be quantifiable and measurable objectives whose attainment cannot be measured or at least verified, should not also be challenged it should be also be achievable and should be written in concise way and clear language. Mathis and Jackson (1997:358) proposed very important idea for mob. The authors stated three key assumptions underlining mob appraisal system. 1. When employees are taking part in planning and setting the objectives and determine them to high level commitment and performance may be higher. 2. Whenever objectives are identified and described precisely the employees will have a better job to achieve the desired results. By allowing employees set objectives the individual can get an accurate understanding of what is expected. 3. The objectives of performance should be measurable and define results. Vague generalities such as cooperation and initiatives which are common in many superior-based appraisals should be avoided. Since objectives are composed of specific action to be taken or work to be accomplished. Other writers such as Glueck and Ivancevich (1989) also pointed out that, mbo is seen as a philosophy of managerial practice or a method by which managers and subordinates plan, organize, control, communicate and debate. MBO has its own systematic process. Regarding this Glueck and Ivancevich (1989) and French (1990) listed the following systematic process of MBO are (i) Regular meeting should be conducted between superior and subordinate to define key tasks of the subordinate and to set a limited number of objectives or goals. (ii) the objectives should be specific, that are realistic, challenging, clear and comprehensive. (iii) The superior should consult with the subordinates establishing the accomplishment of the objectives. (iv) Setting intermediate review time table. (v) The superior and the subordinate should make any required modification in the designing of the objectives. (vi) Meeting should be available for final evaluation by the superior to help subordinate their performance and for encouragement session. And (vii) Objectives for next cycle are set by the subordinate after consulting with the superior keeping in minds the previous cycle and adjusting with future expectation. According to Mathis and Jackson ( ) concluded the following steps for 15

25 mbo evaluation. Job review and agreement, development of performance standards, guided objective setting and continuing performance discussion. This clearly shows failure in designing and implementation, results poor performance of MBO. According to Jobn and John (1992:600) management by objective (MBO) involves a formal agreement between a superior and subordinates concerning the subordinates performance objectives for a given time period, subordinates plan, through which they accomplish tasks, standards for measuring whether or not they have been accomplished and procedures for reviewing results. Performance objectives in MBO Establishing performance objectives is an essential part of the mob process. The nature of an objective and the way in which it is established can have a major impact on how well mob works. According to Jobn and John ( ) the authors added the following points that in a good MBO program, performance objectives are written. They are also formally agreed by both supervisor and subordinate and they meet the test established by these criteria for a good performance objectives. The following steps should be considered when MBO is employed. (i) Targets a key result to be accomplished. (ii) Identifies a date for achieving results. (iii) Offers a realistic and attainable challenge. (iv) Is specific and as quantitative as possible. Essay type of appraisal This is a written narrative form of appraisal conducted by the rater who describes the performance of an individual. Instructions are often provided to the rater as to the topic that should be covered. A typical essay appraisal question according to Byars and Rue ( ) explained that the employees performance including quantity, quality of work, job knowledge, and ability to get with other employees. What are the employee s strengths and weaknesses? In the essay techniques of evaluation the rater is asked to describe the strong and weak side of employ behavior. Critical incident appraisal According to Byars and Rue (1987) the critical -incident appraisal requires the rater to keep written record of incidents as they occur. The record is about job behavior that illustrates both satisfactory and unsatisfactory performance of the person being rated. The recorded incidents will be a base for performance evaluation and for providing timely feedback to the employees. When critical incident method is employed, the supervisor keeps a record of the positive and 16

26 negative behaviors of each subordinate over a period of time, such as weekly monthly, quarterly and yearly. Graphic rating scale According Gary (1985:224) Graphic rating scales are probably the most widely used performance appraisal tools since they are relatively easy to develop and use. The graphic scale can be developed on a chart with a number of traits (such as quality and quantity) as well as arrangement of performance (from unsatisfactory to exceptional for each. Each subordinate is rated by circling or checking the score that best describe his/her level of performance for each trait. The assigned value for each trait is then totaled. The alternation ranking method This used for evaluating employees is to rank them from best to worst on some trait. Since it is usually easier to distinguish between the worst cad best employees than to simply rank them, an alternation ranking method is most popular. First, list all subordinates to be rated and then cross out the names of any not known well enough to rank. Then, on a form such as that indicate the employee who is the highest on the characteristic being measured and also the one who is the lowest. Then choose the next highest and the next lowest alternating between highest and lowest until all the employees to be rated have been ranked. (Gary 1985). Behavioral anchored rating scale: According to Stephen (1988:550) stated that, performance appraisal technique in which an evaluator rates employees on specific job behaviors combine major elements form the critical incident and graphic rating scale appraiser the appraise rates an employee according to items along a continuum but the points are examples of actual behavior rather than general descriptions or traits. Multi person comparison: Compare one individual s performance to those of one or more others it is a relative, not an absolute, measuring device. The three most popular uses of this method are group order ranking, individual ranking, and paired comparisons. Group order ranking: A performance appraisal approach that group employees in to ordered classification by the evaluator. 17

27 Individual ranking: A performance appraisal approach that ranks employees in order from highest to lowest based on their performance accumulated. The evaluator ranks all individual employees in relation to their performance task. Paired Comparison: A performance appraisal approach in which each employee and rated either by the superior or weaker member of the pair. 2.5 The Criteria of ROTPA Webb and Norton ( ) define criteria as the job related behaviors expected of the teacher an administrator or other staff member. Accordingly they describe the following three types of criteria s for evaluation plans. i. Performance -based criteria This is the most commonly used performance criteria. According to these criteria, teachers and administrators behavior to do specific tasks should be evaluated or assessed. ii. Trait or attribute criteria The trait criterion describes what the employee is, rather than what the employee does. Traits such as aggressiveness, tolerance of stress, creativity, self confidence, adaptability, and so on. Those trait criteria s affect the quality of a person to perform activities positively or negatively. There are also other personal qualities which affect the teaching learning process. As Webb and Norton ( ) described that although most schools do not rely heavily on trait criteria, Today strait criteria such as dependability and personal appearance are still found in many evaluation systems. iii. Result-based criteria The rational for this approach is that, teachers and administrators should achieve certain objectives and that their performance can be meaningfully assessed by examining the extent to which those objectives shave been accomplished. 2.6 The role of the human resource manager According to Warner (2009:273)The human resource manager should mind that organizational change is a kind of chaos that the member of variables changing at the same time, the magnitude of environmental change, and the frequent resistance of human systems create a 18

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