CHAPTER - 10 COMPUTER NETWORKING

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1 CHAPTER - 10 INTRODUCTION COMPUTER NETWORKING When two or more objects are connected they form a network. For example in our Vidyalaya all teachers form a network of teachers, all students form a network of students and also in our home there is a family network. Similarly in case of computer networks it is a collection of two or more computers. Network - It is a collection of interconnected autonomous computers. Internet or Internetwork - It is a collection of networks. Abbreviations : Abbreviation LAN WAN MAN FTP SMTP IMAP MODEM WWW RPC NFS HTML DHTM HTTP TCP IP SLIP PPP SIM 3G SMS EDGE NFS WLL CDMA FRA GSM ARPANET XML HTML URL ISP DNS VSNL MTNL WAIS SLIP TCP TDM WDM FDM 3G Full Form Local Area Network Wider Area Network Metropolitan Area Network File Transfer Protocol Simple Mail Transfer Protocol Internet Mail Access Protocol Modulator And Demodulator World Wide Web Remote Procedure Call Network File System Hyper Text Markup Language Dynamic Hyper Text Markup Language Hypertext Transfer Protocol Transmission Control Protocol Internet Protocol Serial Line Internet Protocol Point To Point Protocol Subscriber s Identification Module 3 rd Generation of Mobile Communication Technology Short Message Service Enhanced Data rates for Global Evolution Sending / receiving messages electronically Network File System Wireless Local Loop Code Division Multiple Access Fixed Radio Access Global Switching For Mobile Communication Advanced Research Project Agency Network Extensible Markup Language Hypertext Markup Language Uniform Resource Locater Internet Service Provider Domain Name System Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited Mahanagar Nigam Telephone Limited Wide Area Information Server Serial Line Internet Protocol Transmission Control Protocol Time Division Multiplexing Wavelenth Division Multiplexing Frequency Division Multiplexing Third Generation

2 QUESTION PATTERN (4 Nos Question) Q1. A company in Reliance has 4 wings of buildings as shown in the diagram: Center to center distances between various Buildings: W3 to W1 W1 to W2 W2 to W4 W4 to W3 W3 to W2 W1 to w4 50m 60m 25m 170m 125m 90m Number of computers in each of the wing: W1 150 W2 15 W3 15 W4 25 Computers in each wing are networked but wings are not networked. The company has now decided to connect the wings also. i) Suggest a most suitable cable layout of the connection between the wings. ii) Suggest the most suitable wing to house the server of this company with a suitable reason. iii) Suggest the placement of the following devices with justification: 1) Internet connecting device/modem 2) Switch / Hub iv) The company is planning to link its head office situated in India with the offices at Reliance. Suggest an economic way to connect it; the company is ready to compromise on the speed of connectivity. Justify your answer. Most Important Notes Applicable to All Questions based on the above paterns, which may be kept in mind i) In a Wing / Block / Lab connect all computers using a HUB or SWITCH. This is known as LAN connectivity. But now a day we use SWITCH only as it transmits data to the required destination only and thus faster in transmission. ii) Computers in a Block are connected to the SWITCH/HUB using Cat 5 Cable. In place of Cat 5 Cable we can also use Fibre Optics cable if we require more speed and can afford cost. iii) Server is placed where there is maximum number of computers as maximum traffic will be in this block only.

3 iv) An additional switch may also be used to connect the block s switches for faster transmission of data and this is also placed in the block where we have put the server. These switches can be connected to the additional switch using fibre optics since it will increase speed but cost has to be born. v) If the company desires to have connectivity to the Internet, Internet connection is taken and connected to switch. From here all other buildings and further computers can access the Internet connection. If the Company wants to connect these blocks to their office in some other distant place then we can connect these blocks with that office using an Internet Connection, Radio Wave Connection (if office is in hilly area), WAN connection if company can afford cost and requires security of data also. When WAN connectivity is established, switch is further connected to a ROUTER. Router is costly and filters the network traffic. It routers the data to the destinations using most optimal path. vi) Connectivity between the block s switches is done using Cat 5 cables. If there is a distance of more than 100 m between any two blocks then a suitable REPEATER has to be placed to join Cat 5 cables as in a LAN we can use Cat 5 cable up to a maximum length of 100 m as the signal power attenuates with more distances. So REPEATER is used to regenerate the signal. So keeping in mind the above presumptions we answer i) we will use Cat 5 cable to connect all the wings but in addition to this we will use a REPEATER in between the cable when connecting W4 to W3 as distance is 170m and W3 to W2 as distance is 125m. ii) Most suitable wing to house the server is Wing W1as number of computers in this wing is more. (Always remember that Server is placed in the Wing where there is maximum number of computers). iii) Computer / nodes / workstations in a Lab / Wing are not connected to each other directly. They are first connected to either a SWITCH or HUB using Cat 5 cable. Then this SWITCH / HUB is given power supply and then LAN works. Connecting of computers / nodes / workstations in a Lab is known as LAN (Local Area Network). But always connect these devices with a SWITCH since its performance is better than a HUB with reference to transmission of data. Internet connecting device / modem is to be connected to SWITCH only in that Lab / Wing where there is a maximum number of computers. From this switch Internet connecting can work in all the other labs. Internet connection can also be connected to Server but then we have to use the Windows Share program to share Internet connection among other computers. iv) Company s offices can be connected (a) (b) by Internet connection but then it will have to compromise on security of data and speed of transmission. The other way is using a WAN connection. It will be costly, secure and speedier. In our case the company can compromise on speed. So it can use Internet Connection as it can be cheaper as its charges could be fixed or as per usage. Q2. Knowledge supplement Organization has set up its new center at Mangalore for its office and web based activities. It has 4 Blocks of buildings as shown in the diagram below:

4 Block A Block C Block B Block D Center to center distance between various blocks Number of Computers Block A to Block B Block B to Block C Block C to Block D Block A to Block D Block B to Block D Block A to Block C 50 m 150 m 25 m 170 m 125 m 90 m Block A 25 Block B 50 Block C 125 Block D 10 i. Suggest a most suitable cable layout of connections between the Blocks. ii. iii. Suggest the most suitable places (i.e. Block) to house the server of this organization with a suitable reason. Suggest the placement of the following devices with justification: a. Repeater b. Hub/Switch iv. The organization is planning to link its head office situated in City in a hilly region where cable connection is not feasible, suggest an economic way to connect it with reasonably high speed? ANS - i) Cat 5 Cable for connecting Blocks and using a REPEATER between B and C, B and D, A and D and also between A and C (since it is just near to 100) REPEATERS for regenerating signal and Cat 5 for transferring data between blocks and it is networking cable. ii) Suitable place to house server is Block C where 125 Computers are to be placed. iii) REPEATER between blocks B and C, B and D, A and D and A and C for regenerating signal. SWITCHES / HUB in each block to connect the Computers on LAN. iv) RADIO WAVE transmission link to connect to office in hilly area as these waves can travel long distance, penetrate in buildings and also omni directional. NOTE for layout etc you have draw a diagram of the blocks also and place suitable REPEATERS in between the blocks having long distance and also place SWITCH / HUB in the Blocks.

5 Q3. Indian Industries has the following four buildings in Chennai. Distance between various wings is given below: II1 II 2 II 3 II 4 Wings Layout Plans Wing II1 to Wing II 3 70m Wing II1 to Wing II 2 20m Wing II 1 to Wing II 4 115m Wing II 3 to Wing II 4 30m Wing II 2 to Wing II3 25m No of Computers in each Wing Wing II 1 35 Wing II 2 25 Wing II 3 80 Wing II 4 60 i) Suggest suitable CABLE LAYOUTS FOR THESE BUILDINGS. ii) Name the wing where the Server is to be installed. Justify your answer. iii) Suggest the placement of Hub/Switch in the network. iv) Mention an economic technology to provide Internet accessibility to all wings. ANS i) Draw diagram of the wings with Cat 5 Cable placing REPEATERS between Wings II1 and II4 as there is more than 100 m distance. ii) Server to be installed in Wing II3 as it has maximum number of computers. iii) SWITCH / HUB is to be placed in each Wing to connect them in LAN and further these SWITCHES are to be connected to another SWITCH. This may be placed in Wing II3. iv) Broadband connection as it is cheaper in the SWITCH which is connecting all Wings Switches and from here all the wings can access it. NETWORKING TERMINOLOGY Fig : NETWORKING CONCEPT

6 NETWORK Connection of 2 or more distinct (possibly dissimilar) networks. Requires some kind of network device to facilitate the connection. TYPES / MODELS OF NETWORKS LAN Local Area Network MAN Metropolitan Area Network WAN Wider Area Network Local Area Network connects computers that are physically close together ( < 1 mile). high speed multi-access Technologies: Ethernet 10 Mbps, 100Mbps Token Ring 16 Mbps FDDI 100 Mbps Wider Area Network connects computers that are physically far apart. long-haul network. -typically slower than a LAN. typically less reliable than a LAN. point-to-point Technologies: telephone lines Satellite communications -microwave / radio wave links Metropolitan Area Network Larger than a LAN and smaller than a WAN - example: campus-wide network - multi-access network Technologies: coaxial cable microwave

7 NETWORK TOPOLOGIES Topologies refer to the techniques / ways of inter connecting computers or networks. Means how the computers and networks are connected to each other. These can be connected in the following ways Ring Topology i) Communication is one way in this topology. The speed is slow. ii) A token which carries the data carry on running in the ring. Only one node communicates at a time. iii) Node for which the data is attached to the token captures the token and after using data releases it on the ring. iv) Like this the ring carry on moving. v) If one node becomes unserviceable, the whole ring NW is crashed. Bus / Serial Topology i) All nodes are connected to a straight wire (thinnet of coaxial cable). Speed is slow. ii) Only one node can communicate at a time. iii) Communication is both directional but at a time data can pass only in one direction. At the other end of the bus the signal is discarded. iv) If one node is unserviceable, network past of that node becomes unserviceable. Star / Radial Topology i) Nodes are attached to a HUB / SWITCH ii) Network is faster. iii) It is most widely used topology iv) If one node becomes unserviceable, the other nodes in the network are not affected all other nodes carry on receiving information. Only that node is out of network. Mesh Topology Tree Topology Point to Point Graph NETWORKING TECHNIQUES Peer to Peer Each node in the network is having its own resources / processing capabilities. It may share information among others. Nodes may not have to depend upon others for carrying out their work. Each node its own master i.e. has no boss. They are independent and work the way they like. Client Server (C/S) In this technique there is one dedicated boss that is known as server. Whole the network works under the server and it has full control on all the nodes. Boss is known as Master / Server. The other nodes which are controlled by Server are known as Slaves / Clients. Clients send request to the server and the server receives their requests and reply.

8 NETWORKING DEVICES i) Hub ii) Switch iii) Repeater iv) Bridges v) Router vi) Gateways vii) RJ45 Connector viii) NIC Network Interface Card / Ethernet Card / LAN Card (48 bit MAC Addr OUI- Organizationally Unique Identifier) ix) Modem MODE OF COMMUNICATIONS (FULL DUPLEX VS HALF DUPLEX) Full-Duplex services support the transfer of data in both directions. Half-Duplex services support the transfer of data in a single direction. NEED / BENEFITS OF A NETWORK -To share resources in network -Decrease costs of transfer -Increase speed in transferring -Improves communication Transmission Media / Channels of Communication Transmission media is used to establish connectivity between computers or networks. Two Types of transmission media Guided Media - in this type connecting cables are the communication channels between the different works stations. Name Twisted Pair Cable Coaxial Cable Optical Fibre Cable Identity Ordinary Electrical Cable TV wire A high speed wire having thin glass Wire pipe in it. Connectors RJ 45 BNC SC / ST Speed mbps 10 mbps 1000 mbps - gigabits Distance 100 meters 500 meters 100 km Cost Cheapest Cheaper Costly Types STP & UPT Thinnet / Thicknet SM / MM

9 Unguided Media - in this there is no direct connection between the source / destination workstations and some waves are used to transmit the signal. Microwave Radio Wave Satellite Infrared waves Data Communication Terminologies Data Channel is a medium used to carry information / data from one point to another point. Baud / Baud Rate it the measurement unit of data carrying capacity of a data channel bps bps is bits per second transmitted on a data channel Bps - Bytes per second transmitted. Bandwidth it is amount of information traveling through a single channel at any point of time. Data Transmission Switching Techniques / How the information is shared / Transferred in a NW Information transferred from one node to another node in a network is known as switching. Switching takes places in the following ways Circuit Switching - ex Telephone line. In this source is connected to destination from end to end. Message Switching - ex s. Uses store and forward technology for transfer of information. Source sends information that is received by its nearby switch office. This switch office sends the information to another switch office and that further forwards to another switch office until the whole information is reached at the switch office that is nearer to the destination. Then this switch officer forwards information to the destination. Packet Switching - This technique also uses store and forward technique but the data is broken into smaller size parts which are known as packets. PROTOCOL Protocols are the set of rules that govern the communication over a network. Some important protocols are TCP / IP Transmission Control Protocol. This protocol establishes reliable or unreliable connection between the source and destination. It also breaks the data into segments. IP Internet Protocol. This protocol is responsible for providing Network Address / IP Address of the destination network. IP Address is 32 bit address. IP Address is divided into Network Address and Host Address. HTTP Hypertext Transfer Protocol - It allows different types of computers / Networks to establish communication between them. It has two features requests and responses.

10 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN WIRELESS / MOBILE Wireless is without use of wire (land line / physical connection). Mobile - The device is in touch with the data source continuously without physical connection. It may use others media like satellite or laser etc. Video Conferencing - It is sounds, video, talking and viewing over internet communication. We need Internet connection, PC Camera and its Software, videophone Software (Net Meeting) for video conferencing. WWW World Wide Web is a protocol that allows to access documents on the internet. Web Page A document on the net is called a web page. URL Each web page has an address that is called URL. Uniform Resource Locator. Hypertext The contents of a web page is called Hypertext. It can be audio, video, text, graphic and even link to some other page. Hyperlink - Link to some other page in a web page is called Hyperlink. Telnet Terminal Emulation. It is a program that is used to remotely login network server / devices. Web Browser- It is a program that is used to navigate through the web pages and display their contents. Ex Internet Explorer, Netscape Navigator and Mozilla etc Web Server A www server that responds to the requests made by web browsers. Web Site A location on a web server is called a web site. It contains web pages and has a unique address. This address is called URL. HTML Hypertext Markup Language used to develop web pages. Web Hosting Hosting of web server application on a computer. Network Security As we have seen that the NW offers a large number of benefits. These benefits are prone to threats. NW security means to counter such threats to the NW. Methods of NW Security Authentication giving passwords etc Authorization only the users login Biometric Systems scan retina / DNA etc Firewall prevents unauthorized access to / from a private network. Cookies It is a message sent by web server to the web browser so that it can keep tract of user s activities on a specific web site. Crackers seek entry to alien NW with the indention to harm them. Hackers seek entry to the alien NW with the intention to just have entry without harming them.

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