Indonesia Solar Loan (ISL) Programme: Lessons learned for Solar PV project development

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1 Lessons learned for Solar PV project development Marjan Stojiljkovic FS-UNEP Collaborating Centre for Climate and Sustainable Energy Finance GIZ Workshop, March 7th, 2012 Berlin, Germany F r a n k f u r t S c h o o l. d e

2 Frankfurt School of Finance and Management INSTITUTIONAL CENTRE SET UP Frankfurt School of Finance & Management Stiftung Board of Trustees Frankfurt School of Finance & Management non for profit limited Media-House Frankfurt School Verlag GmbH International Advisory Services Academic Programmes Executive and Professional Education efiport AG ConCap Frankfurt School UNEP Collaborating Centre Research Professional Certificate & Programs Corporate Programs & Seminars Educational and professional programs, Advisory, Research etc. 2

3 FRANKFURT SCHOOL UNEP COLLABORATING CENTRE FOR CLIMATE & SUSTAINABLE ENERGY FINANCE Strategic collaboration between the UNEP and the Frankfurt School UNEP s main knowledge hub for sustainable energy and climate finance Research of the highest caliber with an orientation towards practical application Implementing findings and instruments in the field 3

4 PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION Advisory Services Market and Feasibility Studies carrying out research and data analysis to identify energy efficiency and renewable energy potentials and possibilities for financial sector involvement; Capacity Building providing trainings and coaching to strengthen the institutional capacity of banks and financial institutions; Product Development supporting our clients in developing innovative and tailor-made loan products and financing mechanisms; Credit Line Management implementing renewable energy and energy efficiency credit lines with focus on energy end-users in industry, private households and public institutions; Financial and Technical Advisory advising financial institutions on the implementation and execution of new programmes including procedures, appraisal techniques and risk management systems; Reporting and Calculation Tools designing and implementing tools to calculate, monitor and report on renewable energy and energy efficiency projects. 4

5 Introduction The Indonesian Solar Loan (ISL) Programme is the public-private partnership between UNEP, the German Government, and Indonesian financial institutions with a clear aim to establish a solar lending finance mechanism for Indonesian business sector through pilot projects. Information about the project: Project duration: October 2010 December 2011 Project implementator: Frankfurt School of Finance and Management Type of services: Technial Assistance (TA) provided to project stakeholders (solar technology suppliers, financial institutions and end-users) Area of operation: Indonesia (entire country), with specific focus on Central and South Kalimantan Project objectives: Support mainstreaming and commercialization of Solar Energy Technology (SET) Increase outreach to rural, peri-urban, urban low income areas that would benefit most from the technology s application Reduce energy poverty Enhance transactional capacity of Indonesian Finance Institutions (FIs) 5

6 Introduction Cooperation Flow BMU Grant Agreement Provide Working Capital Loan Vendors UNEP/ URC Partner FI Pilot Implementation, Product Supply & Delivery FSFM Technical Support, Loan Design Provide Affordable Loan Products for Reliable Solar Technology End Users 6

7 Key Activities Market Assessment & Stakeholder Outreach Loan Facility design (financial model for SET lending) Technical Assistance (TA) for setting up the Lending Facility (cooperation among Stakeholders) Pilot Project Implementation (installations of SET) 1. Market Analysis 4. Design of the Loan Facility 2. Stakeholder Consultations 5. Planning & Preparations for Installations 7. Dissemination and Outreach 3. Feasibility Study 6. Solar Unit Pilot Installations 7 7

8 Initial (Planning) Phase Market Analysis Identify and compare similar RE finance initiatives Solar market legal and regulatory framework in Indonesia Minimum eligibility criteria for financial institution & vendor selection Stakeholder Consultations Pre-qualify Hold consultations Rank partner financial institutions Feasibility Study Select 2-3 recommended technologies Detailed analysis of investment finance and economics Scale-up strategies and associated awareness raising Identify solar products, target geographical areas, financial Institutions, vendors Select partners through a competitive approach 8

9 Installation Phase Design of the Loan Facility Specification of loan facility design Loan product designs and delivery mechanisms Capacity building to finance sector loan officers Marketing and dissemination Exit strategy Planning and Preparation for Installations Confirm end-user and vendor participation Assess product specifications and vendor qualifications Financial due diligence on pilot end-users Logistics & customization of solar products to be installed Solar Unit Pilot Installations Monitor installations Monitor end-user satisfaction Vendor performance evaluation 9

10 Results and Deliverables Throughout the ISL Programme duration, the Frankfurt School consultant team has achieved following results and deliverables: Performed the Market Analysis and the Feasibility Study for project implementation Met with 20 major SET suppliers, 16 financial insitutions (FIs) and relevang Indonesian Government officials and agencies (PLN, Ministry of Energy and Mining, etc) Selected project stakeholders to work with (PT. Azet - SET Vendor, Azet MFI and LPDB, and and Kalimantan geogrpahical area to focus on) Defined Solar Energy Technology (SET) to focus on (Solar Lighting Sydtems - SLS and Solar Water Heaters - SWH) Defined the financial model (loan product design) Built capacity in participating financial institution (loan officer training to LPDB) Implementation of 38 pilot projects (on-site development, mounting and performance monitoring) Delivered project documents (Project Conclusion Report, and the Business Plan for SET development for PT. Azet) 10

11 Results and Deliverables Throughout the ISL Programme duration, the Frankfurt School consultant team has achieved following results and deliverables: (Continued) Implementation of 38 pilot projects (on-site development, mounting and performance monitoring) Created the lending mechanism with PT. Azet Syrua Lestari that is ongoing, and with self-sustainable business lending model (based on microfinance principle) Potential for up-scaling of the project upon elimination of main obstacles: Ground market assessment data Focus on diversification of funding and more self-sustaining business model Additional funding needed for scaling-up Requirements for financail support e.g. (partial) credit guarantee schemes Delivered project documents (Project Conclusion Report, and the Business Plan for SET development for PT. Azet) 11

12 Findings SET Products Government playing key role in providing energy infrastructure in remote rural areas By setting up central electricity generation units (3 kw, 5 kw, 15 kw) Through distribution of solar home systems (SHS) free of charge Increasing trend towards central PV electricity generation and local distribution (e.g. Ministry of Energy) Market structure limits the commercial diffusion of SHS, as end-users are expecting them free of charge, focus on alternative products Solar Lighting Systems (SLS) Non-satisfactory perception of SHS among end-users looking at poor performance of systems installed years before individuals are reluctant to invest their money into buying them Solar PV cells imported, modules domestically produced and imported Solar water heater (SWH) systems manufactured locally 12

13 Findings Financial Institutions Extensive and wide network of rural branches among the biggest Indonesian Banks Contribution by BPRs (Community / Rural Banks) valuable Banks: No experience with Solar PV project finance or Solar PV technology (= very risk averse to SET finance!!!) Experience with commercial finance Willing to lend to viable projects, but limited understanding what is viable Other limitations: Hard to pinpoint responsible individuals for developing Solar PV lending Demand for collateral (loan-backed finance) limits cooperation between Vendors and the Bank 13

14 Findings Vendors (Suppliers) Vendors operating in both Solar PV and SWH sub-segments Decrease in Solar PV vendors in comparison with previous years Most of the vendors supply SHS under government contracts, very few commercial SHS sellers Very interest in developing untapped markets Find the following obstacles: High initial investment costs Lack of detailed market assessment (essential) High per unit market development costs (due to low population density) High transportation cost Target areas usually have low income people Lack of local technical base (technicians) for after-sale services Willing to explore and diversify new markets with ISL 14

15 ISL Programme Activities Indonesia Solar Loan (ISL) Programme: The Challenges and Opportunities Rural Electricity condition in Indonesia Indonesian Population: Villages: 237 million (2011 estimate) 66 thousand Electrified Villages: 78% or 51,000 Non-electrified Villages: 22% or 15,000 No of Households: Electrification ration: Non-electrified Households: translates into 38,5 million 53% or 20.4 million households 47% or 18.1 million households 35% of Indonesian population still lacks access to electricity Demand is expected to grow 4.5 times during the period National Target is to electrify the villages with 95% electrification ratio 15

16 Geographical spread of non-electrified areas 16

17 The Challenges SHS / PV is relatively expensive for rural people, and difficulty in providing in remote and rural areas. Also very questionable performance past the 5 year life-time Consumer locations are in many cases so spread out, resulting in relatively high sales costs (dictates the need to involve small local entrepreneurs ) PLN capability for the development and maintenance of rural electricity systems is limited, although the Solar PV demand is driven by the government projects Government funding is limited, and alone is not sufficient for the development and maintenance of rural electricity systems in a big way Profit maximization and remoteness of project installation limits the after-sales services and therefore the perceived longevity of solar systems. Direct (Retail) Sales Operations are costly due to geographical factors and only a handful Dealers having a long term business vision engaged in this process. Lack of Solar PV commercial vendors: there were over 50 vendors doing business in PV when the system was introduced in Indonesia, there are now less than 20 dealing seriously with PV, and only 2 are dealing with commercial retail market offering some sorts of after sales services 17

18 The Opportunities Electricity supply is seriously lacking in some regions, particularly beyond Java and Bali Slow diffusion of Government Programmes in reaching energy-impoverished areas The 2007 Energy Bill mandates Regional Government to use local and renewable energies in providing electricity to local population. Solar PV is the only renewable energy sourced electricity available in ALL regions, and therefore the immediate choice for providing quick solution to electrification in rural and remote areas. Positive outlook for Solar PV market: Increased awareness among FIs about Solar PV technology and RE in general, leading to development of loan solutions and cooperation with suppliers PV on the way to being competitive alternative to fossil fuels (kerosene, diesel, etc) Interest among int l project developers and donor institutions (e.g. KfW, AfD, ADB) for further support of commercial small-scale off-grid and large scale PV systems 18

19 AfD RE Mapping Project in Indonesia (FS, Burgeaup and ENV) The above information is provided in the context of a joint study for AFD conducted by Bugeap/ICE, FSFM and ENV: Up to 2010, Solar PV projects in Indonesia were solar home pv of 50 We per home, financed by the State Budget. Project size usually was IRP 10-20,000,000,000 or approx USD 1-2 million. The projects were carried out by several ministries to electrify remote rural areas. These projects became the source for corruption. They were not sustainable and have been discontinued. Presently, large Solar PV projects, ranging from 25 kw - 1,100 kw, are carried out by PLN, the State Electricity Enterprise under PLN budget. There are now 100 islands, mostly in the eastern part of Indonesia, which will be electrified by 100% Hybrid Solar PV (thin and thick film). PLN have tendered most of these projects, some have been completed & operated by PLN. PLN receives subsidy from GOI under a guaranteed 8% profit margin scheme. Total plant capacity for this 100-island projects is 25,000 KW with total budget IRP 1.4 trillion or USD 160 million, to be completed in PLN has included in their Power Supply Business Plan 1,000-island-electrification projects using Solar PV and/or other Renewable Energy. These projects will be opened for co- financing or multilateral financing, preferably soft loan or grant from foreign financial institutions. Certain Solar PV panels have been manufactured in Indonesia. There are 2 local manufacturers of long-life batteries, still need local manufacturers for inverters. Skilled manpower for Solar PV should not be a problem in the near future. 19

20 Regional Perspective India, Bangladesh UNEP FACET and UNEP CFIF Bilateral and Multilateral Financial Institutions (KfW, AFD, ADB) Business Partners in the field of Solar PV (from the off-grid SET perspective) 20

21 CONTACT UNEP Collaborating Centre Frankfurt School of Finance & Management Sonnemannstrasse Frankfurt am Main Phone: +49 (0) Fax: +49 (0)

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