1 Interfaces between Frame Semantics and Construction Grammar A Study about Portuguese Degree Modifier Constructions Anna Carolina Ferreira Carrara Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora_UFJF Igor de Oliveira Costa Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora_UFJF Patrícia Miranda Machado Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora_UFJF ABSTRACT: This paper aims to show how Frame Semantics contributes to the research of constructions of a language. The view of grammar that subsidizes this work is the Cognitive Construction Grammar, a model of grammar emerged within the Cognitive Linguistics. The analyzed objects are three constructions linked to the Superlative Constructions of Brazilian Portuguese macro project. In general, the results point to the relevance in the association of the theories, in which the Frame Semantics contributes in a very productive way in understanding the significance of the construction patterns analyzed, as well as in the understanding of the elements that compose them. Keywords: Cognitive Construction Grammar; Frame Semantics; Degree modifier constructions of Portuguese Introduction Developed within the cognitive linguistics research program (CROFT & CRUSE, 2004; FAUCONNIER, 1994, 1997; JOHNSON, 1987; LAKOFF, 1987; LAKOFF & JOHNSON, 1999; MIRANDA, 2002, 2008; SALOMÃO, 1997, 2009; among others), the Cognitive Construction Grammar (GOLDBERG, 1995, 2006) and the Frame Semantics (FILLMORE, 1982; PETRUCK, 1996) came to bring contributions of paramount importance for the understanding of how language is stored and processed. Researches related to both paradigms have shown the efficiency of the holistic view provided by the Cognitive Construction Grammar and Frame Semantics, respectively, on the grammar and the construction of meaning in a language. The complementary character of one model in relation to the other is clear to researchers investigating language under the cognitive bias and the pairing between the two theories is not new (see BOAS, in press; CROFT & CRUSE, 2004; GOLDBERG, 1995). However, works which pair the two theories in a complementary way to find linguistic phenomena are scarce, especially in Portuguese.
2 Therefore, this work seeks to show how the Frame Semantics can collaborate robustly in search of language constructs, providing a successful model of semantics (coherent with the cognitive perspective), which allows rich semantic description of the structures investigated and the elements that compose it. The objects to be examined are all linked to the macro project Superlative Constructions of Brazilian Portuguese: a study about scale semantic (Miranda, 2008) and have been studied fairly deep in projects related to the aforementioned macro project: Carrara (2010), Costa (2010) and Machado (2011). Thus, taking into account the theme of this work and its physical dimensions, only points that are more directly related to the topic under focus will be taken into account from those studies. The article is organized as follows: section 1 briefly presents the theories that will support the analysis, CCxG and Frame Semantics, and the most prominent aspects that we believe to bring them closer; section 2 brings three different analyzes that support the pairing between CCxG and Frame Semantics; finally, we present some conclusions. 1. Theoretical framework As signaled in the introduction, the view of language that subsidizes our perspective to understand the objects is the Cognitive Linguistics (CROFT & CRUSE, 2004; FAUCONNIER, 1994, 1997; JOHNSON, 1987; LAKOFF, 1987; LAKOFF & JOHNSON, 1999; MIRANDA, 2002, 2008; SALOMÃO, 1997, 2009, among others), given the richness of constructs in dealing with meaning and to understand the cognitive processes that underlie the language. The Cognitive Linguistics program of language investigation performs a break with the Generative Linguistics in the terms postulated by Chomsky. Salomão (2009, p ) considers the question of meaning and the question of idiomaticity as the two big cuts with Chomsky's Generative Grammar, and also highlights three major assertions in which the cognitive program is grounded: (i) the language is not an autonomous cognitive system, it is continuing to other cognitive systems; (ii) the grammar is a network of constructions (continuity between syntax and lexicon) modeled on language use; and (iii) the whole process of signification proceeds by projecting cognitive domains.
3 In this paradigmatic framework we point, fundamentally, the theories about the Cognitive Construction Grammar (GOLDBERG, 1995, 2006) and Frame Semantics (FILLMORE, 1982), which will be discussed afterwards. 1.1 Cognitive Construction Grammar The initial assumption, common to all models of grammar constructions, is that the constructions, defined as pairs of form and modes of semantic-pragmatic meaning, have a theoretical status of basic units of the language. It is also claimed, by consensus, the theoretical and analytical interest for all constructions from the center to the periphery and the essential continuity between lexicon and grammar, between semantics and pragmatics. Regarding the definition of the model of grammar constructions named Cognitive Construction Grammar (GOLDBERG, 1995, 2006), the first point to consider is their origin. The Cognitive Construction Grammar (CCxG) is a theory of grammar that has been developed within the Cognitive Linguistics and assembles, consequently, the cognitive approach foundations imposed to the lexicon and the grammar by this model. Thus, studies on semantic-cognitive processes of categorization and projections that include notions such as prototype, radiality, polysemy, metaphorical and metonymic projections, have great importance in dealing with constructions within the CCxG. Secondly, we must point the alignment of the CCxG with usage-based models of language, which implies the relevance of use and the consideration of the role of culture and interaction in the analysis of the network of signs that make up the lexicon and grammar. In other words, the forms of expression in communication are to determine the grammatical representation in the mind of the speaker. Thus, it is assumed that the cognitive architecture of grammar is codified in use and that the grammar is thus a network of constructions built in the culture. Given these considerations regarding the specificity of Cognitive Construction Grammar, one must then define what a construction is. According to Goldberg (2006, p. 05):
4 Any linguistic patterns is recognized as a construction as long as some aspect of its form or function is not strictly predictable from its component parts or from other constructions recognized to exist. In addition, patterns are stored as constructions even if they are fully predictable as long as they occur with sufficient frequency. [Bold added] In the constructionist view, all levels of grammatical analysis involve constructions: pairings of form with semantic and discourse functions, including morphemes or words, idioms, patterns partially or fully filled lexically Frame Semantics The Cognitive Linguistics conceives the language as a cognitive instrument that has the function of organizing and fixing the human experience. This way, meaning can only be described based on those experiences, as well as on the set of knowledge that comes from them. So, the Frame Semantics (FILLMORE, 1982) has as fundamental premise the notion that meanings are relativized to scenes. It means that the meaning of a linguistic item interacts with the scene activated by it. The Frame Semantics can be defined as an empiric approach that emphasizes the continuum between language and experience and it can be used for organizing the knowledge (PETRUCK, 1996). The notion of frame is taken as any system of concepts related in such a way that to understand any one of them you have to understand the whole structure in which it fits (FILLMORE, 1982, p. 111). Hence, the insertion of any element of a conceptual scene makes the others cognitively available (although, not necessarily in a consciously). This view of frame leads the semantics to deal with implicit knowledge structure (experience knowledge) in order to carry out the semantic processes of inference. Besides the frame notion, another basic concept from Frame Semantics is the lexical unit (LU), defined as a pairing between a frame and a monolexical (e.g. in ) or polilexical (e.g. in order to ) linguistic expression. Thus, for the Frame Semantics, a full meaning description requires the description of LU s combinatory conditions, in syntactical and semantic terms, that is, in terms of their valence patterns. The notion of frame elements (FE) is also a fundamental concept for the Frame Semantics approach. FEs are the scenes participants (entities, attributes, events, time and
5 space notions), micro thematic semantic roles, that is, defined in terms of each scene. This way, they specify and can be frame inferred, even if they are not explicitly lexicalized. Finally, the approach to complex conceptual domains, brought by the Frame Semantics, contributes a lot to lexicographic field towards the organization of lexical items in network knowledge structure (frames network). The FrameNet project is a good example. The nature of this project and its contributions to studies on meaning are presented in the following lines. The FrameNet project FrameNet, a lexicographic project, is, mainly, the result of the Frame Semantics studies. Coordinated by Charles J. Fillmore and Collin F. Baker, from Berkeley University California, its main goals are: (i) Describing the LU s syntactical valence. (ii) Capturing the grammatical necessities required by the LU, including the constituents localized out of syntactical locale, relativized or extra constituents. (iii) Annotating syntactically the core, non-core and extra thematic FE. Unlike ordinary dictionaries, that simply define the lexemes, briefly, and other approaches to lexicon, like WordNet and Thesauri, that are concerned with lexical relations as synonym, antonym, etc., Framenet, in particular, according to Fillmore (2008), aims at constituting a lexicon (i) based on corpus evidences; (ii) with lexical units linked to their evoked frame and (iii) that shows the combinatory properties of each lexical unit through its annotation. The Framenet project is developing a platform, on the internet, where you have a collection of frames and LU, described for the English language. The viewing of the established relations between frames (FrameGrapher), constituted as an inter-related conceptual network, are also available. This platform can be accessed through the link https://framenet.icsi.berkeley.edu/. Up to now, identified on the homepage, there are more than 11,600 lexical units, from which almost 7,000 are already completely annotated, in more than 960 frames, with more than 150,000 exemplified sentences are available.
6 1.3 Convergences between the models As stated in the previous subsections, the CCxG and the Frame Semantics are theoretical models founded within the Cognitive Linguistics research program of the language and refer, respectively, to the grammatical information management and semantic information management in language. It is possible to state that, somehow, these are complementary archetypes, once they provide information of distinct natures, even though related. The convergence between these two models is given, generally, from three points, which are related: (i) the realization that certain complex formal patterns are, as well as single words, responsible for the evocation of a unique sense, which does not match the sum of the meaning of those elements that form it; (ii) the inclusion of semantic information as essential to the postulation of grammatical patterns; and (iii) the assumption, made by CCxG, of the Frame Semantics as the semantic model pertinent in the defining of the constructional semantics and of the elements (or element) that comprise a construction. The proposition that grammatical constructions (from different levels of analysis) are evocative of a proper sense that concerns them (cf. LAKOFF, 1987; FILLMORE, KAY & O'CONNOR, 1988; KAY & FILLMORE, 1999; GOLDBERG, 1995, 2006; among others) caused such structures to appear in the heart of the semantic analysis, along with the words of conventional lexicon (point i ). Thus, the most interesting way to establish the meaning that a construction evokes, or can evoke, is its definition in terms of Frame Semantics 1. Like other models of Construction Grammars, the CCxG, defining a construction as a pair formed by a form and a semantic-pragmatic function, prevents a strict separation between the formal information and the semantic information of linguistic structures (point ii ). Such integration causes the constant need for a semantics theory in the investigation of grammar. Consequently, as it will be seen below, the Frame Semantics is the semantic model defined by Goldberg (1995, p ) as the most relevant to the theory of grammar that she developed. The goldberian model of Construction Grammar defines the semantics of a construction and its parts in terms of Frame Semantics, postulating roles according to the frame evoked by the grammatical structure (point iii ). By doing so, Croft and Cruse (2004, p. 272) define the goldberian model of Construction Grammar as nonreductionist in semantic 1 The need to understand the meaning of these structures is strengthened by the creation of a branch of the FrameNet Project (electronic dictionary that defines the meaning of words from the scene(s), the frame(s) that it may evoke in the target culture), the FrameNet Construction, which aims to investigate the meaning of complex grammatical structures from the same theoretical methodology of the FrameNet Project.
7 terms, noting that the complex event or situation [evoked by the construction] is treated as the primitive unity representation, and the definitions of the roles in the events are derived from the situation as a whole. Having seen the model of language that supports the vision of the objects and the main models that underlie the analysis, the investigation of the objects themselves are the topic of the next section. 2. Analysis Parts of the macro project Superlative Construction of Brazilian Portuguese: a study about scale semantics (MIRANDA, 2008 CNPq), the Causal Nominal Superlative Construction (CARRARA, 2010), the Superlative Construction of Body Expression (COSTA, 2010) and the Superlative Synthetic Construction of Absolute States (MACHADO, 2011) form, together with other constructions, the degree modifier constructions network of Brazilian Portuguese. Similarly, in semantic terms, once they bring up, mainly, a Position_on_a_scale frame, those constructions diverge on formal terms. This way, with different forms, they are seeking for the same goal: a superlative expression. The investigations present in this paper, reveal these constructions in formal and semantic terms, emphasizing theirs particularities in the meaning field. The essence of cognitive and constructionist assumptions, which guides those works, lead to a Cognitive Corpus Linguistics, which implies the use of electronic corpora and computational tools to the objects investigation. Although the analyses here use different strategies to get data, they were based on an extensive database, capable of showing indicators of the construction s use and its real discursive habitat. 2.1 Causal Nominal Superlative Construction Você vai encontrar edifícios gigantescos, shoppings mais capitalistas do que nunca, mulheres bonitas de doer e gente muito rica (something like You will find huge buildings,
8 more capitalist malls than ever, really beautiful women and very rich people ). This sentence, by construction mulheres (women-noum) bonitas (beautiful-adjective) de (GEN.PREP., equivalent to of ) doer (to hurt) (very/really beautiful women ~ women so beautiful that make others feel pain) clearly portrays a modalization and expressive prominence strategy widely used in Portuguese language in scenes in which we seek to ensure the subjective strength, argumentative and evaluative versus the other. This is a standard specific constructional within the network of the Superlative Constructions of Portuguese the Causal Nominal Superlative Construction (CNSC), described in Carrara (2010). Under the Cognitive Construction Grammar (GOLDBERG, 1995, 2006), a more open standard for the superlative constructions network has been postulated, covering more canonical or regular Portuguese combinations and that can be configured as follows: a Gradable Core (GC) and a Superlative Scale Operator (SSO) that merge, in an analytical or synthetic way, to the syntactic category of adjective or noun in the pairing of the named Generic Nominal Superlative Construction of Portuguese (e.g. muito chato very boring = SSO + GC). The CNSC, although semantically set as a superlative construction in which one SSO applies an GS, in terms of form, has a verbal lexical unit preceded by the genitive preposition de occupying the semantics function of superlative scalar operator: (01) [...] o senso de humor é próprio dos seres inteligentes. Não é para os grosseiros esquerdopatas, chatos (GC) de doer (SSO). [...] the sense of humor is typical of intelligent beings. It is not for the coarse leftists, a pain in the neck (~ chatos boring + de + doer to hurt ~ very/really boring = so boring it makes you feel pain). In terms of formal productive patterns, three traits conveyed by the syntactic structure deserve to be highlighted: (i) the ellipse of the internal argument of causative verbs; (02) O projeto tem orçamento proporcional ao tamanho do edifício, 1,6 bilhões de dólares, e um aspecto de assustar Ø. The project budget is proportional to the size of the building, 1.6 billion dollars, and a fabulous aspect (~ aspecto aspect + de + assustar to scare ~ look so exaggerated that scares people). (ii) the crystallized infinitive form of the same verbs preceded by the genitive preposition de: de matar GEN. PREP. + to kill, morrer GEN. PREP. + to die, de lascar GEN. PREP. + to chip ;
9 (iii) the optional character of the category of adjective in the syntactic surface; (03) Só desaconselho totalmente ficar na capital da ilha, Phuket City é feia de doer, suja, medonha. Only fully advise against staying in the capital of the island, Phuket City it is very, very ugly (~ feia ugly + de + doer to hurt ~ so ugly that anyone who sees it feels pain), dirty, awful. (04) [...] A empresa acabou com o Palio com um design de chorar [...] [...] The company ruined the Palio with a very ugly design (~ design design + de + chorar to cry ~ design so ugly that makes you cry) [...]. Within the limits of the investigation, there were 28 types of these verbal LUs semantically reanalyzed as verbal superlative scale operators which evoke a Cause frame. The more abstract frame Transitive_action is, therefore, triggering the scene, characterized by an AGENT or CAUSE affecting a PATIENT. From this frame, we investigated whether the 28 types that constitute the verbal CNSC could be separated and grouped into frames heirs of that scene, and we came to the following sections: 1. Causing_a_Physical_Impact: lascar to chipping, foder to fuck, matar to kill, arrasar to raze, arrebentar to break, ofuscar to obfuscate, abalar to undermine, abafar to muffle, detonar to detonate, incendiar to ignite, arrebatar to snatch, atropelar to run over, morrer to die. 2. Causing_an_organic_impact: arder to burn, chorar to cry, arrepiar to shiver, cansar to get tired, doer to hurt, enjoar to nauseate, vomitar to vomit, tremer to shake, amargar to embitter. 3. Causing_an_Emotional_Impact: assustar to scare, apavorar to frighten, enlouquecer to craze, humilhar to humiliate, alegrar to make happy. In the example below, the LU apavorar ( to frighten ) evokes the frame Causing_an_ emotional_impact: (05) É sério. A situação do tráfego aéreo brasileiro descrita pelos dois é de apavorar [...] I mean it. The Brazilian air traffic situation described by them is really horrible (~ de + apavorar to be frighten ~ the air traffic situation is so bad that frighten [the people]) Note that there is CAUSE (a situação do tráfego aéreo brasileiro the Brazilian air traffic situation ) acting on an EXPERIENCER lexically unexpressed, through an EVENT
10 metaphorically evidenced by UL apavorar to frighten what generates negative emotions in the EXPERIENCER affected by the event, and even if not expressed lexically, can be evoked by the larger scene. It is observed that, in all verbal types licensed by CNSC, there is a prevalence of verbs with negative semantics. The process of semantic change in focus in CNSC metaphorically promoted, causes, somehow, a reanalysis of expressions, from the raising of the Position_on_a_scale frame and the Evaluation frame, without, however, making a dull scene of damage, impact, destruction, raised by the semantics of the verbs. And it is the Position_on_a_scale frame, defined in FrameNet, which point to the intensity reframing promoted by this reanalysis process. Hence, the expression of superlative value in CNSC can be summarized as follows: (i) an AGENT (human) or a CAUSE (non-human) whose intensity of an ATTRIBUT affects the speaker and / or a third person (AFFECTED); (ii) the superlative value and effect on the AFFECTED are metaphorically expressed by verbs (preceded by the genitive preposition de ) that, mostly, are grouped in frames of cause; (iii) such construction involves positive or negative evaluative inferences depending on the frame enabled on each instantiation of construction. This means that this evaluation is not semanticized and verbs with negative semantic can figure positively or negatively at scenes even though the impact inflicted on the affected is always negative. What the analyzes undertaken show, so convincingly, is the semantic complexity of the scene evoked by a Causal Nominal Superlative Construction, in which the semantics of verbal LUs that remains in the metaphorical scene is added to the metaphorical frames evoked by the semantic of the construction Position_on_a_scale and Evaluation. 2.2 Superlative Construction of Body Expression Superlative Construction of Body Expression (SCBE), although forgotten by the grammatical tradition and even by the linguistic tradition, is a common strategy in Portuguese to intensify (suggest a superlative scale of) a statement (43.9% of the tokens of the verbs that are associated with it, in the Corpus do Português (http://www.corpusdoportugues.org/), occur
11 in its interior) and considerably older: also according to the Corpus do Português, already in the fourteenth century this construction was used for intensifying utterances 2 : (07) 13:CIPM:CGEsp [...] tanta era a pestilencia e fame na terra, o bõõ rey nûca cansou de ben fazer. The SCBE was first studied by Sampaio (2007), who, investigating the polysemy of the lexicon of death in Portuguese, faced a quite recurrent pattern in which the verb morrer (to die), together with the genitive preposition de, intensified a name (morrer de inveja to die of envy = to feel a lot of envy) and sometimes a verb (morrer de rir to die of laughing = to laugh very, very much). Following the trail blazed by Sampaio (2007), Costa (2010) is devoted exclusively to the study of such grammatical pattern, trying to understand it more deeply as a phenomenon of the Portuguese language. Relative to its formal pole, the SCBE presents the structure: [X V Y (N/V) ], where X is a verb and Y, prototypically, an abstract name or a verb: (08) 19Or:Br:Intrv:ISP Aí Cacá fez Ubu, estourou e eu fiquei morrendo (SSO) de inveja. Then Cacá made bang, it burst and I was dying of envy (~ to have a lot of envy). (09) 19Or:Br:Intrv:ISP [...] o meu clown não consegue cruzar os braços. A platéia morre de rir do que é, na verdade, uma tragédia para o meu personagem. [...] my clown cannot cross his arms. The audience die of laughing at what is, indeed, a tragedy for my character. (to die of laughing ~ to die laughing ~ to laugh too much) The verbs that can occupy the SCBE slot X have an interesting semantic constraint: all, what we believe it is its primary senses, evoke the Physical_damage frame or the Physiological_damage frame. Precisely it is to this restriction that the name of the construction makes reference. What is being pointed here as Physical_damage frame and Physiological_damage frame, although not having been described with the necessary specificity, in our view, they appear as stable structured scenes, soon they may be called frames, in terms of Fillmore (1982). Thus, having as bases the Damaging frame and the occurrences of the SCBE collected in the Corpus do Português, it was postulated the following elements as core 2 The examples in this section were all taken from the Corpus do Português. Thus, unlike the other examples presented in this paper, the tokens presented in this section bring with the label assigned by the corpus to the text where it was taken, instead of internet link. For more details about the labels, access the corpus website.
12 elements to both frames, as a way of structuring them minimally 3 : CAUSE (the entity that triggers the damage), which can be animate or inanimate (in the case of the SCBE, the CAUSE are prototypically inanimate) and the PATIENT (the one who is hit by CAUSE, the one who suffers the damage), which in construction is prototypically a human entity. The verbs associated with SCBE elucidated in corpus research are distributed between the two frames as follows: Evoked frames Physiological_damage Physical_damage Table 1 Frames evoked by X Verbs borrar to take a shit, cagar to take a shit, cansar to get tired, chorar to cry, fartar to glut, finar to die, mijar to pis, morrer to die, não se aguentar cannot stand to acabar to cease, cair to fall, contorcer to contort, dobrar to bend, escangalhar to break, estourar to cause to burst, rachar to crack, rasgar to tear, rebentar to burst, torcer to twist In view of the presence of these verbs in the establishment of construction, the SCBE evokes a basic scene: a cause of superlative intensity (Y) triggers a metaphorical damage (X), physical or physiological, on a patient, as illustrated by the examples: (10) 18:Azevedo:Cortiço [...] preferiam todos morar lá, porque ficavam a dois passos da obrigação. O Miranda rebentava de raiva. PATIENT Damage CAUSE [ ] they preferred to live there, because they were two steps away from obligation. The Miranda burst of anger. (~ to feel very angry) In the context of the SCBE, however, the semantic strength of the notion of damage evoked by such verbs is projected to the field of intensification, making X to act as a SSO, and Y, the GC modified by X. Therefore the one who dies of envy not actually dies, but experiences jealousy in a superlative degree. Thus, the SEC, as a metaphoric structure, profiles a different cognitive scene from that raised by the verbs that form it, namely the Position_on_a_scale frame. 3 Here we do not intend to describe the frames in the complex terms of the FrameNet, the interest is only to provide a minimal structure, so as to contribute to the establishment of the semantic coherence of the scene evoked by the SCBE. A precise description of these is content to another work(s).
13 Reframing the items from the semantic scale raised by construction, the components of the construction are given new labels according to the Position_on_a_scale frame (FRAMENET): the PATIENT will fill the FE ITEM, the entity whose scalar property is specified ; and the CAUSE, Y, the FE VARIABLE ( the scalar property that the ITEM possesses ). Since in this case, the target LU, the element that evokes the frame is the pattern [X V de Y (N/V) ] as a whole, X, that in the construction loses some of its properties of plain verb (especially when Y is also a verb), fill the FE VALUE, with respect to the position or range of positions on the scale that the ITEM occupies. Further, the non-core FE DEGREE (which identifies the DEGREE to which the scalar property of an ITEM holds with respect to some VARIABLE), in the SCBE, appears to be fused with FE VALUE at X, once this construction as a whole is already linked to the superlative degree: (11) 19:Fic:Pt:Joyce:Distância [...] a rapariga morria de amôres ITEM VALUE/DEGREE VARIABLE por ele, ninguém lho arrancava da cabeça, nem com remoques [ ] the girl was dying of love for him, no one could take it out of his head, even with mockery (to die of love ~ to love very, very much) Pairing the form and the meaning of the construction with the form and the semantics of the elements that compose it, the SCBE presents, as suggested above, two versions: one nominal and one verbal. The formalization of these two variants can be stated in formalization adapted from the one proposed by Goldberg (1995, 2006) to argument structure constructions, in the Diagram 2 and in the Diagram 3, bellow: 1. Nominal SCBE (João morreu de medo João died of fear ) Superlative Construction < ITEM [ VALUE/DEGREE VARIABLE ] > Semantics OES NG Verbal frame: < > Physical_damage/ Physiological_damage Syntax NP [ V PP ] (de + N) Diagram 1 Formalization of Nominal SCBE 2. Verbal SCBE (João morreu de rir João died of laughing )
14 Superlative Construction < ITEM [ VALUE/DEGREE VARIABLE ] > Semantics OES NG Verbal frame: < > Physical_damage/ Physiological_damage Syntax NP [ V (Semi)aux. de V ] Diagram 2 Formalization of Verbal SCBE 2.3. Superlative Synthetic Construction of Absolute States (SSCAS) with suffix -íssimo In face of the strict relation between experience and linguistic meaning, it is expected that social and cultural chances can influence the appearance of new expressions and meanings in language. It seems that our days, with the values fluidity and great competition (BAUMAN, 2007a, 2007b), are, somehow, the motivators for the appearance of expressions like: gravidíssima ( very/really pregnant ), solteiríssimo ( very/really single ), casadíssimo ( very/really married ), desempregadíssimo ( very/really unemployed ), foríssimo ( very/really out ) e candidatíssimo ( very/really candidate ), here called as Superlative Synthetic Construction of Absolute States (SSCAS), described by Machado (2011). This way, we are dealing with a lexeme, which the semantic base expresses an absolute state, resulting in lexical units with superlative value. Thus, a nominal stem of an absolute state ( married, single, pregnant ) interacts with a superlative scale operator (- íssimo, here translated as very/really), bringing a new construction, instantiated by the types above, that projects those states in a superlative intensifier scale. As we know, the Superlative Constructions have, as basic semantic function, the purpose of evoking a scale frame, focused on a maximal or minimal degree (MIRANDA, 2008). But, how could we conceive an absolute state in terms of degree? Inside the formalist tradition, the semantic models are approaching the conceptual integration matters from the so called Strong Compositionality Hypothesis. This hypothesis implies the conception of linguistic meaning (separating dictionary from encyclopedic knowledge) as resulted from the sum of the constituents of meaning parts of a certain expression. Therefore, it is expected transparency and predictability from the linguistic
15 meaning sign. The result is that a great number of constructions has been ignored, put aside of the investigative projects, as irregularities and idiosyncrasies (FILLMORE, 1979). Inside this approach, therefore, casadíssimo ( very/really married ), solteiríssimo ( very/really single ), gravidíssimo ( very/really pregnant ), candidatíssimo ( very/really candidate ) would be outlaw expressions, or even agrammatical ones, once, in their semantic base, the sum of an absolute stem with a superlative suffix is an incompatible phenomenon (absolute states can be gradable; there is no way to be kind of pregnant or kind of married or single). Although, the token frequency of constructions formed from this apparent incongruence between the stem and the suffix are really significant (1.757 tokens of 30 types). Brief searches through digital tools (Google site) can also prove the existence of this construction in its analytical form (muito dentro very inside, totalmente solteira totally single, completamente casada completely married, ligeiramente grávida slightly pregnant, etc.) and with others suffixes 4 besides -íssimo (solteirésimo very/ really single, casadaço very/really married, aprovadérrimo very/ really approved, etc.). Those searches prove that SSCAS with the suffix -íssimo is part of a broader construction network, now, study object of Machado PhD thesis. However, there is no way to deny the presence of an apparent semantic conflict between the SSCAS constituents. But, instead of declaring its usage ungrammatical, through the theoretical and analytical perspective of the constructionist program and the Weak Compositionality Hypothesis, those expressions can be seeing through the mismatch 5 phenomenon (FRANCIS & MICHAELIS, 2000; MICHAELIS, 2004; TRAUGOTT, 2007). The mismatched construction has an incongruence compared to the harmonic construction, but in it rests, somehow, its basic structure. The new pattern differs from the other in a crucial point, the non gradable characteristic of its stem, which defines it as a mismatch. In summary, the mismatch conditions of this construction are related to the semantic character of its stem. The SSCAS s stem presents a peculiar structure. While the canonical construction has a gradable stem (adjectives or adverbs), the SSCAS s stem is an adjective or 4 The different suffixes were all translated here as really/very, since, in English, there is no morphological correspondent. 5 The term 'mismatch' has been used to describe a number of linguistic phenomena involving mappings between (apparently) incongruent elements or structures, where incongruity is defined as relative to some typical or default condition. (FRANCIS & MICHAELIS, 2000, p. 01).
16 a noun or an adverb that refers to an absolute state and, because of that, has, at first, a non gradable semantic dimension. For understanding the meaning processes and the characteristics of SSCAS, it was necessary, first, to unveil the conceptual scenes linked to the 30 types studied. The conceptual scenes that integrate the SSCAS are as many as its types. We recognized twelve (12) frames raised from this construction (Evaluation, Personal_relationship, Ended_State; Competition, Maternity, Dead_or_alive, Profissional_graduation, Comercial_scene; Morality, Authorship, Birth, Working). Since we were facing a morphological construction, the different types are identified by the lexical morphemes or stems, but, they can increase once they evoke different semantic dimensions. This way, the 30 types studied were making into 35 LU. It is true that the different stems of SSCAS evoke different frames. But, the construction brings a new meaning (qualitative evaluation) that imposes itself upon the meanings of the stem and of the suffix -íssimo, without ignoring each meaning part. Thus, the gestaltic result, to which the meaning of the construction and its morphological elements contribute, is bigger than the sum of its parts. The SSCAS is going to give a new profiling 6 (LANGACKER, 1987) for the frames evoked by the stem, in order to deal with the semantic and pragmatic task of evaluating the scenes in a superlative way. This construction brings a new profiling of the twelve frames. The states/ attributes, that constitute SSCAS, get a new interpretation. A set of attributes is profiled in the discursive scene, in order to emphasize the prototypical and superlative conditions of each occurrence: (12) Para demonstrar melhor sua condição de solteiríssima, a Cali Gilr usa shorts e um top biquíni, argolas nas orelhas. To show her very/really single condition, Cali Gilr wears mini shorts, a bikini top, big earrings. (13) Pois apaixonei-me a sério aos 21 anos e em dois meses estava casadíssima, com igreja, papel e sobrenome novo. Because, I fell seriously in love at 21 years old and in two months I was very/ really married, with church, paper and new surname arranged. &chrlist=jud_l5&chrbox=box1#rmcl 6 The profiling concept brings the notion of gestalt theory and its oppositions between figure/ground. Some semantic features are emphasized, turning into figure, while others stay out of focus, becoming ground (SILVA, 1997).
17 The scalar notion is licensed once the prototype that the SSCAS brings is considered as the sum of all attributes, so, it becomes possible to graduate the properties of an absolute state. Therefore, there would be a degree scale in terms of each of these absolute states, in which the top would be the joining of all properties the prototype lexically represented as SSCAS. It would be possible to conceive a graduation which the less properties/ attributes it has, the less intensified it is. According to the analyses and from the holistic vision that comes from the concept of construction, it was possible to recognize that the tension between the morphological constituents that constitute SSCAS brings a new construction pattern in Brazilian Portuguese, with peculiar sense and use. Mismatches, therefore, do not make incongruence, but act in the discourse as clues for an interpretational adjust, emerging a new construction, with new functions inside the linguistics system. Conclusion In this paper, we aimed at elucidating how Frame Semantics can contribute towards the investigation of different grammatical patterns of a language, from a cognitive and constructionist perspective. To accomplish the task, besides a small presentation of the mainly theoretical paradigms that influenced our work, three different constructional patterns of Portuguese were briefly analyzed in order to illustrate the relevance of joining the Cognitive Construction Grammar and the Frame Semantics to investigate constructions of a language. With that, we would like to show how the fillmorian frame notion, and its connected concepts, enrich the description of objects, as the ones investigated here, providing a rich and successful theoretical apparatus for the understanding of constructions semantic and of their elements. Acknowledgments The Superlative Constructions of Brazilian Portuguese: A study about scale semantic macro project receives financial support from CNPq. The researches on Causal Nominal Superlative Construction and on Superlative Synthetic Construction of Absolute
18 States with suffix -íssimo, for their times, were supported with scholarships by CAPES. The project that involved the investigation on Superlative Construction of Body Expression received support from FAPEMIG scholarship. RESUMO: Este trabalho visa mostrar como a Semântica de Frames contribui na pesquisa das construções de uma língua. A visão de gramática que subsidia o trabalho é a Gramática das Construções Cognitiva, um dos modelos de gramática emergido no interior da Linguística Cognitiva. Os objetos analisados são três construções vinculadas ao macroprojeto Construções Superlativas do Português do Brasil. De maneira geral, os resultados apontam para a pertinência na associação das teorias, vindo a Semântica de Frames a contribuir de forma muito produtiva no entendimento da significação dos padrões construcionais analisados, assim como dos elementos que os compõem. Palavras-chave: Linguística Cognitiva; Gramática das Construções Cognitiva; Semântica de Frames; Construções Superlativas. References BAUMAN, Z. Tempos líquidos. Rio de Janeiro: Jorge Zahar, 2007a.. Vida líquida. Rio de Janeiro: Jorge Zahar Editor. 2007b. BOAS, H. C. Cognitive Construction Grammar. In: TROUSDALE, G.; HOFFMANN, T. (eds.). The Oxford Handbook of Construction Grammar. Oxford: Oxford University Press: no prelo. CARRARA, A. C. F. As Construções Superlativas Causais Nominais: Uma abordagem construcionista f. Dissertação (Mestrado em Linguística) Faculdade de Letras, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, COSTA, I. O. A Construção Superlativa de Expressão Corporal: Uma abordagem construcionista f. Dissertação (Mestrado em Linguística) Faculdade de Letras, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, CROFT, W.; CRUSE, A. Cognitive Linguistics. New York: Cambridge University Press, FAUCONNIER, G. Mental Spaces. New York: Cambridge University Press, Mappings In Thought And Language. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, FILLMORE, C. J. Frame Semantics. In: LINGUISTIC SOCIETY OF KOREA (eds.). Linguistics in the Morning Calm: Selected Papers from SICOL Seoul: Hanshin, p
19 . Innocence: a second idealization for linguistics. In: ANNUAL MEETING OF THE BERKELEY LINGUISTICS SOCIETY, 5, 1979, Berkeley. Proceedings Berkeley: University of California, Border Conflicts: FrameNet Meets Construction Grammar. In: EURALEX, 13, 2008, Barcelona. Proceedings... Barcelona: Universitat Barcelona Fabra, FILLMORE, C. J.; KAY, P.; O CONNOR, C. Regularity and Idiomaticity in Grammatical Constructions: The Case of Let Alone. Language, v.64, n.3, p , FILLMORE, C. J.; KAY, P. Grammatical Constructions and Linguistic Generalizations: The What s X Doing Y? Construction. Language, vol. 75, n. 1, p. 1-33, mar FRANCIS, E. J.; MICHAELIS L. A. Approaches to Mismatch: Introduction. In: BUTT, M.; KING, T. H. (eds.). Proceedings of the BFG00 Conference Workshops. Stanford: CSLI Publication [online conference proceedings], GOLDBERG, A. Construction: A Construction Grammar Approach to Argument Structure. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, Constructions at Work: The Nature of Generalization in Language. Oxford: Oxford University Press, GRIES, S. T.; DIVJAK, D. Behavioral Profiles: A Corpus-Based Approach to Cognitive Semantic Analysis. In: EVANS, V.; POURCEL, S. (eds.). New directions in Cognitive Linguistics. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins, p JOHNSON, M. The Body in The Mind: The Bodily Basis of Meaning, Information, and Reason. Chicago: University of Chicago Press: LAKOFF, G. Women, Fire and Dangerous Things: What categories reveal about the mind. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, LAKOFF, G.; JOHNSON, M. Metáforas da vida cotidiana. Trad. Mara Sophia Zanotto (coord.). Campinas: Mercado de Letras; São Paulo: Educ, 2002.. Philosophy in the Flesh: The Embodied Mind and Its Challenge to Western Thought. New York: Basic Books, LANGACKER, R. Foundations of Cognitive Grammar, vol. 1. Stanford: Stanford University of Chicago Press, MACHADO, P. M. A Construção Superlativa Sintética de Estados Absolutos com o sufixo - íssimo: Um caso de desencontro/mismatch morfológico f. Dissertação (Mestrado em Linguística) Faculdade de Letras, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, MICHAELIS, L. A. Type Shifting in Construction Grammar: An Integrated Approach to Aspectual Coercion. Cognitive Linguistics, v.15, p.01-67, 2004.
20 MIRANDA, N. S. O caráter partilhado da construção da significação. Veredas, Juiz de Fora, v. 5, n. 2, p , Construções Superlativas no Português do Brasil: Um estudo sobre a semântica de escala. Projeto de pesquisa do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Letras Mestrado em Linguística; GP Gramática e Cognição, CNPq, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, PETRUCK, M. R. L. Frame Semantics. In: VERSCHUEREM, J. et. al (eds.). Handbook of Pragmatics. Philadelphia: John Benjamins, SALOMÃO, M. M. M. Gramática e interação: o enquadre programático da hipótese sóciocognitiva sobre a linguagem. Veredas, Juiz de Fora, v. 1, n. 1, p , Teorias da linguagem: A perspectiva sociocognitiva. In: MIRANDA, N. S.; SALOMÃO, M.M.M. (orgs.) Construções do Português do Brasil: da gramática ao discurso. Belo Horizonte: Editora UFMG, 2009, p SAMPAIO, T. F. O uso metafórico do léxico da morte: uma abordagem sociocognitiva f. Dissertação (Mestrado em Linguística) Faculdade de Letras, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, SARDINHA, T. B. Lingüística de Corpus. Barueri: Manole, SILVA, A. S. A Linguística Cognitiva. Revista Portuguesa de Humanidades, Braga, v. 1, p , STEFANOWITSCH, A. Words and their metaphors: A corpus-based approach. In: STEFANOWITSCH, A.; GRIES, S. Corpus-based Approaches to Metaphor and Metonymy. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter, p TRAUGOTT, E. C. The concepts of constructional mismatch and type-shifting from the perspective of grammaticalization. Cognitive Linguistics, v.18, n.4, p , 2007.
Supporting FrameNet Project with Semantic Web technologies Paulo Hauck 1, Regina Braga 1, Fernanda Campos 1, Tiago Torrent 2, Ely Matos 2, José Maria N. David 1 1 Pós Graduação em Ciência da Computação
Abstract Number: 002-0427 Critical Issues about the Theory Of Constraints Thinking Process A Theoretical and Practical Approach Second World Conference on POM and 15th Annual POM Conference, Cancun, Mexico,
CINTIL-PropBank I. Basic Information 1.1. Corpus information The CINTIL-PropBank (Branco et al., 2012) is a set of sentences annotated with their constituency structure and semantic role tags, composed
HYBRID INTELLIGENT SUITE FOR DECISION SUPPORT IN SUGARCANE HARVEST FLÁVIO ROSENDO DA SILVA OLIVEIRA 1 DIOGO FERREIRA PACHECO 2 FERNANDO BUARQUE DE LIMA NETO 3 ABSTRACT: This paper presents a hybrid approach
Page 1 of 57 Grade 3 Reading Literary Text Principles of Reading (P) Standard 1: Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print. Standard 2: Demonstrate understanding of spoken
Grammar: Functional Approaches William Croft MSC03 2130, Linguistics 1 University of New Mexico Albuquerque NM 87131-0001 USA Abstract The term functional or functionalist has been applied to any approach
COMPARATIVES WITHOUT DEGREES: A NEW APPROACH FRIEDERIKE MOLTMANN IHPST, Paris email@example.com It has become common to analyse comparatives by using degrees, so that John is happier than Mary would
Semantic Search in Portals using Ontologies Wallace Anacleto Pinheiro Ana Maria de C. Moura Military Institute of Engineering - IME/RJ Department of Computer Engineering - Rio de Janeiro - Brazil [awallace,anamoura]@de9.ime.eb.br
The compositional semantics of same Mike Solomon Amherst College Abstract Barker (2007) proposes the first strictly compositional semantic analysis of internal same. I show that Barker s analysis fails
ISSN 1798-4769 Journal of Language Teaching and Research, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 1-7, January 2010 Manufactured in Finland. doi:10.4304/jltr.1.1.1-7 EFL Learners Synonymous Errors: A Case Study of Glad and
Doctoral School of Historical Sciences Dr. Székely Gábor professor Program of Assyiriology Dr. Dezső Tamás habilitate docent The theses of the Dissertation Nominal and Verbal Plurality in Sumerian: A Morphosemantic
Business Process Management and its results in a Blinds Manufacturing Company Eduarda Espindola firstname.lastname@example.org Luiz Henrique Dias Alves email@example.com Universidade Federal
UNIVERSITÀ DEGLI STUDI ROMA TRE FACOLTÀ DI LETTERE E FILOSOFIA DIPARTIMENTO DI LINGUISTICA DOTTORATO DI RICERCA IN LINGUISTICA SINCRONICA, DIACRONICA E APPLICATA XIX CICLO A.A. 2005/2006 Parole sintagmatiche
Grade 4 Language Standards : Conventions of Standard English Essential Questions: 1. Why is it important to have command of Standard English conventions? 2. How do I determine the meaning of an unfamiliar
P ROCEEDINGS VOLUME I SPACE SYNTAX TODAY THE REASONING ART: or, The Need for an Analytical Theory of Architecture Professor Bill Hillier and Dr Julienne Hanson University College London, London, England
Comparing Ontology-based and Corpusbased Domain Annotations in WordNet. A paper by: Bernardo Magnini Carlo Strapparava Giovanni Pezzulo Alfio Glozzo Presented by: rabee ali alshemali Motive. Domain information
Svetlana Sokolova President and CEO of PROMT, PhD. How the Computer Translates Machine translation is a special field of computer application where almost everyone believes that he/she is a specialist.
CURRICULUM VITAE OF Ana Cristina Gouvea Communication Sciences and Disorders Department EDUCATION Degree Institution Field Dates Ph.D. University of Maryland Linguistics 1997-2003 M.A. Federal University
ISEJ Advertorial The Oxford Learner s Dictionary of Academic English Oxford University Press The Oxford Learner s Dictionary of Academic English (OLDAE) is a brand new learner s dictionary aimed at students
331 SYSTEMIC FUNCTIONAL GRAMMAR AND CONSTRUCTION GRAMMAR Francis Y. LIN Alex X. PENG (School of Foreign Languages and Literatures / Beijing Normal University) ABSTRACT: Construction Grammar (CG) as developed
Linguística Aplicada das Profissões VOLUME 16 nº 1-2012 This present volume has been kindness titled by us, editors, Veredas Sarangi. It comes from our decision of setting a publication that could show
Mathematics teacher education and professional development João Pedro da Ponte firstname.lastname@example.org Grupo de Investigação DIFMAT Centro de Investigação em Educação e Departamento de Educação Faculdade de Ciências
US-China Foreign Language, ISSN 1539-8080 March 2014, Vol. 12, No. 3, 226-231 D DAVID PUBLISHING The Emotive Component in English-Russian Translation of Specialized Texts Natalia Sigareva The Herzen State
Risk management in scientific research: a proposal guided in Project Management Book of Knowledge and Failure Mode and Effects Analysis Pollyana Notargiacomo Mustaro Graduate Program in Electrical Engineering
Teaching terms: a corpus-based approach to terminology in ESP classes Maria João Cotter Lisbon School of Accountancy and Administration (ISCAL) (Portugal) Abstract This paper will build up on corpus linguistic
Section I Overview 1 1 The cognitive linguistics enterprise: an overview 1 Vyvyan Evans, Benjamin K. Bergen and Jörg Zinken 1 Introduction Cognitive linguistics is a modern school of linguistic thought
Overview of topics What is Syntax? Word Classes What to remember and understand: Ling 201 Syntax 1 Jirka Hana April 10, 2006 Syntax, difference between syntax and semantics, open/closed class words, all
UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DE SANTA CATARINA CENTRO DE COMUNICAÇÃO E EXPRESSÃO PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM INGLÊS: ESTUDOS LINGUÍSTICOS E LITERÁRIOS GUIDELINES AND FORMAT SPECIFICATIONS FOR PROPOSALS, THESES, AND DISSERTATIONS
J. T. M. Miller, Department of Philosophy, University of Durham 1 Methodological Issues for Interdisciplinary Research Much of the apparent difficulty of interdisciplinary research stems from the nature
O CÉU É O LIMITE THE SKY IS THE LIMIT PORTUGUESE ACHIEVEMENT CONFERENCE Dr. Beatriz de Paiva Portuguese provision in UK universities Portuguese in UG studies: case studies CELPE-Bras Portuguese in UK Higher
Numerical Data Integration for Cooperative Question-Answering Véronique Moriceau Institut de Recherche en Informatique de Toulouse 118, route de Narbonne 31062 Toulouse cedex 09, France email@example.com
Language Meaning and Use Raymond Hickey, English Linguistics Website: www.uni-due.de/ele Types of meaning There are four recognisable types of meaning: lexical meaning, grammatical meaning, sentence meaning
KNOWLEDGE ORGANIZATION Gabi Reinmann Germany firstname.lastname@example.org Synonyms Information organization, information classification, knowledge representation, knowledge structuring Definition The term
Estudios de lingüística inglesa aplicada ADVERB ORIENTATION: SEMANTICS AND PRAGMATICS José María García Núñez Universidad de Cádiz Orientation is a well known property of some adverbs in English. Early
ORAL INTERACTION AND ITS IMPLICATION IN THE LEARNING AND TEACHING PROCESS IN EFL Daniela G. A. Nóbrega ABSTRACT: Current researches of oral interaction, following the sociointeractional line of discourse,
FRAMING EFFECTS A framing effect is usually said to occur when equivalent descriptions of a decision problem lead to systematically different decisions. Framing has been a major topic of research in the
GRANGER, S.; PAQUOT, M. (EDS.). 2010. ELEXICOGRAPHY IN THE 21ST CENTURY: NEW CHALLENGES, NEW APPLICATIONS. PROCEEDINGS OF ELEX2009, LOUVAIN-LA-NEUVE, 22-24 OCTOBER 2009. CAHIERS DU CENTAL 7. LOUVAIN-LA-NEUVE,
EPOS, XVIII (2002), págs. 309-323 BODY PART METONYMIES IN ACTION AND PERCEPTION FRAMES: A COGNITIVE ANALYSIS OLGA ISABEL DÍEZ VELASCO Universidad de La Rioja ABSTRACT In Cognitive Linguistics studies on
Report of the Workshop Gaming and the scientific mind- Designing games to develop the scientific mind BtSM 2009 Cairo Designed and held by Carlo Fabricatore, Ph. D. (email@example.com)
1 SUPPLEMENTARY READING: A NOTE ON AGNATION Introduction The term agnate, together with its derivative agnation, was introduced into linguistics by the American structuralist H.A. Gleason, Jr. (Gleason
Expert Reader 1000 Chapter 5 by Elen Fernandes 5- A Dog Barbara wants a dog. She lives alone, so she thinks a dog can be a very nice friend. She decides to go to a pet shop. Barbara sees the animals at
Modeling Guidelines Manual [Insert company name here] July 2014 Author: John Doe firstname.lastname@example.org Page 1 of 22 Table of Contents 1. Introduction... 3 2. Business Process Management (BPM)... 4 2.1.
Expert Reader 1000 Chapter 8 by Elen Fernandes 8- Vacation One of my favorite vacation places is Brazil. I really like the weather there because it never gets cold and the people are very friendly too.
Psychology of Language and Communication 1999, Vol. 3. No. 2 OTÍLIA DA COSTA E SOUSA Higher School of Education, Lisbon New University of Lisbon CHILDREN S METALINGUISTIC ACTIVITY IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF
Assessment on the basis of essay writing in the admission to the master s degree in the Republic of Azerbaijan Natig Aliyev Mahabbat Akbarli Javanshir Orujov The State Students Admission Commission (SSAC),
Automatic Synthesis of Graphical User Interfaces for Health Information Systems Síntese Automática de Interfaces Gráficas de Usuário para Sistemas de Informação em Saúde Iuri M. Teixeira, Regina M. Braga,
Ratio Juris. Vol. 13 No. 2 June 2000 (133±137) Alexy's Thesis of the Necessary Connection between Law and Morality* EUGENIO BULYGIN Abstract. This paper criticizes Alexy's argument on the necessary connection
RELEVANCE AND e-learning. RELEVANCE IN CONTEXT, CONTENT AND ACTIVITIES IN e- LEARNING 1 Jacques Moeschler (email@example.com) Department of linguistics, University of Geneva, 2, rue de
CHARTES D'ANGLAIS SOMMAIRE CHARTE NIVEAU A1 Pages 2-4 CHARTE NIVEAU A2 Pages 5-7 CHARTE NIVEAU B1 Pages 8-10 CHARTE NIVEAU B2 Pages 11-14 CHARTE NIVEAU C1 Pages 15-17 MAJ, le 11 juin 2014 A1 Skills-based
SYNTAX: THE ANALYSIS OF SENTENCE STRUCTURE OBJECTIVES the game is to say something new with old words RALPH WALDO EMERSON, Journals (1849) In this chapter, you will learn: how we categorize words how words
What Is Linguistics? December 1992 Center for Applied Linguistics Linguistics is the study of language. Knowledge of linguistics, however, is different from knowledge of a language. Just as a person is
Overview of MT techniques Malek Boualem (FT) This section presents an standard overview of general aspects related to machine translation with a description of different techniques: bilingual, transfer,
Developing a Theory-Based Ontology for Best Practices Knowledge Bases Daniel E. O Leary University of Southern California 3660 Trousdale Parkway Los Angeles, CA 90089-0441 firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract Knowledge
USING ONTOLOGIES FOR GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION INTEGRATION Frederico Torres Fonseca The Pennsylvania State University, USA Keywords: ontologies, GIS, geographic information integration, interoperability Contents
Sounds Like Like Peter Lasersohn University of Rochester Abstract: It is argued that the verb sound is ambiguous between one reading where it denotes a two-place relation between individuals and properties,
Index Index 343 Index A A, an (usage), 8, 123 A, an, the (articles), 8, 123 diagraming, 205 Abbreviations, correct use of, 18 19, 273 Abstract nouns, defined, 4, 63 Accept, except, 12, 227 Action verbs,
2 The role of background knowledge in language comprehension has been formalized as schema theory, any text, either spoken or written, does not by itself carry meaning. Rather, according to schema theory,
Ana M. B. Pavani LAMBDA Laboratório de Automação de Museus, Bibliotecas Digitais e Arquivos. Departamento de Engenharia Elétrica Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro email@example.com
Register Differences between Prefabs in Native and EFL English MARIA WIKTORSSON 1 Introduction In the later stages of EFL (English as a Foreign Language) learning, and foreign language learning in general,
Syntactic Theory Background and Transformational Grammar Dr. Dan Flickinger & PD Dr. Valia Kordoni Department of Computational Linguistics Saarland University October 28, 2011 Early work on grammar There
Orit Hazzan's Column Abstraction in Computer Science & Software Engineering: A Pedagogical Perspective This column is coauthored with Jeff Kramer, Department of Computing, Imperial College, London ABSTRACT
Entrevista Kurt Meredith As relações entre Educação, Democracia e Cidadania são muito caras a quem pesquisa as instituições, os processos e as práticas educativas. Cada vez mais se fala em inserção social
GOOD MORNING TWEETHEARTS! : THE DIFFUSION OF A LEXICAL INNOVATION IN TWITTER REBECCA MAYBAUM (University of Haifa) Abstract The paper analyses the diffusion patterns of a community-specific lexical innovation,
Semantic analysis of text and speech SGN-9206 Signal processing graduate seminar II, Fall 2007 Anssi Klapuri Institute of Signal Processing, Tampere University of Technology, Finland Outline What is semantic
Putting Frames in Perspective Nancy Chang, Srini Narayanan, and Miriam R.L. Petruck International Computer Science Institute 1947 Center St., Suite 600, Berkeley, CA 94704 nchang,snarayan,miriamp @icsi.berkeley.edu
English prepositional constructions An empirical overview of the properties of English prepositional s is presented, followed by a discussion of formal approaches to the analysis of the various types of
Models of Dissertation Research in Design S. Poggenpohl Illinois Institute of Technology, USA K. Sato Illinois Institute of Technology, USA Abstract This paper is a meta-level reflection of actual experience
Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 Kinds and generalizations Over the past decades, the study of genericity has occupied a central place in natural language semantics. The joint work of the Generic Group 1, which
Guidelines for a risk management methodology for product design Viviane Vasconcellos Ferreira Federal University of Santa Catarina firstname.lastname@example.org André Ogliari Federal University of Santa Catarina
On the use of antonyms and synonyms from a domain perspective Debela Tesfaye IT PhD Program Addis Ababa University Addis Ababa, Ethiopia email@example.com Carita Paradis Centre for Languages and Literature
São Paulo, 18 de abril de 2012. Provas de Inglês Substitutivas E. Fundamental II e E. Médio Prezados Pais, De 19 a 25 de abril, serão aplicadas as Provas de Inglês (Midterm Tests) Substitutivas do primeiro
Start PARADOX Start Harold Nelson DESIGN CAPACITY - A BASIS OF HUMAN ACTIVITY By Harold G. Nelson, Ph.D., M. Arch. DRAFT ú DRAFT - Design is the ability to imagine, that-which-does-not-yet-exist, to make
Intro to Linguistics Semantics Jarmila Panevová & Jirka Hana January 5, 2011 Overview of topics What is Semantics The Meaning of Words The Meaning of Sentences Other things about semantics What to remember
TEXTO PARA DISCUSSÃO N 265 ECONOMIC GROWTH, CONVERGENCE AND QUALITY OF HUMAN CAPITAL FORMATION SYSTEM Luciano Nakabashi Lízia de Figueiredo Junho de 2005 Ficha catalográfica 330.34 N63e 2005 Nakabashi,
SPECIMEN MATERIAL 1 GCSE English Language Paper 2 Writers viewpoints and perspectives Mark Scheme 8700 Version 2.1 2 MARK SCHEME GCSE ENGLISH LANGUAGE PAPER 2 Mark schemes are prepared by the Lead Assessment
44 ANALYSIS explicating logical truth, and, thus, also consequence and inconsistency. Let C1 and C2 be distinct moral codes formulated in English. Let C1 contain a norm N and C2 its negation. The moral
Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Language Arts Curriculum and Assessment Alignment Form Rewards Intermediate Grades 4-6 4 I. READING AND LITERATURE A. Word Recognition, Analysis, and Fluency The student
An integrated tool for annotating historical corpora Pablo Picasso Feliciano de Faria University of Campinas Campinas, Brazil firstname.lastname@example.org Fabio Natanael Kepler University of Sao Paulo Sao Paulo,
Strand: Reading Literature Key Ideas and Details Craft and Structure RL.3.1 Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers.
Intercom - Revista Brasileira de Ciências da Comunicação ISSN: 1809-5844 email@example.com Sociedade Brasileira de Estudos Interdisciplinares da Comunicação Brasil Moreira, Sonia Virgínia A expansão da indústria
Jornada de Seguimiento de Proyectos, 2004 Programa Nacional de Tecnologías Informáticas Automatic processing of textual information in Spanish (Tratamiento automático de la información textual en español:
American Journal of Software Engineering and Applications 2014; 3(5): 63-67 Published online November 20, 2014 (http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/j/ajsea) doi: 10.11648/j.ajsea.20140305.12 ISSN: 2327-2473
KEY CONCEPTS IN TRANSFORMATIONAL GENERATIVE GRAMMAR Chris A. Adetuyi (Ph.D) Department of English and Literary Studies Lead City University, Ibadan Nigeria ABSTRACT Olatayo Olusola Fidelis Department of
DATA QUALITY DATA BASE QUALITY INFORMATION SYSTEM QUALITY The content of those documents are the exclusive property of REVER. The aim of those documents is to provide information and should, in no case,
1) Introduction Marketing Mix Modelling and Big Data P. M Cain Big data is generally defined in terms of the volume and variety of structured and unstructured information. Whereas structured data is stored