1 Smart Costumes for Performance Art Alexandra Cabral and Cristina Carvalho Abstract The costume design for the performance art is involved in an action field where fashion is understood as a contemporary work of art, contributing to evoke emotions. The usage of new textile technologies is fundamental in the creation of signifying shapes, which by being dynamic and interactive will support the performer during the performance, in an ever more narrow relationship between what he/she expresses and what the attire represents. The problematic at stake exposes the lack of true response to psychological stimuli from the wearer by the current intelligent and semi-intelligent prototypes, and therefore an absence of deliberate communication of specific emotions. The truly cognitive contribution of the clothing in question is in comprising the bidirectional communication between performer/audience, framed by the environment stimuli, in which a costume gains meaning. The combination of technology and cognition summarizes the coexperience in which they find themselves involved, regarding that particular action field. It s therefore necessary to understand the interrelationships and interaction levels between the smart textile and its bearer (the body), converging simultaneously functional and emotional territories, so as to allow the development of costumes that react to stimuli, placing both the wearer and the environment as actuators of specific functions. Science and art are then allied in a design practice that encompasses concepts such as interaction design, co-design and participatory design. In clothing that unites form and background, context and subject, performer and spectator, the innovation itself lies in the reciprocal contribution to the fields of design and textile engineering. Intelligence in textiles approaches the one that has invented it (the human being s), combining notions of materiality and immateriality. Having the dynamism in clothing and the interaction it provides linked to the redefinition of the body as a mirror of the mind, we challenge the conceptual and plastic limits of fashion. Key Words: Fashion design, costumes, performance art, performer, smart textiles. ***** 1. Fashion and body: bi-directionality in performance The transitory feature between the body and its surroundings is provided by the textile «second-skin» that covers it. It mirrors both the individual and society, due to the signifying function the textile surface acquires. While an emblem of an intertwined speech, fashion, like art, can be a language, a system of communication that can reflect dreams, desires, realities, fantasies, memories,
2 2 Smart Costumes for Performance Art values, changes, and even critical consciousness 1. Its closeness to the body makes it the most immediate element of communication with others. Fashion, in performance art, by having the body as a means, can comprehend a two-way tacit relationship perception due to its elements of fruition: one that dresses and another that is dressed (thus revealed). However, fashion depends on cultural connotations given to clothing in the social environment it belongs to, therefore body and aesthetic object, when exposed, complement each other as much as they set apart: a garment deprived of its bearer keeps containing it; the importance of the undressed body expresses the equivalence given to a specific garment. Therefore, the clothing thus becomes the body, a passage from same to same 2. In our hypermodern era, where singularity, competitiveness and self-separation are features of a world surrendered to the fugacity of things 3, artistic practices framing fashion as performance have no limits. Their rules and procedures do not belong to a line of thought; they are rather intuitive and tuned with the heart of life. Since Duchamp showed us that art can define itself as «anti-art», clothing, while «anti-fashion», can express the thoughts of the individual, in the present artistic universe constituted by a wave of experiments 4. Performances and happenings of the 1960 s brought about new concepts and ways of exhibiting, putting the audience in a closer interaction with the artist. Today, "fashion and art trace parallel paths, having the catwalk on one side and the museum on the other, which sometimes interlace or even interchange" 5, and if we analyse what s in between, we find a particular combination of time, spectator and performer. That s the one of the performance art s context, concerning the lingering over an action and a gesture and that allows a metamorphose as the motto for the renewal of each human being s life experience 6. In this experience, costumes have an essential role, for the reason that they are part of a creative process that is exposed, and they are pushed to their expressive limits by the unpredictability of the performative action. Body manipulation through clothing affects our perception of its original shape and confirms our relentless pursuit in understanding its physical and psychological condition: "What s a human being? What makes us test our sensations? What are the limits of the self?" 7. In a framework in which body and aesthetic object merge, the performer uses his/her body to transform it into pure signifying material 8, getting thus placed in the same level of signs 9. If the attire used by the performer is the expansion of the surface of his/her body, the role of the fashion designer is to interpret what has instilled that expansion because "the relationships amid body and self are the contents of knowledge that we call consciousness" 10, and in this case, the one of the character s being interpreted. On the other hand, if the performance is also the spectator, stimulating his/her feelings comprises the creation of affective thinking 11, the same way as understanding the audience implicates an adjustment in the way of performing. Therefore, the costume
3 Alexandra Cabral and Cristina Carvalho designer needs to understand the context of use while responsible for tracing the way the user will find information, interpret, establish relationships between components, interact with the interface and understand communication 12, to be able to contribute simultaneously to the performer s communication and allow the audience s perception. Even though this is an assumption which is relative to Eco because a work of art is open while surrounded by a dialectic of «decisiveness» and «openness» ( ) as communicative circumstance 13, these performative and materiality/immateriality notions enable us to contextualize wearable technologies and their performative potential on the body Inversions: the body as functional platform Seymour mentions that the context of use is tremendously important when creating meaningful fashion wearables. ( ) it truly determines the functional and expressive definition of a fashion wearable 15. That kind of wearable innovates fashion design thinking, since the inclusion of textile structures that respond both to the body and environment s stimuli demand new methodologies and techniques. The performer s body is increasingly considered a functional platform, since that it causes property changes in the textile surface (in colour, shape, opacity), clearly revealing the emotion meant to be transmitted to the audience. Clothing focuses on the equivalence to the individual, not only because the flesh can think and be designed 16, but also because, in this context being analyzed, we need to consider the way people interact both between themselves and with themselves alone through smart clothes. Artists such as Roosegaarde and brands like Philips Design Probes have explored new dimensions in this field. The first one presented us Intimacy 2.0 (2011), a dress that becomes transparent with excitement, responding to heart beat acceleration, using wireless technologies, leds, coper and other materials 17. The second created Bubelle Blush Dress (2006), a changing color garment, made of polyester, non-woven led and fiber glass materials 18, showing «emotions» by measuring biometric data. We question, however, their cognitive contribution regarding the core of the bidirectional communication between performer and audience, when what is at stake is the so called emotional design which consists in the attempt to awaken feelings through products 19. We think that the correspondence of emotions in these garments to truly psychological stimulus is still an illusion. By not being shown to society in the midst of performance art and at the service of culture, all prototypes fail in their goal: in intelligence, namely in their approach to the human being s it wasn t deliberately communicated any specific concept or emotion. Factors such as cold and exterior heat can interfere in how these textile materials react, but they need to be controlled in the art performance field so that the outcoming reactions gain meaning. Bugg mentions Quinn regarding the intensity of the sensorial experience, stating that it should be an allusion to a more intense experience somewhere else, or the promise of a richer, wider horizon to be found 20. 3
4 4 Smart Costumes for Performance Art The neuroscientist Nicolelis goes further and explores the limitations of the body regarding what science is able to achieve to overcome them. He uses exoskeletons controlled by brain waves in his investigation on the usage of neuroprosthesis 21. Even though this evolution is extreme in what we can call the merging between body and technology, it meets the foreseen perspectives of fashion designers. Seymour tells us that the immersion level through smart clothing demonstrates how much our bodies are rapidly becoming extensions of technical developments 22 and we say: and vice-versa. In this equivalence, the present evolution has shown that materials respond according to «our» laws, as that s what the integration of nanotechnology in textiles indicates, since the technical actions tend to be ever more intuitive and discrete in order to serve the user: technology produce fabrics that mimic many of the skin s properties 23. Interaction and dynamism (and even mimicry) are therefore present in new scientific progresses that affect the body as an organic, mobile and thinking object. Tao clarifies that most textiles and clothing have been inert, and it would be marvellous if they could behave like our skin, become intelligent material for being related to the brain 24. We can therefore foresee progresses in design, where static objects can, as a result, be transformed into new dynamic things, adding intelligence to the field and stimulating the design of innovative products and services 25, reflecting ourselves as humans. 3. User-centered fashion design: project methodology The methodology for designing dynamic and interactive smart costumes can be shared and complemented by two disciplines, fashion design and textile engineering, since relevant changes and improvements are the ones realized by designers, and by a specific breed of designers: those ( ) who are both artists and engineers 26. Tao also reinforces the importance of interdisciplinary team work 27 and Kaptelin e Bannon tell us about interaction design, the one involving research about human-machine interaction and linked to cognitive ergonomics, gathering science, engineering, social and human sciences, and of course, design 28. Actually, reinforcing the human factor in design is imperative nowadays 29 and the most common flaw is to think that the designer can have certainties without working in co-design with his/her peers or participatory design with the user 30, because intuitions about what will make a system useful and usable for the people who will use it are, on average, poor 31. When new investigation fields and technologies and materiality affect the way we express ourselves, we clearly need to revisit the foundations of design work and reflect on the ways in which we work ( ), forget conventions and suggest new styles and semantics 32. A user-centered design practice becomes essential in the complementarity between conceptual and production procedures, because according to Gulliksen e Göransson, the work practices of the users control the development 33. Plus, we need to ponder that an entity is committed in interacting with an object, and that
5 Alexandra Cabral and Cristina Carvalho object causes a change in that entity during that same interaction 34, and to be aware that those conceptual probes that question the combination between cognition and technology summarize aspects of co-experience. These ones reinforce notions of time, space and response conditions during performance art, as co-experience encompasses three inter-relational moments of mutual influence: body and aesthetic object; aesthetic object and its environment; performer and audience. Skorpions (garments by Di Mainstone, Joanna Berzowska e XS Labs, 2007) constrain the performer s body like a «carapace», when changing its shape in specific areas for reacting to external stimuli. They don t only intervene in the notion of personal body, but they also shift and modulate personal and social space ( ). Their behavior, by hiding or revealing hidden layers, invite others inside the protective shell of fabric 35. Therefore, we can assume that user-centered design has to be thought in a hermeneutical circle, in a movement from the parts to the whole and vice-versa 36, so that the result induces a true reading and frames specific communication moments, centered in an actuation domain called action field 37. The performer acts in the midst of a network of diverse elements, because all that occurs in his/her mind happens in a time and space related both to an instance in the time his/her body is found and to a particular section of space it occupies 38. The surrounding space is physically circumscribed, but it s also metaphysical, and it embraces certain practices that are grasped to their limits and that depend on the movement of the body in order to take place. Plus, the unity composed by consciousness and body is, in its turn, related with social values, because consciousness, body and environment are all continuous. ( ) just as the brain needs the body to create conscious activity, so the body needs the environment to create conscious activity 39. The movement of the dress/undressed body is not isolated from an understanding of the body language by others, which repercussion gives us an awareness of their emotions. We expect smart costumes to enrich these intricate interactions, with fashion as art reflecting, as never, the human attitude. The smart textile becomes both an adjunct interface of the mind and an essential extender of the body, in the complex task of communication Designing the future Lamontagne admits that without the fashion/art s desire to explore fields once related to science fiction as cyborgs or bodies enhanced with technology, interactive garments wouldn t have reached the present progress 41. Santos says that nowadays fiction becomes reality and nothing seems to be impossible 42. When analyzing Tachi Lab s Invisible Cloak (2003) we see the creation of an illusion of invisibility, because images of the background are projected on the garment. In this case, the user s mobility represents an intrusion in the action field, even though the textile surface doesn t react to external stimuli (or the wearer s), it s only a screen 5
6 6 Smart Costumes for Performance Art for projecting visual information. If used in a performance, this cloak would make us reflect on perception matters regarding the audience and the performer s selfdefinition. Who is the performer inside that costume? Is the perception of his presence understood as being an illusion? In this quest, and through new plastic explorations and means of presentation and contextualization, "the question of what means to be human remains under constant investigation, over and over again" 43. Like in art, there is "a system that holds laws that are constantly renewed and that empower the dialectics between shape and possibility of multiple meanings" 44, and that awaken issues related to language, namely the aesthetic lexicon and communication frameworks. Let s consider that the significant shapes of visual elements are created and decoded through the cultural repertoire 45 and that the designer configures visual language into parameters that are intelligible for a society 46. It s a body covered by clothing, clothing with machine commands, transmutation of body into object and vice-versa, a performer as an aesthetic object in true contemplation and interaction with new shapes, probably with no matching to prior ones, gathering the fruition of more senses. Advances in technology lead to a reevaluation of premises in fashion design, like weight, scale and texture that are linked to the human body s proportions. Material limitations are increasingly being overcome, as our openness to what is innovative is higher than ever, since we are used to extraordinary results. Fashion wise, what is now stimulating to vision or touch can be stimulating to smell, but it can reach other levels of sensorial experience. Textile Resistence (2011), by Smart Textiles Design Lab and Syntjuntan are pieces of knitwear that produce sound due to conductive yarns; Nama Project#2 (2013), by Creators Project, is a piece of cloth with movement sensors that control the sound fractals being projected on a canvas; Lígia e Pires refer to speaking textiles researched by Chataignier, which intend to reflect our body and soul sensations 47. It might have been based on these examples that Kolko speaks of the body as a driver for inventive solutions, those ruled by a combination of usability engineering and cognitive psychology focusing on the human mind Interaction and Dynamism Boccioni, in his Futuristic Sculpture Manifesto (1912) defended that figure and background should remain together ( ) and the surrounding space should pervade sculpture 49. In fact, futurism celebrated the dynamism in technology of modern life portraying it like that. Futurism tried to transmit the sensation of movement in its artistic shapes; fashion, today, in a similar period of celerity and invention, literally produces moving shapes due to technological advances, merging figure and background, object and context. Now that we have explored what science and technology can do for art and design, we see that they haven t only revolutionized materials, but also the design
7 Alexandra Cabral and Cristina Carvalho thinking process on the revolution they allow: a non-human performance but inspired by it. This change, easily recognizable in haptic and kinetic technologies, demonstrates the increasing interest of design in approaching human will, and that s what happens in Montgomery s Pillow Talk - Networking Long Distance Lovers (2010), because two distant people feel each other s temperature and heartbeat, due to wireless technology 50. If interaction is needed and already justified in performance art, dynamism is also essential when fashion frames our gestures as individuals of a hypermodern era. We ponder on what distinguishes the conceptual approach in fashion design of nowadays from tomorrow s, and quote Simões: fashion pattern design based in the projection of the static body ( ) will possibly be altered to a paradigm sustained in the segmentation of the mobile body 51. On the other hand, if the costume is transformable and is a moving sculpture, a fashion designer needs to consider the reproduction of its movement by the wearer, while designing it. If it s true that the moving body is restrained by the object it interacts with 52, it s also true to say that the static body is conditioned (physically and emotionally) by the object while in movement. To transform means to give shape, transfigure, convert, mutate or disguise according to Machado 53 ; we can consequently understand the intrigue in Damásio, and demonstrate the interest in revolutionizing costumes both to the performer and the public, as well as to its contribution to fashion design itself while addressing these new issues: One of the reasons why we admire good actors is that they manage to convince us that they are other people, who have another mind and other self. But we know that this is not true, they only transmit ingenious simulations, and we value their work due to its difficulty, because what they do is not natural. However, isn t this intriguing? 54 Conclusion Technological advances point to developments on textile surfaces which indicate visual and tactile changes, based on shape alterations or its perception, as Tao explains: recent investigations ( ) have been ( ) concerned with shape memory effects. and responses to external stimuli 55. We insist on the emotional factor, as it has widely been used to describe the phenomenon. Textile engineering evolution has followed the one of electronic technologies, therefore it is imperative that fashion design keeps up with progress. Unthinkable creations in fashion have been achieved with experimental practices resulting from scientific discoveries, and its plasticity in keeping contextualizing itself in several domains has also allowed it. What we see in fashion is that "the expressive capacity of communicating through clothing is intensified by the technological factor, which results from the interaction between design, fashion, science and technology" 56. 7
8 8 Smart Costumes for Performance Art This makes us question its limits. Nicolelis induces the answer by developing his interfaces with neuroprosthetics: fashion limits correspond to the designs of the mind. Notes 1 Germano Celant and Guggenheim Museum Soho New York, Art/Fashion (Milan: Skira Editore, 1997), Ibid., Gilles Lipovetsky and Sebastien Charles, Les Temps Hypermodernes (Paris: Éditions Grasset & Fasquelle, 2004), 6. 4 Alexandra Cabral, Moda e Obra de Arte Contemporânea: Processos, Percursos e Contaminações na Obra de Joana Vasconcelos. Dissertação de Mestrado (Faculdade de Arquitectura da Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, 2010), Ibid., Nuno Miguel Vasco, Arte: comunicação ou não comunicação? Da objectividade elementar à subjectividade artística. Dissertação de Mestrado (Departamento de Comunicação e Arte da Universidade de Aveiro, 2009), Mikael Guedes and Tarcísio D Almeida, Moda e Corpo: (de)forma, (re)forma, (trans)forma, (in)forma, Anais do 8º Colóquio de Moda (2012): 6p (Rio de Janeiro: ABEPEM), 2. 8 David Santos, Anything Goes? Uma discussão sobre a necessidade de uma orientação ética na arte Contemporânea. Dissertação de Mestrado (Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas da Universidade de Aveiro, 2008), Ibid. 10 António Damásio, O mistério da Consciência: do Corpo e das Emoções ao Conhecimento de Si (São Paulo: Editora Shwarxz Lda, 2000), Santos, Anything Goes?, Bárbara Formiga and Hans Waechter, Futuro do Presente: Comunalidades Visuais entre Figurinos Futuristas e Moda Vigente, Anais do 8º Colóquio de Moda (2012):13p (Rio de Janeiro: ABEPEM), Umberto Eco, A Definição de Arte (Lisboa: Edições 70, 1972), Valérie Lamontagne, Wearable Technologies: From Performativity to Materiality, Studies in Material Thinking, vol.7: Where Art, Technology and Design Meet, (Feb 2012), AUT University. Viewed 4 December <http://www.materialthinking.org>, Sabine Seymour, Fashionable Technology: The Intersection of Design, Fashion, Science, and Technology (Wien and New York: Springer, 2008), Celant and Guggenheim Museum Soho New York, Art/Fashion, 29.
9 Alexandra Cabral and Cristina Carvalho 9 17 Studio Roosegaarde. Factsheet Intimacy 2.0, Viewed 23 de January <http://www.studioroosegaarde.net/uploads/files/2012/04/12/107/factsheet%20in TIMACY%202.0-%20Studio%20Roosegaarde.pdf>. 18 Seymour, Fashionable Technology, Daniela Brizola and Simone Maffei, Dos Processos Projetuais e da Produção em Moda ao Design Emocional, Anais do 8º Colóquio de Moda (2012): 8p (Rio de Janeiro: ABEPEM), Jessica Bugg, Fashion at the Interface: Designer Wearer Viewer, Fashion Practice vol. 1, Issue 9 (2009): 9 32, Miguel Nicolelis, Neuroprosthetics: Mind Out of Body, Scientific American, vol. 304, nr.2 (Feb 2011).Viewed 27 de June <www.scientificamerican.com>. 22 Seymour, Fashionable Technology, Ibid., Xiao-ming Tao, Smart Fibers, Fabrics and Clothing (Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing Limited and The Textile Institute, 2001), Daniel Agis and João Gouveia, Vestindo o Futuro: Microtendências para as Indústrias Têxtil, Vestuário e Moda até 2020 (Vila Nova de Famalicão: ATP- Associação Têxtil e Vestuário de Portugal, 2010), John Kolko, Thoughts on Interaction Design, 1st ed (Georgia: Brown Bear, 2007), Tao, Smart Fibers, Fabrics and Clothing, Victor Kaptelinin and Liam Bannon, Perspectives on the Design Process: From a Focus on Artefacts to Practices, Designing beyond the Product Understanding Activity and User Experience in Ubiquitous Environments (2009): 29-36, European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2009 (Helsinki: Edita Prima Oy), Mike Press and Rachel Cooper, The Design Experience: The Role of Design and Designers in the Twenty First Century (Hants and Burlington: Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2003); Kolko, Thoughts. 30 Kaptelinin and Bannon, Perspectives. 31 Thomas Landauer, The Trouble with Computers: Usefulness, Usability and Productivity  (Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1999), Linda Worbin, Designing Dynamic Textile Patterns, Studies in Artistic Research nº (Boras: Univertisty of Boras, 2010), Kaptelinin and Bannon, Perspectives, António Damásio, O mistério da Consciência: do Corpo e das Emoções ao Conhecimento de Si (São Paulo: Editora Shwarxz Lda, 2000), Joanna Berzowska and Di Mainstone, Skorpions: Kinetic Electronic Garments, 9th International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing (Ubicomop 07),
10 10 Smart Costumes for Performance Art Innsbruch (2007): 3p. Viewed 27 June <http://ambient.media.mit.edu/ transitive/papers/berzowska.pdf>.,2. 36 Adrian Snodgrass and Richard Coyne, Is Designing Hermeneutical? Architectural Theory Review, Journal of the Department of Architecture, vol. 1 (1), (1997): (Sidney: The University of Sydney). 37 Otto von Busch, FASHION-able Hacktivism and Engaged Fashion Design. PhD Thesis, School of Design and Crafts (HDK), (Faculty of Fine, Applied and Performing Arts, University of Gothenburg, Johan Öberg, 2008). 38 Damásio, O mistério da Consciência, Roy Ascott, Art, Technology, Consciousness: Large (Bristol: Intellect Books, 2000), Alexandra Cabral and Isabel Cabral, Interaction and Transmutation in Fashion Design: Between Art and Tecnology, Proceedings of the 1st International Fashion and Design Congress (2012): , (Guimarães: Escola de Engenharia da Universidade do Minho), Lamontagne, Wearable Technologies, Santos, Anything Goes?, Ibid., Umberto Eco, Obra Aberta  (Lisboa: Edições Difel, 1989), Formiga and Waechter, Futuro do Presente, Ibid., Lígia Viana and Beatriz Pires, Vestir o Corpo: Breve Painel das Pinturas Corporais aos Wearable Computers, Anais do 8º Colóquio de Moda (2012):10p (Rio de Janeiro: ABEPEM), Kolko, Thoughts, Christiane Fricke and Klaus Honnef, Arte do Século XX (Köln: Tashen GmbH, 2005), Joanna Montgomery, Pillow Talk, s.d. Viewed 23 January <http://cargocollective.com/joannamontgomery/ Pillow-Talk>. 51 Inês Simões, O Modelo de Representação do Corpo no Design de Moldes, Artitextos, n.º 5 (Dez. 2007): (Lisboa: CEFA e CIAUD), Ana Margarida Sargento, Design de Moldes para posturas de Dança: Esculturas com Movimento. Dissertação de Mestrado (Faculdade de Arquitectura da Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, 2011), Ana Margarida Machado, Vestuário Transformável: o Contributo de um Novo Sistema Modular. Dissertação de Mestrado (Faculdade de Arquitectura da Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, 2011), Damásio, O mistério da Consciência, Tao, Smart Fibers, Fabrics and Clothing, 84.
11 Alexandra Cabral and Cristina Carvalho Ana Rita Ribeiro, Design de Moda e Electrónica: LEDs aplicados a Vestido de Látex. Dissertação de Mestrado (Faculdade de Arquitectura a Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, 2011), 108. Bibliography Agis, Daniel, and Gouveia, João. Vestindo o Futuro: Microtendências para as Indústrias Têxtil, Vestuário e Moda até 2020.Vila Nova de Famalicão: ATP- Associação Têxtil e Vestuário de Portugal, Ascott, Roy. Art, Technology, Consciousness: Large. Bristol: Intellect Books, Bell, Clive. A Hipótese Estética . In A Arte de Pensar. Lisboa: Didática Editora, Berzowska, Joanna, and Mainstone, Di. Skorpions: Kinetic Electronic Garments, 9th International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing (Ubicomop 07), Innsbruch (2007): 3p. Viewed 27 June <http://ambient.media.mit.edu/ transitive/papers/ berzowska.pdf>. Brizola, Daniela, and Maffei, Simone. Dos Processos Projetuais e da Produção em Moda ao Design Emocional, Anais do 8º Colóquio de Moda (2012): 8p, Rio de Janeiro: ABEPEM. Bugg, Jessica. Fashion at the Interface: Designer Wearer Viewer, Fashion Practice vol. 1, Issue 9 (2009): Cabral, Alexandra. Moda e Obra de Arte Contemporânea: Processos, Percursos e Contaminações na Obra de Joana Vasconcelos. Dissertação de Mestrado, Faculdade de Arquitectura da Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Cabral, Alexandra, and Cabral Isabel. Interaction and Transmutation in Fashion Design: Between Art and Tecnology, Proceedings of the 1st International Fashion and Design Congress (2012): , Guimarães: Escola de Engenharia da Universidade do Minho. Celant, Germano, and Guggenheim Museum Soho New York. Art/Fashion. Milan: Skira Editore, Damásio, António. O mistério da Consciência: do Corpo e das Emoções ao Conhecimento de Si. São Paulo: Editora Shwarxz Lda, Eco, Umberto. A Definição de Arte. Lisboa: Edições 70, 1972.
12 12 Smart Costumes for Performance Art Eco, Umberto. Obra Aberta . Lisboa: Edições Difel, Formiga, Bárbara and Waechter, Hans. Futuro do Presente: Comunalidades Visuais entre Figurinos Futuristas e Moda Vigente, Anais do 8º Colóquio de Moda (2012):13p, Rio de Janeiro: ABEPEM. Fricke, Christiane and Honnef, Klaus. Arte do Século XX. Köln: Tashen GmbH, Guedes, Mikael, and D Almeida, Tarcísio. Moda e Corpo: (de)forma, (re)forma, (trans)forma, (in)forma, Anais do 8º Colóquio de Moda (2012): 6p, Rio de Janeiro: ABEPEM. Kaptelinin, Victor, and Bannon, Liam Perspectives on the Design Process: From a Focus on Artefacts to Practices, Designing beyond the Product Understanding Activity and User Experience in Ubiquitous Environments (2009): 29-36, European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2009, Helsinki: Edita Prima Oy. Koch, Sabine, and Fuchs, Thomas Embodied Arts Therapies, The Arts in Psychotherapy (38), (2011): , Elsevier Inc. Viewed 27 June <www.sciencedirect.com>. Kolko, John. Thoughts on Interaction Design, 1st ed. Georgia: Brown Bear, Lamontagne, Valérie. Wearable Technologies: From Performativity to Materiality, Studies in Material Thinking, vol.7: Where Art, Technology and Design Meet, (Feb 2012), AUT University. Viewed 4 December <http:// Landauer, Thomas. The Trouble with Computers: Usefulness, Usability and Productivity . Massachusetts: MIT Press, Lipovetsky, Gilles and Charles, Sebastien. Les Temps Hypermodernes. Paris: Éditions Grasset & Fasquelle, Machado, Ana Margarida. Vestuário Transformável: o Contributo de um Novo Sistema Modular. Dissertação de Mestrado, Faculdade de Arquitectura da Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Montgomery, Joanna. Pillow Talk, s.d. Viewed 23 January <http://cargocollective.com/joannamontgomery/ Pillow-Talk>. Nicolelis, Miguel. Neuroprosthetics: Mind Out of Body, Scientific American, vol. 304, nr.2 (Feb 2011). Viewed 27 de June <www.scientificamerican.com>.
13 Alexandra Cabral and Cristina Carvalho 13 Press, Mike and Cooper, Rachel. The Design Experience: The Role of Design and Designers in the Twenty First Century. Hants and Burlington: Ashgate Publishing Limited, Ribeiro, Ana Rita. Design de Moda e Electrónica: LEDs aplicados a Vestido de Látex. Dissertação de Mestrado, Faculdade de Arquitectura a Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Santos, David. Anything Goes? Uma discussão sobre a necessidade de uma orientação ética na arte Contemporânea. Dissertação de Mestrado, Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas da Universidade de Aveiro, Sargento, Ana Margarida. Design de Moldes para posturas de Dança: Esculturas com Movimento. Mestrado, Faculdade de Arquitectura da Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Seymour, Sabine. Fashionable Technology: The Intersection of Design, Fashion, Science, and Technology. Wien and New York: Springer, Simões, Inês. O Modelo de Representação do Corpo no Design de Moldes, Artitextos, n.º 5 (Dez. 2007): , Lisboa: CEFA e CIAUD. Snodgrass, Adrian, and Coyne Richard. Is Designing Hermeneutical? Architectural Theory Review, Journal of the Department of Architecture, vol. 1 (1), (1997): 65-97, Sidney: The University of Sydney. Studio Roosegaarde. Factsheet Intimacy 2.0, Viewed 23 de January <http://www.studioroosegaarde.net/uploads/files/2012/04/12/107/factsheet%20in TIMACY%202.0-%20Studio%20Roosegaarde.pdf>. Tao, Xiao-ming. Smart Fibers, Fabrics and Clothing. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing Limited and The Textile Institute, Vasco, Nuno Miguel. Arte: comunicação ou não comunicação? Da objectividade elementar à subjectividade artística. Dissertação de Mestrado, Departamento de Comunicação e Arte da Universidade de Aveiro, Viana, Lígia, and Pires, Beatriz Vestir o Corpo: Breve Painel das Pinturas Corporais aos Wearable Computers, Anais do 8º Colóquio de Moda (2012):10p, Rio de Janeiro: ABEPEM. von Busch, Otto. FASHION-able Hacktivism and Engaged Fashion Design. PhD Thesis, School of Design and Crafts (HDK), Faculty of Fine, Applied and Performing Arts, University of Gothenburg, Johan Öberg, 2008.
14 14 Smart Costumes for Performance Art Worbin, Linda. Designing Dynamic Textile Patterns, Studies in Artistic Research nº Boras: Univertisty of Boras, 2010.
Why Virtual Worlds Can Matter Douglas Thomas John Seely Brown Douglas Thomas is Associate Professor in the Annenberg School for Communication at the University of Southern California and John Seely Brown
Journal of Visual Languages and Computing 15 (2004) 333 345 Journal of Visual Languages & Computing www.elsevier.com/locate/jvlc Perspectives and challenges in e-learning: towards natural interaction paradigms
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