# SPSS for Exploratory Data Analysis Data used in this guide: studentp.sav (http://people.ysu.edu/~gchang/stat/studentp.sav)

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1 Data used in this guide: studentp.sav (http://people.ysu.edu/~gchang/stat/studentp.sav) Organize and Display One Quantitative Variable (Descriptive Statistics, Boxplot & Histogram) 1. Move the mouse pointer to Analyze, click the left button of the mouse and move through the following menu selections: Analyze Descriptive Statistics Explore (To perform Exploratory Analysis) 2. In the Explore dialog box, click and select the variable (weight) to be studied. Click the variable to be selected from the list of variables on the left for analysis and click the select button, the button with an arrow shape in it, to select the variable into Dependent List box. A. Chang 1

2 3. In the Explore dialog box, click Plots button. In the Explore: Plots dialog box, check the Histogram and Normality plots with tests, if they are needed, and click on Continue button. If Sig. value (or p-value) in the normality test table is less than.05, it implies that data may not be from normally distributed population. The values.200 and.236 are p-values calculated based on tow different tests. WEIGHT Tests of Normality Kolmogorov-Smirnov a Shapiro-Wilk Statistic df Sig. Statistic df Sig * *. This is a lower bound of the true significance. a. Lilliefors Significance Correction The p-values are both greater than The distribution which the data was sampled from is not significantly different from normal, at 5% level of significance. 4. In the Explore dialog box, click on OK button. The SPSS will put the results, histogram, stemplot and descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, confidence interval for mean, in the OUTPUT window. 5. If, in the Explore dialog box, one click on Statistics button and check on Percentiles box and click on Continue, SPSS will produce quartiles (25 th and 75 th percentiles are good for getting 5-number summary for the data), and some special percentiles for the active data set. 6. If one wishes to explore the quantitative variable for separate categories of a qualitative variable, select that qualitative variable and put it in the Factor List and click OK. (See the example in last three pages of this document.) A. Chang 2

3 Organize and Display One Qualitative(Categorical) Variable (Pie or bar charts) 1. Move the mouse pointer on Analyze, click the left button of the mouse and move through the following menu selections: Analyze Descriptive Statistics Frequencies 2. In the Frequencies dialog box, click and select the variable (sex) to be studied. Click the variable to be selected for analysis from the list of variables on the left and click the select button, the button with a dark triangular shape in it, to select the variable into A. Chang 3

4 3. In the Frequencies dialog box, click Charts button, if one wishes to display chart. In the Frequencies: Charts dialog box check on the desired chart and select either Frequencies or Percentages to be displayed and click Continue button. 4. In the Frequencies dialog box, click on OK button. The SPSS will put the results, frequency distribution table and bar chart (if checked), in the OUTPUT window. sex Valid Female Male Total Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent sex Frequency 2 0 Female Male sex A. Chang 4

5 Examine Relation Between Two Quantitative Variables by Chart (Scatter Plot) 1. Click and move through the following menu selections: Graphs Legacy Dialogs Scatter 2. In Scatterplot dialog box, click the Simple option and click Define button. 3. In Simple Scatterplot dialog box, select the two variables (height and weight) to be studied. If one wishes to build a regression model for predicting height using weight variable, usually choose height variable for Y Axis (as response variable) and choose weight variable for X Axis (as explanatory variable). One can select sex variable for the Set Markers by: field to make scatter plot display scatter dots with different color for different sex. A. Chang 5

6 4. In the Simple Scatterplot dialog box, click on OK button. The SPSS will put the scatter plot in the OUTPUT window. The following scatter plot is based on the data in studentp.sav file with the first case dropped, since the height information for the first case is incorrect One can double click on the any part of the chart in the SPSS output window to bring up the chart editor for editing the scatter plot. A fitted line can be added to the chart using the Chart option in the chart editor menu bar. 62 HEIGHT WEIGHT A. Chang 6

7 Examine Relation Between Two Qualitative Variables (Contingency Table & Cluster Bar Chart) 1. Click and move through the following menu selections: Analyze Descriptive Statistics Crosstabs 2. In Crosstabs dialog box, select the categorical variables for Row variable and Column variable, and click OK button. A. Chang 7

8 3. In Crosstabs dialog box, click on Cells button to specify whether or not to display the percentage information and then click Continue button to go back to Crosstabs dialog box. 4. One can also check on Display clustered bar charts option in the Crosstabs dialog box to display clustered bar chart with only frequency (count) information. If percentages are needed be displayed, go through Graphs options. 5. In the Crosstabs dialog box, click on OK button. The SPSS will put a contingency table and also a clustered bar chart in the OUTPUT window if the clustered bar chart box is checked. A. Chang 8

9 6. The Chi-square test and other statistics can be done by clicking on Statistics button and choose the desired option. To perform a chi-square test, click on Statistics button and check the Chi-square box. The chi-square test results will be displayed in SPSS output window after clicking on OK from the Crosstabs diaglog box.. A. Chang 9

10 Clustered Bar Chart (Make a separate cluster bar chart) 1. Move the mouse pointer on Graphs, click the left button of the mouse and move through the following menu selections: Graphs Legacy Dialogs Bar 2. In Bar Charts dialog box, click the Clustered option. Check the Data in Chart Are option in Summaries for groups of cases and click Define button. A. Chang 10

11 Select the two variables (sex and coin) to be studied. One can select sex variable for the Category Axis and coin variable for Clusters and check of % of cases and click OK. (Sometimes, percentage information is better for understanding the data.) cion * Chart editor can be used to modify the chart and change the color or pattern in the chart. To activate the chart editor, one can simply double click any part of the chart in the SPSS Output window. Percent 10 0 Female Male T H sex A. Chang 11

12 Examine Relation Between One Quantitative Variable with One Qualitative Factor Variable (Side-by-side boxplot, descriptive measures for sub-categories.) 1. Move the mouse pointer on Analyze, click the left button of the mouse and move through the following menu selections: Analyze Descriptive Statistics Explore (To perform Exploratory Analysis) 2. In the Explore dialog box, click and select the variables (weight) and (sex) to be studied. Click the variable to be selected (weight) from the list of variables on the left for analysis and click the select button, the button with a dark triangular shape in it, to select the variable into Dependent List box. Select the sex variable in Factor List box to observe the difference between the weights from both genders. A. Chang 12

13 3. In the Explore dialog box, click Plots button. In the Explore: Plots dialog box, check the Histogram and Normality plots with tests, if they are needed, and click on Continue button. If Sig. value (or p-value) in the normality test table is less than.05, it implies that data may not be from normally distributed population. 4. In the Explore dialog box, click on OK button. The SPSS will put the results, histograms, stemplots, descriptive statistics, and side-by-side boxplot in the OUTPUT window. Descriptives weight sex Female Mean 95% Confidence Interval for Mean Lower Bound Upper Bound Statistic Std. Error Male 5% Trimmed Mean Median Variance Std. Deviation Minimum Maximum Range Interquartile Range Skewness Kurtosis Mean 95% Confidence Interval for Mean Lower Bound Upper Bound % Trimmed Mean Median Variance Std. Deviation Minimum Maximum Range Interquartile Range Skewness Kurtosis A. Chang 13

14 * Tests of normality for weight variable, one for male and one for female. weight sex Female Male Tests of Normality Kolmogorov-Smirnov a Shapiro-Wilk Statistic df Sig. Statistic df Sig * *. This is a lower bound of the true significance. a. Lilliefors Significance Correction * Two histograms for weights, one for male and one for female. Histogram Histogram for sex= Female for sex= Male Frequency 1.0 Frequency Mean = Std. Dev. = N = 9 0 Mean = Std. Dev. = N = weight weight * Side-by-side box plot for comparing weight between male and female students WEIGHT 0 N = 9 Female 13 Male sex A. Chang 14

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