1 IMS Global Learning Impact May 2011, Long Beach, CA Advancing Libraries in Online Education: The Old Can Be New Again Library Entrepreneurship & Classroom Materials: APUS Model, Fred Stielow, Ph.D., M.L.S., Associate VP, Dean of Libraries & Educational Materials, American Public University System. Knowledge Preservation, Digitization, Integration and Access for the Campus, Marc H. Kelberman, Oracle, Principal Sales Consultant, Higher Education The Global Learning Resource Connection Diny Golder, Executive Director of JES & Co., Director, Global Learning Resource Connection; Executive Director GEM Exchange, Cengage/Gale & the Library Nexus: Learning, Research, and What Users Do, Frank Menchaca, Vice President, Cengage Corporation.
2 Library Entrepreneurship & Classroom Materials: APUS Model Fred Stielow, Ph.D., M.L.S. Associate VP, Dean of Libraries & Educational Materials, American Public University System
3 Whither Libraries in Online Education? Tradition: Roots to 19 th -century Nationalism with rise of the Modern Research University & Ph.D.s Today: Main Campus information resource centers Multi-million dollar physical collections & edifices Powerful electronic resources for research support & class homework assignments Remain largely removed from formal classroom readings Required for university status/accreditation But IT Departments for campus competition Gateway function threatened by Search Engines, Open Web, & seemingly outmoded data models (e.g., MARC) Economic downturn and added threats from globalism New for-profit online schools naturally question need/costs
4 Setting: American Public University System Fully online, for-profit university--launched in early 1990s to service American military niche 2011 Reuters best in sector with lowest threats from regulation & 25%+ growth projections Baby Gorilla moving to Sakai LMS with 85,000+ students under 2 brands: American Military University--AMU (2010 #1 in military market with students in 120 countries) American Public University--APU (civilian market focus and 2010 WalMart selection as its university)
5 APUS & Libraries Early Years: Refer students to base & public libraries National Distance Accreditation (1998)--Rather than outsource, opts for basic Online Resource Center (ORC) Regional Accreditation 21 st century Initial efforts expose need for upgrade 2005 campaign succeeds in part to a refurbished & symbolically renamed Online Library But Goals How to compete for assets & in the process to partially reinvent the Academic Library?
6 Scan of Educational Information Services Course Materials: APUS pioneers underwriting of undergraduate course materials Launch with home-grown course packs Early 21 st century move to textbook model & grant Textbook Model Sticky WWII GI-Bill legacy o Faculty convenient, familiar, and easy o Students happy with free books BUT $$$$--Added shipping overhead and vendor fees $$$$--Rampant textbook inflation threatens grant
7 And, Questioning Tradition for the Web Age Why would an Online University use print materials? Whither course materials in asynchronous classes? Why a division between library materials & textbooks especially in an Information Age? Why not amortize library information resources beyond research assignments and into the classroom? What is the future of textbooks? How to best deal with the onset of new Web-based applications and pedagogies? How to best transition faculty & an older student body Bottom Line APUS PAYS. Why not leverage purchasing power and information assets, but at the same time proactively advance a Web pedagogical agenda?
8 Response: Electronic Course Materials Project: 10 Year Transition A. E-Textbooks Low-hanging fruit. Absorb bookstore operations in a controlled shift from print to electronic versions, especially for high volume Gen Ed courses. Chaotic marketplace demands bargaining skills and flexibility B. Library/Web Strategy: Second stage emphasis to upper division courses. Shift Academic library from research focus to proactively engage classroom support with high-level ROI C. AMU epress Third stage re-engineer University Press to move from monographic to teaching focus. Strategically commission e-textbooks/course packets
9 Stage 2: Library Reinvention Tactics Preliminary Steps 2005 to 2006 Information Literacy base for infiltrating curriculum Library training inserted in faculty LMS training Rewire to add Course Materials focus E-Books with monographic/textbook content Article Databases with peer-reviewed works Librarians to be added and re-wired for faculty/course material consciousness Build internal support products for classes albeit without the luxury of archival/primary resources
10 A. E-Book Factor Chaotic Market 2010 reader breakthrough to a norm, but textbooks still awkward Marketplace & technology in evolution DRM controls & paranoia Used textbook market competition suggests e-book pricing traction at 65% off Lack of standards and confusing reading experiences Entrance of e-readers (Kindle, Nook) and IPad tablet Library Access Points--evolving Licensing replaces prior ownership and right-of-sale provisions Textbooks separate market--but Books 24/7 and other annual subscription packages appearing University presses resistant, but Oxford and others start to embrace Public Domain, Creative Commons, and Open Access Textbooks arise 2008 HEOA adds governmental impulse for textbook transparency and cost controls Implementation ease faculty insertion transparent, but needs coordination on number/type of licenses. Common Cartridge question. Library expansion: 20,000 holding in 2005 to 110,000+ in 2011
11 B. Article Databases: Teaching Focus Refereed journals are sine qua non for Academics, readily vetted for importance, crucial for entry into all scholarly disciplines and upper division/graduate courses Genre offers currency not available in books or textbooks Typical Library now contracts for thousands titles with millions of pages on Deep Web Market is mature with reasonably priced, multi-user options and Cloud delivery, as well as Consortium discounts and Vendor packages Open Access Journals emerging to acceptance Implementation: Less transparent than e-books, Common Cartridge oversights APUS: 5,000 multi-year runs in 2005 to 32,000 in 2010
12 C. Librarians Bargain-Rate Keys Human Touch to help student online experience Quality Assurance/Subject Specialists with an average of 3 master degrees, APUS librarian partner to complement faculty & instructional developers Web Gurus bring unquestioned skills: Deep Web: Capitalized extant and search for appropriate e-books, e- journals, media Open Web: Experts in evaluating for trusted subject sites Information Literacy: Specialists in teaching Web research Technology monitors: Add ongoing patrol of the evolving technology, including pro-active positioning for Web 2.0, etc. Compliance Masters: Ensure Copyright, ADA 508, HEOA e-bibliography Products: Program & individual courses
13 Rewired Librarian Corps APUS from 2 librarians in 2005 to industry leading corps of 15 in APUS Librarian Retreat
14 D. Product--Electronic Bibliographies Course Materials Management New baseline tool for course & program development. Librarian designed portals with mix of Deep Web & trusted Open Web resources set stage. Initial reliance on APUS s CMS gives way to LibGuides Modeled on Medieval Copying Cycles. Plan is a five-year rotation. Goal is to touch every course volatile subjects more. The process to better ensure: * Quality of class material * Currency for emerging Web apps and trends
15 Library Model Impact: Course Enhancement: Growing faculty recognition & requests Financial Savings: 2010 Gross savings exceed $1 million annually (2011 projected to equate to costs for library materials & staff) ROI: At 10 to 1--projected increase to 15 to 1 shortly Student Satisfaction: Surveys reveal favoring resources over textbooks Usage: 3,500% increase exceeds APUS s own 1,000% growth
16 Hyper-Incunabulum/Mid-Range Challenges Ensure lasting bureaucratic recognition for librarians Information-Centric Goal: Standardize reading experience & eliminate walls between textbooks & library materials Publisher, Vendor, LMS Community Partnerships Transit to new Web Pedagogies Generational switch from print to Born-Web students Handling the technology pipeline e.g., Web 2.0 and external resources beyond the electronic campus Mobile and tablet delivery Search Engine controls and tailoring options Voice Recognition, Touch Screens, 3-D, Eye Movement Personal Learning Environments (PLEs) Disciplinary granularity what apps, methods for what field?