Basic Software Configuration Using the Cisco IOS Command-Line Interface

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1 Basic Software Configuration Using the Cisco IOS Command-Line Interface This document describes how to use the Cisco IOS command-line interface (CLI) to perform a basic software configuration for your router. Contents Platforms Supported by This Document, page 1 Prerequisites for Basic Software Configuration Using the Cisco IOS CLI, page 2 Restrictions for Basic Software Configuration Using the Cisco IOS CLI, page 2 How to Perform a Basic Software Configuration Using the Cisco IOS CLI, page 2 Where to Go Next, page 19 Additional References, page 19 Platforms Supported by This Document Use this document with the following platforms: Cisco 1800 series routers Cisco 2800 series routers Cisco 3800 series routers Corporate Headquarters: Cisco Systems, Inc., 170 West Tasman Drive, San Jose, CA USA Copyright 2004 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

2 Prerequisites for Basic Software Configuration Using the Cisco IOS CLI Prerequisites for Basic Software Configuration Using the Cisco IOS CLI Follow the instructions in the quick start guide that shipped with your router to install the chassis, connect cables, and power up the router. Timesaver Before powering up the router, disconnect all WAN cables from the router to keep it from trying to run the AutoInstall process. The router may try to run AutoInstall if you power it on while there is a WAN connection on both ends and the router does not have a valid configuration file stored in NVRAM (for instance, when you add a new interface). It can take several minutes for the router to determine that AutoInstall is not connected to a remote TCP/IP host. Restrictions for Basic Software Configuration Using the Cisco IOS CLI If Cisco Router and Security Device Manager (SDM) is installed on your router, we recommend that you use Cisco SDM instead of the Cisco IOS CLI to perform the initial software configuration. To access SDM, see the quick start guide that shipped with your router. How to Perform a Basic Software Configuration Using the Cisco IOS CLI This section contains the following procedures: Configuring the Router Hostname, page 3 (Optional) Configuring the Enable and Enable Secret Passwords, page 4 (Required) Configuring the Console Idle Privileged EXEC Timeout, page 5 (Optional) Configuring Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet Interfaces, page 7 (Required) Specifying a Default Route or Gateway of Last Resort, page 9 (Required) Configuring Virtual Terminal Lines for Remote Console Access, page 12 (Required) Configuring the Auxiliary Line, page 14 (Optional) Verifying Network Connectivity, page 15 (Required) Saving Your Router Configuration, page 17 (Required) Saving Backup Copies of Your Configuration and System Image, page 17 (Optional) 2

3 Configuring the Router Hostname SUMMARY STEPS DETAILED STEPS The hostname is used in CLI prompts and default configuration filenames. If you do not configure the router hostname, the router uses the factory-assigned default hostname Router. Do not expect capitalization and lowercasing to be preserved in the hostname. Uppercase and lowercase characters are treated as identical by many Internet software applications. It may seem appropriate to capitalize a name as you would ordinarily do, but conventions dictate that computer names appear in all lowercase characters. For more information, see RFC 1178, Choosing a Name for Your Computer. The name must also follow the rules for Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) hostnames. They must start with a letter, end with a letter or digit, and have as interior characters only letters, digits, and hyphens. Names must be 63 characters or fewer. For more information, see RFC 1035, Domain Names Implementation and Specification. 1. enable 2. configure terminal 3. hostname name 4. Verify that the router prompt displays your new hostname. 5. end Step 1 Step 2 enable Router> enable configure terminal Enables privileged EXEC mode. Enter your password if prompted. Enters global configuration mode. Step 3 Router# configure terminal hostname name Specifies or modifies the hostname for the network server. Step 4 Router(config)# hostname myrouter Verify that the router prompt displays your new hostname. Step 5 myrouter(config)# end (Optional) Returns to privileged EXEC mode. myrouter# end 3

4 What to Do Next Proceed to the Configuring the Enable and Enable Secret Passwords section on page 4. Configuring the Enable and Enable Secret Passwords Restrictions SUMMARY STEPS DETAILED STEPS To provide an additional layer of security, particularly for passwords that cross the network or are stored on a TFTP server, you can use either the enable password command or enable secret command. Both commands accomplish the same thing they allow you to establish an encrypted password that users must enter to access privileged EXEC (enable) mode. We recommend that you use the enable secret command because it uses an improved encryption algorithm. Use the enable password command only if you boot an older image of the Cisco IOS software or if you boot older boot ROMs that do not recognize the enable secret command. For more information, see the Configuring Passwords and Privileges chapter in the Cisco IOS Security Configuration Guide. Also see the Improving Security on Cisco Routers tech note. If you configure the enable secret command, it takes precedence over the enable password command; the two commands cannot be in effect simultaneously. 1. enable 2. configure terminal 3. enable password password 4. enable secret password 5. end 6. enable 7. end Step 1 Step 2 enable Router> enable configure terminal Enables privileged EXEC mode. Enter your password if prompted. Enters global configuration mode. Router# configure terminal 4

5 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 enable password password Router(config)# enable password pswd2 enable secret password Router(config)# enable secret greentree end (Optional) Sets a local password to control access to various privilege levels. We recommend that you perform this step only if you boot an older image of the Cisco IOS software or if you boot older boot ROMs that do not recognize the enable secret command. Specifies an additional layer of security over the enable password command. Do not use the same password that you entered in Step 3. Returns to privileged EXEC mode. Step 6 Step 7 Router(config)# end enable Router> enable end Enables privileged EXEC mode. Verify that your new enable or enable secret password works. (Optional) Returns to privileged EXEC mode. Router(config)# end Troubleshooting Tips If you forget the password that you configured, or if you cannot access privileged EXEC (enable) mode, see the Password Recovery Procedures for your router, available at What to Do Next If you want to set the console interface privileged EXEC timeout to a value other than 10 minutes (the default), proceed to the Configuring the Console Idle Privileged EXEC Timeout section on page 5. If you do not wish to change the privileged EXEC timeout, proceed to the Specifying a Default Route or Gateway of Last Resort section on page 9. Configuring the Console Idle Privileged EXEC Timeout This section describes how to configure the console line s idle privileged EXEC timeout. By default, the privileged EXEC command interpreter waits 10 minutes to detect user input before timing out. When you configure the console line, you can also set communication parameters, specify autobaud connections, and configure terminal operating parameters for the terminal that you are using. For more information on configuring the console line, see the Cisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals and Network Management Configuration Guide. In particular, see the Configuring Operating Characteristics for Terminals and Troubleshooting and Fault Management chapters. 5

6 SUMMARY STEPS 1. enable 2. configure terminal 3. line console 0 4. exec-timeout minutes [seconds] 5. end 6. show running-config 7. exit Note The exec-timeout command or any changes to the exec-command value is triggered only after you exit from the EXEC mode and login again. DETAILED STEPS Step 1 Step 2 enable Router> enable configure terminal Enables privileged EXEC mode. Enter your password if prompted. Enters global configuration mode. Router# configure terminal Step 3 line console 0 Step 4 Step 5 Router(config)# line console 0 exec-timeout minutes [seconds] Router(config-line)# exec-timeout 0 0 end Configures the console line and starts the line configuration command collection mode. Sets the idle privileged EXEC timeout, which is the interval that the privileged EXEC command interpreter waits until user input is detected. The example shows how to specify no timeout. Returns to privileged EXEC mode. Router(config-line)# end 6

7 Step 6 Step 7 show running-config Router# show running-config exit Router# exit Displays the running configuration file. Verify that you properly configured the idle privileged EXEC timeout. Exits privileged EXEC mode. Note For the exec-timeout command to take effect, you must exit from the EXEC mode and login again. Examples The following example shows how to set the console idle privileged EXEC timeout to 2 minutes 30 seconds: line console exec-timeout 2 30 The following example shows how to set the console idle privileged EXEC timeout to 10 seconds: line console exec-timeout 0 10 What to Do Next Proceed to the Configuring Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet Interfaces section on page 7. Configuring Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet Interfaces This sections shows how to assign an IP address and interface description to an Ethernet interface on your router. For comprehensive configuration information on Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet interfaces, see the Configuring LAN Interfaces chapter of the Cisco IOS Interface and Hardware Component Configuration Guide. For information on interface numbering, see the quick start guide that shipped with your router. Note Cisco 1841 and Cisco 2801 routers have a hardware limitation on the Fast Ethernet ports FE0/0 and FE0/1. In half-duplex mode, when traffic reaches or exceeds 100% capacity (equal to or greater than 5 Mbps in each direction), the interface will experience excessive collisions and reset once per second. To avoid this problem, traffic must be limited to less than 100% of capacity. SUMMARY STEPS 1. enable 2. show ip interface brief 3. configure terminal 4. interface {fastethernet gigabitethernet} 0/port 7

8 5. description string 6. ip address ip-address mask 7. no shutdown 8. end 9. show ip interface brief DETAILED STEPS Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 enable Router> enable show ip interface brief Router# show ip interface brief configure terminal Enables privileged EXEC mode. Enter your password if prompted. Displays a brief status of the interfaces that are configured for IP. Learn which type of Ethernet interface is on your router: Fast Ethernet or Gigabit Ethernet. Enters global configuration mode. Step 4 Router# configure terminal interface {fastethernet gigabitethernet} 0/port Router(config)# interface fastethernet 0/1 Specifies the Ethernet interface and enters interface configuration mode. Note For information on interface numbering, see the quick start guide that shipped with your router. Step 5 Step 6 Router(config)# interface gigabitethernet 0/0 description string Router(config-if)# description FE int to 2nd floor south wing ip address ip-address mask (Optional) Adds a description to an interface configuration. The description helps you remember what is attached to this interface. The description can be useful for troubleshooting. Sets a primary IP address for an interface. Step 7 Router(config-if)# ip address no shutdown Enables an interface. Router(config-if)# no shutdown 8

9 Step 8 end Returns to privileged EXEC mode. Step 9 Router(config)# end show ip interface brief Router# show ip interface brief Displays a brief status of the interfaces that are configured for IP. Verify that the Ethernet interfaces are up and configured correctly. Examples Configuring the Fast Ethernet Interface: Example! interface FastEthernet0/0 description FE int to HR group ip address duplex auto speed auto no shutdown! Sample Output for the show ip interface brief Command Router# show ip interface brief Interface IP-Address OK? Method Status Protocol FastEthernet0/ YES NVRAM up up FastEthernet0/1 unassigned YES NVRAM administratively down down Router# What to Do Next Proceed to the Specifying a Default Route or Gateway of Last Resort section on page 9. Specifying a Default Route or Gateway of Last Resort SUMMARY STEPS This section describes how to specify a default route with IP routing enabled. For alternative methods of specifying a default route, see the Configuring a Gateway of Last Resort Using IP Commands tech note. The Cisco IOS software uses the gateway (router) of last resort if it does not have a better route for a packet and if the destination is not a connected network. This section describes how to select a network as a default route (a candidate route for computing the gateway of last resort). The way in which routing protocols propagate the default route information varies for each protocol. For comprehensive configuration information about IP routing and IP routing protocols, see the Cisco IOS IP Configuration Guide. In particular, see the Configuring IP Addressing chapter and all Part 2: IP Routing Protocols chapters. 1. enable 9

10 DETAILED STEPS 2. configure terminal 3. ip routing 4. ip route dest-prefix mask next-hop-ip-address [admin-distance] [permanent] 5. ip default-network network-number or ip route dest-prefix mask next-hop-ip-address 6. end 7. show ip route Step 1 Step 2 enable Router> enable configure terminal Enables privileged EXEC mode. Enter your password if prompted. Enters global configuration mode. Step 3 Router# configure terminal ip routing Enables IP routing. Step 4 Router(config)# ip routing ip route dest-prefix mask next-hop-ip-address [admin-distance] [permanent] Establishes a static route. Step 5 Router(config)# ip route ip default-network network-number or ip route dest-prefix mask next-hop-ip-address Router(config)# ip default-network Selects a network as a candidate route for computing the gateway of last resort. Creates a static route to network for computing the gateway of last resort. Router(config)# ip route

11 Step 6 end Returns to privileged EXEC mode. Step 7 Router(config)# end show ip route Router# show ip route Displays the current routing table information. Verify that the gateway of last resort is set. 11

12 Examples Specifying a Default Route: Example! ip routing! ip route ! ip default-network ! Sample Output for the show ip route Command Router# show ip route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, * - candidate default Gateway of last resort is to network is subnetted, 1 subnets C is directly connected, FastEthernet0 S [1/0] via S* [1/0] via is subnetted, 1 subnets C is directly connected, FastEthernet1 Router# What to Do Next Proceed to the Configuring Virtual Terminal Lines for Remote Console Access section on page 12. Configuring Virtual Terminal Lines for Remote Console Access SUMMARY STEPS Virtual terminal (vty) lines are used to allow remote access to the router. This section shows you how to configure the virtual terminal lines with a password, so that only authorized users can remotely access the router. The router has five virtual terminal lines by default. However, you can create additional virtual terminal lines as described in the chapter Configuring Protocol Translation and Virtual Asynchronous Devices in the Cisco IOS Terminal Services Configuration Guide. For more information on line passwords and password encryption, see the Configuring Passwords and Privileges chapter in the Cisco IOS Security Configuration Guide. Also see the Cisco IOS Password Encryption Facts tech note. If you want to secure the vty lines with an access list, see Traffic Filtering and Virus Protection chapter in the Cisco IOS Security Configuration Guide. 1. enable 2. configure terminal 3. line vty line-number [ending-line-number] 12

13 4. password password 5. login 6. end 7. show running-config 8. From another network device, attempt to open a Telnet session to the router. DETAILED STEPS Step 1 Step 2 enable Router> enable configure terminal Enables privileged EXEC mode. Enter your password if prompted. Enters global configuration mode. Step 3 Step 4 Router# configure terminal line vty line-number [ending-line-number] Router(config)# line vty 0 4 password password Starts the line configuration command collection mode for the virtual terminal lines (vty) for remote console access. Make sure that you configure all vty lines on your router. Note To verify the number of vty lines on your router, use the line vty? command. Specifies a password on a line. Step 5 Router(config-line)# password guessagain login Enables password checking at login. Step 6 Router(config-line)# login end Returns to privileged EXEC mode. Router(config-line)# end 13

14 Step 7 Step 8 show running-config Router# show running-config From another network device, attempt to open a Telnet session to the router. Displays the running configuration file. Verify that you properly configured the virtual terminal lines for remote access. Verifies that you can remotely access the router and that the virtual terminal line password is correctly configured. Router# Password: Examples The following example shows how to configure virtual terminal lines with a password:! line vty 0 4 password guessagain login! What to Do Next After you configure the vty lines, follow these steps: (Optional) To encrypt the virtual terminal line password, see the Configuring Passwords and Privileges chapter in the Cisco IOS Security Configuration Guide. Also see the Cisco IOS Password Encryption Facts tech note. (Optional) To secure the VTY lines with an access list, see Part 3: Traffic Filtering and Firewalls in the Cisco IOS Security Configuration Guide. To continue with the basic software configuration for your router, proceed to the Configuring the Auxiliary Line section on page 14. Configuring the Auxiliary Line This section describes how to enter line configuration mode for the auxiliary line. How you configure the auxiliary line depends on your particular implementation of the auxiliary (AUX) port. See the following documents for information on configuring the auxiliary line: Configuring a Modem on the AUX Port for EXEC Dialin Connectivity, tech note Configuring Dialout Using a Modem on the AUX Port, sample configuration Connecting a SLIP/PPP Device to a Router s AUX Port, tech note 14

15 Configuring AUX-to-AUX Port Async Backup with Dialer Watch, sample configuration Modem-Router Connection Guide, tech note SUMMARY STEPS 1. enable 2. configure terminal 3. line aux 0 4. See the tech notes and sample configurations to configure the line for your particular implementation of the AUX port. DETAILED STEPS Step 1 Step 2 enable Router> enable configure terminal Enables privileged EXEC mode. Enter your password if prompted. Enters global configuration mode. Router# configure terminal Step 3 line aux 0 Step 4 Router(config)# line aux 0 See the tech notes and sample configurations to configure the line for your particular implementation of the AUX port. Starts the line configuration command collection mode for the auxiliary line. What to Do Next Proceed to the Verifying Network Connectivity section on page 15. Verifying Network Connectivity This section describes how to verify network connectivity for your router. 15

16 Prerequisites Complete all previous configuration tasks in this document. The router must be connected to a properly configured network host. SUMMARY STEPS 1. enable 2. ping [ip-address hostname] 3. telnet {ip-address hostname} DETAILED STEPS Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 enable Router> enable ping [ip-address hostname] Router# ping telnet {ip-address hostname} Router# telnet Enables privileged EXEC mode. Enter your password if prompted. Diagnoses basic network connectivity. To verify connectivity, ping the next hop router or connected host for each configured interface to. Logs in to a host that supports Telnet. If you want to test the vty line password, perform this step from a different network device, and use your router s IP address. Examples The following display shows sample output for the ping command when you ping the IP address : Router# ping Protocol [ip]: Target IP address: Repeat count [5]: Datagram size [100]: Timeout in seconds [2]: Extended commands [n]: Sweep range of sizes [n]: Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to , timeout is 2 seconds:!!!!! Success rate is 100 percent, round-trip min/avg/max = 1/2/4 ms 16

17 The following display shows sample output for the ping command when you ping the IP hostname donald: Router# ping donald Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to , timeout is 2 seconds:!!!!! Success rate is 100 percent, round-trip min/avg/max = 1/3/4 ms What to Do Next Proceed to the Saving Your Router Configuration section on page 17. Saving Your Router Configuration SUMMARY STEPS DETAILED STEPS This section describes how to avoid losing your configuration at the next system reload or power cycle by saving the running configuration to the startup configuration in NVRAM. 1. enable 2. copy running-config startup-config Step 1 Step 2 enable Router> enable copy running-config startup-config Router# copy running-config startup-config Enables privileged EXEC mode. Enter your password if prompted. Saves the running configuration to the startup configuration. What to Do Next Proceed to the Saving Backup Copies of Your Configuration and System Image section on page 17. Saving Backup Copies of Your Configuration and System Image To aid file recovery and minimize downtime in case of file corruption, we recommend that you save backup copies of the startup configuration file and the Cisco IOS software system image file on a server. For more detailed information, see the Managing Configuration Files chapter and the Loading and Maintaining System Images chapter of the Cisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals and Network Management Configuration Guide. 17

18 SUMMARY STEPS 1. enable 2. copy nvram:startup-config {ftp: rcp: tftp:} 3. show flash: 4. copy flash: {ftp: rcp: tftp:} DETAILED STEPS Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 enable Router> enable copy nvram:startup-config {ftp: rcp: tftp:} Router# copy nvram:startup-config ftp: show flash: Router# show flash: copy flash: {ftp: rcp: tftp:} Router# copy flash: ftp: Enables privileged EXEC mode. Enter your password if prompted. Copies the startup configuration file to a server. The configuration file copy can serve as a backup copy. Enter the destination URL when prompted. Displays the layout and contents of a flash memory file system. Learn the name of the system image file. Copies a file from flash memory to a server. Copy the system image file to a server to serve as a backup copy. Enter the filename and destination URL when prompted. Examples Copying the Startup Configuration to a TFTP Server: Example The following example shows the startup configuration being copied to a TFTP server: Router# copy nvram:startup-config tftp: Remote host[]? Name of configuration file to write [rtr2-confg]? <cr> Write file rtr2-confg on host ?[confirm] <cr>![ok] Copying from Flash Memory to a TFTP Server: Example The following example shows the use of the show flash: command in privileged EXEC to learn the name of the system image file and the use of the copy flash: tftp: privileged EXEC command to copy the system image (c3640-2is-mz) to a TFTP server. The router uses the default username and password. 18

19 Where to Go Next Router# show flash: System flash directory: File Length Name/status c3640-c2is-mz [ bytes used, available, total] 16384K bytes of processor board System flash (Read/Write)\ Router# copy flash: tftp: IP address of remote host [ ]? filename to write on tftp host? c3600-c2is-mz writing c3640-c2is-mz!!!!... successful ftp write. Where to Go Next When you complete the basic software configuration, consider implementing routing protocols or access lists and other security-improving methods to protect your router. See the documents listed in the Related Documents Additional Configuration section on page 20. To configure features on your router, see Finding Feature Documentation. Additional References The following sections provide references related to basic software configuration using the Cisco IOS CLI. Related Documents Basic Software Configuration Topic Chassis installation, cable connections, power-up procedures, and interface numbering Cisco Security Device Manager (SDM) Guidelines for assigning the router hostname Access lists, passwords, and privileges Password recovery procedures for Cisco products Configuring the console line, managing configuration files, and loading and maintaining system images Configuring interfaces IP routing and IP routing protocols Configuring default routes or a gateway of last resort Related Document Title or Link Quick start guide for your router RFC 1035, Domain Names Implementation and Specification RFC 1178, Choosing a Name for Your Computer Cisco IOS Security Configuration Guide Password Recovery Procedures Cisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals and Network Management Configuration Guide Cisco IOS Interface and Hardware Component Configuration Guide Cisco IOS IP Configuration Guide Configuring a Gateway of Last Resort Using IP Commands tech note 19

20 Additional References Topic Configuring virtual terminal lines Configuring the auxiliary (AUX) port Related Document Title or Link Cisco IOS Terminal Services Configuration Guide Configuring a Modem on the AUX Port for EXEC Dialin Connectivity, tech note Configuring Dialout Using a Modem on the AUX Port, sample configuration Connecting a SLIP/PPP Device to a Router s AUX Port, tech note Configuring AUX-to-AUX Port Async Backup with Dialer Watch, sample configuration Modem-Router Connection Guide, tech note Related Documents Additional Configuration Topic Cisco configuration settings that network administrators should consider changing on their routers, especially on their border routers, to improve security IP routing and IP routing protocols Access lists Related Document Title or Link Improving Security on Cisco Routers tech note Note To view this document, you must have an account on Cisco.com. If you do not have an account or have forgotten your username or password, click Cancel at the login dialog box and follow the instructions that appear. Cisco IOS IP Configuration Guide Cisco IOS Security Configuration Guide Technical Assistance Description Technical Assistance Center (TAC) home page, containing 30,000 pages of searchable technical content, including links to products, technologies, solutions, technical tips, and tools. Registered Cisco.com users can log in from this page to access even more content. Link 20

21 Additional References CCVP, the Cisco logo, and Welcome to the Human Network are trademarks of Cisco Systems, Inc.; Changing the Way We Work, Live, Play, and Learn is a service mark of Cisco Systems, Inc.; and Access Registrar, Aironet, Catalyst, CCDA, CCDP, CCIE, CCIP, CCNA, CCNP, CCSP, Cisco, the Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert logo, Cisco IOS, Cisco Press, Cisco Systems, Cisco Systems Capital, the Cisco Systems logo, Cisco Unity, Enterprise/Solver, EtherChannel, EtherFast, EtherSwitch, Fast Step, Follow Me Browsing, FormShare, GigaDrive, HomeLink, Internet Quotient, IOS, iphone, IP/TV, iq Expertise, the iq logo, iq Net Readiness Scorecard, iquick Study, LightStream, Linksys, MeetingPlace, MGX, Networkers, Networking Academy, Network Registrar, PIX, ProConnect, ScriptShare, SMARTnet, StackWise, The Fastest Way to Increase Your Internet Quotient, and TransPath are registered trademarks of Cisco Systems, Inc. and/or its affiliates in the United States and certain other countries. All other trademarks mentioned in this document or Website are the property of their respective owners. The use of the word partner does not imply a partnership relationship between Cisco and any other company. (0711R) Copyright 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 21

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