Naloxone: Effects and Side Effects

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1 Gregory W. Terman M.D., Ph.D. Professor Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine and the Graduate Program in Neurobiology Mayday Pain and Society Fellow University of Washington Seattle, Washington

2 Specificity Toxicology Unmasking Disease

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5 Am. J. Med. Sci. 245: 23-30, 1963

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10 Specificity Toxicology Unmasking Disease

11 Toxicology in Rats:

12 Toxicology in People: Packaged 0.4 mg/ml and recommended at mg IV. We treat opiate overdose in hospital with 0.04 mg IV with repeated doses q2 min as necessary. In opiate naïve patients without pain IV doses up to 5.4 mg/kg boluses and 4 mg/kg/h have been administered without adverse effects (Clarke et al., Emerg Med J 22: , 2005) (although mild elevations in blood pressure and decreased performance on memory tests have been reported with doses over 20 mg)

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14 Specificity Toxicology Unmasking Disease

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17 Opiate Withdrawal: Terman et al, British Journal of Pharmacology, 2004

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20 Cardiovascular effects Withdrawal induced catecholamine release (e.g., sweating) Tachycardia or other arrhythmia (myocardial ischemia) morbidity In patients with other drugs on board (e.g., cocaine) In patients with pre-existing cardiac disease In patients with hypoxia and/or hypercarbia

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22 Cardiovascular effects Withdrawal induced catecholamine release (e.g., sweating) Tachycardia or other arrhythmia (myocardial ischemia) morbidity In patients with other drugs on board (e.g., cocaine) In patients with pre-existing cardiac disease In patients with hypoxia and/or hypercarbia Hypertension morbidity (e.g., vascular aneurysms) Pulmonary edema (e.g., in heart failure)

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25 Cardiovascular effects Withdrawal induced catecholamine release (e.g., sweating) Tachycardia or other arrhythmia (myocardial ischemia) morbidity In patients with other drugs on board (e.g., cocaine) In patients with pre-existing cardiac disease In patients with hypoxia and/or hypercarbia Hypertension morbidity (e.g., vascular aneurysms) Pulmonary edema (e.g., in heart failure) perhaps most commonly post-obstructive

26 Seizure effects May lower seizure thresholds for patients with prior seizure disorder or immediately post-ictal (i.e., after a seizure).

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29 Seizure effects Theoretically, may lower seizure thresholds for patients with prior seizure disorder or immediately post-ictal (i.e., after a seizure). May unmask seizures from other drugs on board (e.g., cocaine). May unmask seizures due to hypoxia or hypercarbia.

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34 Specificity (Amazing) Toxicology (Forgiving) Unmasking Disease: Concerns Opiate Dependence (Withdrawal) Co-ingested Substances Hypoxemia/Hypercarbia Arrythmias Seizures Post-Obstructive Pulmonary Edema Unrecognized Re-narcotization (perhaps worse with long acting prescription meds than with other opiates) Pain

ANNE ARUNDEL MEDICAL CENTER CRITICAL CARE MEDICATION MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF NURSING AND PHARMACY. Guidelines for Use of Intravenous Isoproterenol

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