# Cell Planning in GSM Mobile

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2 which maintains an active speech connection over cell boundaries. 2 CELLULAR TECHNOLOGY The frequency band of the mobile depends on the type, for example, for 900, the frequency band is : Band : MHz and MHz, channel spacing : 200 khz ( but signal bandwidth = 400 khz ), For 1800, the frequency band is : Band : MHz and MHz, channel spacing : 200 khz. For, the frequency band is : Band : MHz and MHz, channel spacing :200 KHz. Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number (ARFCN) lower band: Frequency reuse drastically increases user capacity and spectrum efficiency. Frequency reuse causes mutual interference (trade off link quality versus subscriber capacity). 2.2 Formation of clusters The regular repetition of frequencies results in a clustering of cells. The clusters generated in this way can comprise the whole frequency band, in this case all of the frequencies in the available spectrum are used within a cluster, the size of a cluster is characterized by the number of cells per cluster K, which determines the frequency reuse distance D. figure (2.2) shows some examples of clusters. The number s designate the respective frequency sets Fbi used within the single cells. F1(n) = (n - 1) MHz upper band: F1(n) = F1(n) + 45 MHz n1,2, (1) Each frequency channel can be obtained from the above relation depending on the channel assignment and the cell in the system which is an example for the 900, for the others depend on the mentioned bands. f 2.1. Frequency Reuse Fig. 2. Frequency reuse and cluster formation [2] Distance between cell centers Reuse distance : R u = 2 i + j + 2ij cos 3 R (2) 3 2 π where :R is Cell Radius, R u is Reuse Distance and cos(π /3) = 1/2 Fig.1. : Frequency reuse Frequency Reuse is the core concept of cellular mobile radio. Users in different geographical areas (in different cells) may simultaneously use the same frequency. 394

3 C = 7 i = 2,j = I } Usual cluster sizes for analogue C= 9 i = 3,j= 0 } cellular telephone nets C=12 i=2,j=2 Design Objectives for Cluster Size : High spectrum efficiency many users per cell small cluster size gives much bandwidth per cell High performance Little interference Large cluster sizes Fig. 3. Cluster radius [3] Radius of a cluster : R c = R u / 3 = 2 2 i + j + ij R (3) 3 Cluster Size : C: number of channels needed for (i,j) grid C: is proportional to surface area of cluster Surface area of one hexagonal cell is : S R = (3 3 / 2) R 2 Surface area of a (hexagonal) cluster of C cells is S Ru = CS R = (3 3 / 2) { R u / 3 } (4) Combining these two expressions gives R u = R Possible Cluster Sizes : We have seen : R u = R and also : R u = 2 2 i j + ij Thus: c= i 2 + j 2 + ij with integer i and j 3 C 3 R (5) 3 CELLULAR TELEPHONY Choose C to ensure acceptable link quality at cell boundary Typical Cluster Sizes : Cluster size C=i 2 +ij +j 2 = 1,3,4,7,9,... C= 1 i =1,, j= 0 } Cluster size for CDMA net C=3 i=1,j=1 C= 4 i=2,j=0 C Adaptation to growth of system : Decrease Cell Sizes : Macro-cellular 1-30 km Micro-cellular m Pico-cellular meter The effect of decreasing cell size : Increased user capacity Increased number of handovers per call Increased complexity in locating the subscriber Lower power consumption in mobile terminal: Longertalktime, Safer operation Different propagation environment, shorter delay spreads Different cell layout, lower path loss exponent, more interference cells follow street pattern more difficult to predict and plan more flexible, self-organizing system needed (cf. DECT vs. ) 4 DIFFERENT APPROACHES FOR FREQUENCY PLANNING 1) Coarse planning (no terrain data used) 2) coverage limited step 1: find coverage of base station step 2: make interference matrix step 3: find useful map coloring pattern (recursively?) recursive approach: change transmit powers This changes coverage and interference; redo Example: Broadcasting, Netherlands PTT Ceasar 3) Interference limited step 1: assign frequencies and powers to base 395

4 stations step 2: find coverage and interference zones recursive approach: modify powers and frequencies Example: Ericsson plannings tool 4) Dectralized Dynamic Channel Assignments (DCA) DECT system, not for A) Accuracy of cell planning depends on: accuracy of propagation models resolution and accuracy of terrain data Data bases often based on satellite images available from several companies Measurements When a new planning tool is used for first time in a new country, one needs to adjust propagation models [3]. B) Cell Splitting: Cell splitting decreases the cell area, and thus allows the system to meet the growing cellular demand. Problems : Propagation path loss for signal power: quadratic or higher in distance fixed network needed for the base stations handover (changing from one cell to another) necessary interference with other cells: Co-channel interference: Transmission on same frequency Adjacent channel interference: If the cellular system contains N cells with total allocation of C channel, then each cell will contain SC/N channels.to grow further from the capacity S, the cell boundaries has to be revised so that each cell now contains several cells. This process is i called ( cell splitting). In the figure below, after reaching its capacity, 4 smaller cells were superimposed on cell C : Transmission on close frequencies Receiver filter f1 f2 interference Fig. 5. Adjacent channel interference f3 Fig. 4. Cell splitting [4] therefore cell splitting is not necessarily done for all cells in the system. Further cell splitting in creases the number of voice paths, or the number of simultaneous conversations possible within the same region. 5 SIMULATION RESULTS FOR THE PLANNING In this paper, an area of 3500 km 2 and the cell radius of 3km has been taken as an example, but by the same steps any other area can be taken for the planning, four cases as an optimization has been calculated : without cluster, with clusters 7,9 & 13 respectively as follows : A) Without clusters : For 900, the frequency band is used completely i.e. 124 frequency because the cell area is km 2, but for the 1800 there will be 152 frequency channel unused and for the, 183 channel, but by formation of clusters, in this paper 7,9&13 has been taken, the frequencies unused be as shown in the results table and the figures 7,8&9. The results according to the assumptions : 396

5 5.1 Without clusters : Used Unused as a guard band With cluster of 13 : Used Unused With cluster of 9 : Used Unused With cluster of : Unused Used FIG. 6. WITH CLUSTER 13 6 CONCLUSION FIG. 7. WITH CLUSTER 9 FIG 8. WITH CLUSTER 7 Because of the very frequency bands a mobile radio network has only a relatively small number of speech channels available, for example,the system has an allocation of 25MHZ bandwidth in the 900MHZ frequency rang, which amounts to a maximum of 125 frequency channels each with carrier bandwidth of 200KHZ, within an eightfold time multiplex for each carrier,a maximum of 1000 channels can be realized, this number is further reduced by guard bands in the frequency spectrum and the overhead required for signaling, in order to be able to serve several or millions of subscribers in spite of this limitation, frequencies must be spatially reused, i.e. deployed repeatedly in a geographic area, in this way,services can be offered with a cost-effective subscriber density and acceptable blocking probability, this spatial frequency reuse concept led to the development of cellular technology, which allowed a significant improvement in the economic use of frequencies. The clusters generated in this way can comprise the whole frequency band, in this case all of the frequencies in the available spectrum are used within a cluster, the size of a cluster is characterized by the number of cells per cluster K, which determines the frequency reuse distance D. In this paper, frequency planning for the mobiles has been studied with cases : without clusters, with cluster : K = 7,9&13, the frequencies 397

6 used in each type of mobile systems, 900, 1800 and are shown in the tables and figures 1,2 &3 respectively, we see that, with the cluster using and formation, the frequencies used in the band for each system reduced which is useful for the future planning and expanding the system for covering more areas and without clusters, the areas covered is limited according to BTS s used each with it s own frequency, but for the future expanding and covering there will be a big problem of the frequency using without clusters, specially the system 900, but this problem is less than 900 in the system 1800 and, specially system as shown in the results in chapter four. So, as a conclusion in this paper, before the system installation, the frequency planning must be taken in account and must be applied for the future after installation to prevent the above problems mentioned. References: [1] Jorg Eberspacher,, Switching, Services and Protocols book, second edition, John Weley & SonsLTD, [2] Global System for Mobile Communication (), paper by : the international Engineering Consortium (IEC). [3] Cellular Communications, paper by : the international Engineering Consortium (IEC). [4] Dharma PrakashAgrawal, Introduction to Wireless and Mobile Systems, book, [5] Raymond Steele, Chin-Chun Lee & Peter Gould,, cdmaone and 3G System book, [6] Jochen Schiller, Mobile Communications book, [7] 3G Off Road 450 MHz Digitalisation, paper by : Mats Nilson. 398

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