1 ICT JOB MARKET OUTLOOK IN MALAYSIA JUNE 2013 PUBLISHED BY IN COLLABORATION WITH
3 ICT Job Market Outlook in Malaysia June 2013 Published by: In collaboration with
4 Published by: 1106 & 1107, Block B, Phileo Damansara II No.15, Jalan 16/11, Petaling Jaya Selangor Darul Ehsan T: +(603) ; F: +(603) ; E: W: Wisma JobStreet.com, 27, Lorong Medan Tuanku 1, (off Jalan Sultan Ismail), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia T: +(603) (DL); F: +(603) W: E: KPMG Malaysia, Level 10, KPMG Tower, 8, First Avenue, Bandar Utama, Petaling Jaya T: +(603) ; F: +(603) W: ISSN No: X Release date: June, 2013 Editor-in-Chief: Ramachandran Ramasamy, Head of Policy, Capability and Research, PIKOM Contributor: Dominic Wong, Senior Marketing Manager Malaysia, JobStreet.com Reviewed by: Woon Tai Hai, Executive Director, KPMG Malaysia DISCLAIMER This publication contains fi ndings based on data provided by JobStreet.com Sdn Bhd ( K). KPMG Business Advisory Sdn Bhd ( H) and PIKOM Services Sdn Bhd ( W) collaboratively carried out the data analysis. Although professional effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of data analysis and presentation, all information furnished in this publication are provided strictly on an as is and as available basis and is so provided for your information and reference only. With this caution, kindly be informed that this release is not presented to address the circumstances of any particular individual or entity. As such, JobStreet.com, KPMG and PIKOM including their sponsors, partners and associates, whether named or unnamed, do not warrant the accuracy or adequacy of the data and fi ndings. Moreover, all parties concerned explicitly disclaim any liability for errors or omissions or inaccuracies pertaining to the contents of this publication. Therefore, the use of data and fi ndings presented in this publication is solely at the user s risk. PIKOM, JobStreet.com and KPMG shall in no event be liable for damages, loss or expense including without limitation, direct, incidental, special, or consequential damage or economic loss arising from or in connection with the data and / or fi ndings published in this series. However, professional advice can be sought from the producers of this publication. COPYRIGHT Copyright All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be produced or transmitted in any form or any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise, including recording or the use of any information storage and retrieval system without prior written permission from PIKOM.
5 Contents Message by PIKOM Chairman Message by PIKOM President/CEO iv v Preamble 6 Malaysian Economic and ICT Industry Outlook 9 ICT Job Market Salary Trends 14 Regional Benchmarking 25 Employment Outlook and Perceptions 28 Rethinking HR in a Changing World: A Practitioner s Discourse 33 The Right Talent Development Strategy for Top Talents? 39 Closing The Demand-Supply Gap in ICT Talents 44 iii
6 Message by PIKOM Chairman WOON TAI HAI In its endeavour to champion the Information Communications Technology (ICT) industry, PIKOM has once again successfully produced the annual ICT Job Market Outlook in Malaysia report. This outlook is made possible with the continuing support of Jobstreet.com and KPMG. In order to provide more comprehensive information, due references have also been made to PayScale web-based information, wherever possible. As in the past, the typical information published includes average monthly salaries of ICT professionals, job sentiment index, top paying ICT jobs, hot ICT jobs in demand and the hiring outlook. The salary information is broken down by industry, job category, employment size and geographical location. As an additional feature, this series is accompanied by median data for various types of job functions, gender and years of working experience. Regional data on selected Asian countries and English speaking nations that Malaysia has close diplomatic and trade ties, is provided once again. This time, however, besides atlas based criterion the publication also included Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) adjusted salary information that essentially takes into account foreign exchange fl uctuations and infl ation rates as well as living standards and costs. iv As the PIKOM Research Committee Chairman, I would like to see more effort taken in addressing the human capital development issues and challenges. From the employees perspective, the issues and challenges of talent migration to better paying destinations are still affecting the industry. As refl ected once again in this outlook, countries such as Hong Kong, Singapore and China in Asia and Australia, New Zealand and United States of America in the English speaking world have a much higher capacity for remuneration which is bound to attract competent Malaysian ICT professionals. If timely efforts are not taken in addressing this dilemma, it will be harder for the industry and the nation as a whole to become globally competitive and productive. On the other hand, employers are equally facing a quandary in getting industry ready ICT graduates. Employers are hesitant to invest in training or equipping fresh graduates with the right skills and knowledge in an employment environment where job hopping is highly prevalent. To overcome this problem, the industry needs to put in place appropriate strategies and measures that can help to enhance staff loyalty. Obviously, competitive remuneration is one of the options for staff retention. PIKOM would like to take this opportunity to record its sincere thanks and appreciation to Jobstreet.com and KPMG for their invaluable contributions. PIKOM is optimistic that these industry partners will continue to offer their enduring support in the years ahead. PIKOM believes that with its expanded scope and coverage, this outlook will continue to serve its members, industry players and investors, as well as mainstream policy formulators.
7 Message by PIKOM President/CEO SHAIFUBAHRIM SALEH PIKOM is once again pleased to publish the annual ICT Job Market Outlook in Malaysia report. As in the past, this series continues to provide information on average monthly salaries earned by information and communications technology (ICT) professionals in Malaysia in The report revealed that the ICT job market in Malaysia is expanding and evolving in tandem with the growing demand for information age services such as system integration, cloud computing, data warehousing, software development as a service (SaaS), platform as a service (PaaS), web and portal development, multimedia content provision, big data analytics and networking. In meeting the changing demands of the industry and human capital requirements, PIKOM has reviewed and realigned its fi ve-year strategy plan during its 2013 planning session. Specifi cally, human capital development is positioned as one of the six key strategies. The others include enhancing value to members, accelerating growth demand, leading the digital trend and increasing competitiveness and globalisation of the Malaysian ICT industry. In human capital development, PIKOM has embarked on programmes to publicise ICT courses through social media networks, re-skill the current talent pool, conduct cross-disciplinary training, promote industrial guided projects for students and to attract Malaysian talents from overseas as well as the Board of Computing Professionals Malaysia (BCPM). Once again, I would like to take this opportunity to record my sincere appreciation to Jobstreet.com and KPMG for their effort in making this publication into another milestone for PIKOM. v
8 Preamble PIKOM, the National ICT Association of Malaysia, has once again taken the lead to compile the ICT Job Market Outlook in Malaysia, 2013 in collaboration with JobStreet.com and KPMG. PIKOM was mainly responsible for data collation and coordination over and above its provision of ICT industry-specifi c information and outlook. On its part, Jobstreet.com provided the latest salary report of ICT professionals by industry, job market outlook in the respective ICT segments, and survey-based economic perception of job seekers and industry players. Meanwhile, KPMG took on the task to present Malaysia s economic outlook. For regional comparisons, due references were made to web published salary information by PayScale Salary Report. The average salary of ICT professionals in Malaysia is compared against selected Asian and English speaking countries that have become attractive destinations for Malaysian talent migration or talent soliciting. The Asian countries considered in the report include Singapore, Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines, Malaysia, China, Korea and India. The English speaking nations covered include United States of America, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. PIKOM is the national representative of the information and communications technology (ICT) industry with more than 1,500 members as at end of Its members contribute about 80% of the total ICT revenue in the country. 6 JobStreet.com is the largest online recruitment service provider for all categories of jobseekers, from fresh jobseekers after graduation to senior level positions. Job Street operates the JobStreet. com (www.jobstreet.com) websites presently covering the employment markets in Malaysia, Singapore, Philippines, Indonesia, India, Japan and Thailand. The group currently services over 50,000 corporate customers and over 6 million jobseekers. Job Street is listed on the Main Board of Bursa Malaysia Securities (JOBST). KPMG is an international network specialising in audit, tax and advisory service. KPMG first established a presence in Malaysia in 1928 and the Malaysian firm now has 65 partners and over 1,700 staff located across 10 offices. Globally, KPMG operates in 144 countries with a staff size of 137,000 people.
9 The main objective of this report is to provide data and information on the following:- i. Average ICT Salaries by Industry Agriculture / Plantations / Aquaculture Automotive / Heavy Industry / Machinery Banking Institutions Chemical Industries Construction / Building, including Civil Engineering Consulting, both Business and Technical Private Education Electrical & Electronics Sector Financial Services / Securities / Insurance/ Hotel / Restaurant / Food Services Manufacturing Oil / Gas / Petroleum Industries Printing / Publishing Property / Real Estate Technology / Aerospace / Bio-technology Semiconductor / Wafer Fabrication Services Telecommunication Textiles / Garment Transport / Storage / Freight / Shipping Utilities Wholesale / Retail / Trading Call Centre / ICT-Enabled Services Computer / ICT (Hardware) Computer / ICT (Software) ii. Average Monthly Salaries of ICT Professionals by Job Category Overall ICT Professional Junior ICT Executive fewer than 4 years of experience including fresh entrants Senior ICT Executive 5 years and above of working experience Middle ICT Manager as declared by the job seekers Senior ICT Manager as declared by the job seekers iii. Average Monthly Salaries of ICT Professionals by Key ICT Industry Segments ICT Hardware ICT Software Call Centre iv. Top 10 Specialisations Sought v. Regional Benchmarking with Selected Asian Economies vi. Perception by Job Seekers and Employers Jobstreet.com Employee Confi dence Index (JECI) Anticipated Hiring Activities Top 10 Specialisations Sought Position Level Sought 7
10 It is pertinent to note that the average monthly salary of ICT professionals for 2012 was RM6,784, registering an increase of 8.7% from RM6,240 the previous year. The record also showed that the ICT professionals in the Senior Manager, Middle Manager and Senior Executive categories experienced significant pay rise of 14.1%, 9.9% and 9.6% respectively in It is also observed that the salary gap between the Senior Managers and the fresh graduates has widened from 5.44 times in 2011 to 5.71 times in Such trends are considered unhealthy for the ICT industry where the employment market has been tight over a number of years and, as such, the industry will continue to face problems in retaining its younger staff from job hopping in search of higher remuneration. Like in the previous years, the oil and gas sector continued to be one of the attractive sectors for ICT professionals, especially those in the junior categories. In terms of geographical locations, the study discovered that the typical salaries of ICT professionals in major cities like Kuala Lumpur and Cyberjaya is 1.75 times higher than of those who work in smaller cities like Ipoh or Kuching. Such disparity is likely to continue in accentuating youth migration to cities that are already overcrowded. The data also showed that big companies tend to pay as high as 1.88 times more than those in the small and micro categories which have less than 10 employees. The study also interestingly revealed that male ICT professionals earn, on average, 34% higher salary than their female counterparts. Among the various types of job functions investigated, those in ICT Project Management tend to earn significantly higher salary than those in the technical or engineering fields. For instance, in 2012 a typical ICT Project Manager earned an average monthly salary of RM9,700, which is almost twice of that earned by a Junior Software Engineer or 50% more than that of a Senior Software Engineer. 8 Besides publishing average annual salaries earned by ICT professionals in seven Asian countries, namely Hong Kong, Singapore, China, Thailand, India, the Philippines and Indonesia, the report also provides data for five English speaking nations namely United States, United Kingdom, Canada, New Zealand and Australia that typically attract Malaysians for employment. For making meaningful comparisons, the regional salary data took into consideration the Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) factor. Instead of just publishing the average annual salaries, once again the reporting is done in terms of scaling numbers, which essentially highlighted how many times higher or lower the salaries are compared with other regional markets. Among Asian countries, Hong Kong once again topped the salary scale, where the salary was 1.90 times (with PPP adjusted) higher or 2.53 times (without PPP adjustments) higher than their counterparts in Malaysia in Similarly, Australia and USA topped the list among the English speaking destinations. Specifically, ICT professionals in Australia netted 3.76 times (without PPP adjustments) higher or 1.90 times (with PPP adjusted) higher than the data reported for Malaysians in this report. Hot ICT jobs varied across technical, business applications and soft skills categories. In the technical domain, ICT professionals equipped with Java, C#, C++, dotnet, SharePoint and Web Application Developers are highly sought after. Under business applications, the notable fast growing jobs are IT Security Analyst and Big Data Analytics for fending off cyber threats and culling out customer insights from petabytes systems respectively. The demand for both the technical and business applications jobs are attributed to prolific growth experienced in cloud computing and mobile applications. The report also carries information on the perception of job seekers and potential employers, in particular pertaining to economic performance and ICT job market outlook as gauged by Jobstreet.com on a regular basis. Generally the job seekers and providers indicated a positive outlook for Malaysia in 2013.
11 Malaysian Economic and ICT Industry Outlook 9
12 The Malaysian economy grew at an average rate of 5.2% in The Government of Malaysia has projected an economic growth of between 4.5% and 5.5% in 2013 (Figure 1). However, Malaysia s economic growth predictions for 2013 vary widely among private fi nancial institutions, international agencies and research institutions. Specifi cally, the Malaysian Institute of Economic Research (MIER) has predicted continuity of resilience in the Malaysian economy in 2013 with a growth rate of 5.6%. The economic growth predictions made by Royal Bank of Scotland and the Overseas Chinese Banking Corporations (OCBC) were 5.5% and 5.2% respectively, which were much higher compared to other private institutions. The predictions made by International Monetary Fund (IMF), Asian Development Bank (ADB) and World Bank (WB) were 4.7%, 4.8% and 5.0% respectively, which is signifi cantly lower than MIER, citing the effect on the export market by the continuing global economic slowdown as the key reason for the lower forecast. Although Malaysia s growth rate was lower than expected at 4.1% in Q1, 2013, the economy is expected to rebound with economic improvement in the US and positive growth in China Pre Asian Financial Crisis 1997: 9.2% p.a. Pre Global Financial Crisis 2009: 5.6% p.a. Projected to grow by 5.5% p.a. in 2013 by Economic Report Figure 1: Malaysia s GDP Growth (%): However, PIKOM is optimistic and concurs with MIER s prediction of 5.6%. The resilience in the Malaysian economy is poised to continue in 2013 and can be attributed to the following factors:- i. strong domestic demand arising from economic transformation programmes and on-going mega projects; ii. increased export earnings owing to strengthening of Ringgit Malaysia against US dollars; iii. stable overnight lending rates stimulating business investments; iv. sustained private and public consumption and expenditure; v. low infl ation rate; vi. low unemployment rate; vii. steady and positive growth in the various economic sectors, especially in the Information Communications Technology Services (ICTS); and viii. higher economic growth forecasts for China, India and ASEAN countries, where at least 60% of Malaysia s total trade is concentrated at and is highly likely to bring a positive impact on the Malaysian economy in 2013.
13 Nonetheless, the Malaysian economy is not totally free from economic encumbrances and faces a number of investment related risk factors such as:- i. External environment: Risk aversion strategy among potential investors due to globalisation and market liberalization phenomena; ii. Macro policy environment: Any slacking in the delivery of economic transformation initiatives, mega projects and geographically defi ned corridor projects; iii. Reducing fi scal defi cit: Poor management on the part of the Government in its ambitious task in reducing the fi scal defi cit from 5.4% of GDP in 2011 to 3% in 2015 may dampen public expenditure and investments, unless the Government achieves the target through revenue-increasing measures or operational cost reduction strategies; iv. Macro indicators: Fluctuation in oil and commodity prices in global markets could result in higher prices for consumers through increasing infl ation and base lending rates; v. Capital fl ight: Massive capital outfl ow arising from volatile foreign exchange rates is also bound to hurt export and import earnings; vi. Quality of Malaysian workforce: Over dependence on low skilled foreign workers may not be healthy for the Malaysian economy in the long term unless a concerted effort is made to increase the quality of the local workforce, ingrained with technological capabilities, innovation culture, R&D capabilities, productivity, quality and competitive edge best practices; vii. 13 th General Election: Typically, during the post-election period the Government takes cognizance and reminds the public of its pledges and promises, and therefore tends to implement developmental projects. From a business perspective, it is imperative and crucial to ensure a familiarity of policies and regulations now that GE13 is done and dusted. The Government should also review policies that may have run their course as this will garner wider public support and boost investor confi dence. 11 ICT Industry Outlook As it was in the past, the ICTS segment in Malaysia is projected to register signifi cant growth in The ICTS segment grew at a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 13.3% by increasing its value added services from RM12.3 billion in 2001 to RM55.1 billion in 2012 (Figure 2). The ICTS segment is poised to reach the mark of RM61.7 billion in 2013 by registering another annual growth rate of 12%. In tandem, the share of ICTS in the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) increased from 3.4% to 6.3%, almost doubling during the period of Traditionally, telecommunications and computer services constitute the ICTS segments as per Malaysian Standard Industry Classifi cation 2000 (MSIC2000). The introduction of MSIC2008 saw the inclusion of publishing services, motion picture, video and television programme, programming and broadcasting and information services as additional items. The new additional segments constitute about 11% of the total ICTS sector contribution in terms of value added services. PIKOM is confi dent of achieving double digit growth rate in the years ahead through on-going capital intensive economic transformation programmes and mega-projects that have been stimulating domestic demand for ICT Services. To name a few, the ICT intensive big projects include My Rapid Transit (MRT) linking Kajang and Sg. Buluh, Petronas Refi nery and Petrochemical Integrated Development (RAPID) project in Pengerang, Tun Razak Exchange, River of Life, Bandar Malaysia at Sungei Besi as well as the various economic corridors
14 Iskandar Malaysia, Northern Corridor Economic Region (NCER), East Coast Economic Region (ECER), Sabah Development Corridor (SDC) and Sarawak Corridor of Renewable Energy (SCORE). 80 Value in Ringgit Malaysia (RM Billion) Figure 2: ICTS Value Added Services : Source: Department of Statistics and PIKOM Estimates The ICT sector, in its contemporary form, has evolved to be more than a mere collection of technological tools. As a socio-economic enabler and key driver of businesses, ICT is poised to increases the process effi ciency and product and services delivery effectiveness. 12 ICT s ubiquity and pervasive features and characteristics are continually impacting the way one works, plays and learns. In the early stages of information age, such changes were succinctly harnessed through the MSC Malaysia initiative that saw its introduction in the mid-nineties. Having gone through two decades of new age experiences and exposures, viewing from a public policy perspective, the country is migrating into its next phase of infl ection point by creating a digital innovation economy through the Digital Malaysia Programme (DMP). From a private sector lens, the DMP is expected to increase business activities while at the same time addressing key national concerns such as creating opportunities for the B40 income group (the lowest 40% in household income), youth, women and digital entrepreneurs. In 2013, industry pundits are projecting at least four key trends changing the way in which fi rms work, which in turn, impacts on economic growth. The four key trends are: i. Big data analytics, which are deployed in a variety of industries to serve customers better by culling out insights and predictions that the data can generate. The process can help to improve the profi tability of the company by assessing credit worthiness, risk analysis and/or data supported decision making processes; ii. Cloud computing, which is one of the fastest growing technological advances, helps companies to structure, organise and store large amounts of data without investing heavily on hardware and software tools. More importantly, company employees always remain connected with the help of smartphones and tablets. With such a work culture, people need not be in the offi ce to complete their tasks; they can do their work from the train or bus on their daily commute, besides teleworking from home; iii. Mobile device usage, particularly smart phones and tablets, make customers and clients more mobile and also provides access to companies websites, applications and records wherever they happen to be;
15 iv. Social media, an offspring of the Internet age. This new age media, though seen as a disruptive and unproductive activity when staff unnecessarily waste time, can be a powerful tool for customer engagement, relationship building, networking, information sharing, and soliciting feedback, as well as branding products and services. Despite growing dynamism, the nation s ICT sector continues to face several persistent challenges: i. Supply of ICT Graduates: As it was in the recent past, ICT enrolment in both public and private institutions has stagnated. The ICT enrolment in the public universities has not improved much, as the fi gure has been lingering around 25,000 per year over the past three years. Understandably, with budget constraints, it will be diffi cult for public universities to increase their capacity to produce more ICT graduates. ICT enrolment in private universities also has not improved very much and averages around 50,000 per year, which, notably, is half than what it was a decade ago. ii. Quality of ICT Graduates: Quality, competency and employability of ICT graduates in meeting the industry s demands continue to remain a critical issue. Low remuneration, especially in comparison to regional countries, rampant job-hopping for better terms of employment, and a declining interest among young people in ICT jobs that demand long working hours continue to plague the growth of the ICT industry. However, initiatives by TalentCorp, which was established in January 2011, helped to redress some of the talent gaps in the ICT sector. The initiatives are carried out via three strategic thrusts: optimise Malaysian talent, attract and facilitate global talent and build networks of top talent. Being new, these endeavours are yet to be realised. iii. Quality and Competency Standards of Human Capital in ICT Firms: The ICT industry, including its workforce, generally lacks the interest in attaining global standards in process and quality improvement activities. PIKOM s internal investigation revealed that only 6% of Malaysian Information Communications Technology Service (ICTS) providers have attained Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) certifi cations and less than 1.5% are equipped with the People Capability Maturity Model (PCMM) certifi cation. The numbers were further disheartening upon realising that less than 2% of PIKOM members in the ICTS segment have employees certifi ed with Six Sigma or Lean Six Sigma accreditations. Green ICT Certifi cations have yet to gain a foothold in the Malaysian ICTS landscape. Pursuant of these certifi cations is critical for globalising Malaysian ICT products and services, or to solicit ICT contracts from developed economies like USA; and 13 iv. Research, development and commercialisation culture: Public and private universities and industries are still behind in creating globally-recognised ICT products and services due to the lack of a strong R&D and patenting culture. Despite the long established presence of some multi-nationals, the country still has weak links in the global R&D and innovation network. This is due to diffi culties in getting the right candidates to embark on high value adding ICT activities that the Government has been passionate about over the past two decades.
16 ICT Job Market Salary Trends 14
17 Job Category Overall The average monthly salary of an ICT professional in Malaysia in 2012 was RM6,784 (Figure 3). This represents an increase of 8.7% from RM6,240 in This increase was well above the average infl ation rate of 3.2% in 2011 and 1.6% in 2012, resulting in a comfortable living for ICT professionals in Malaysia. Given the optimistic outlook of the economy and other positive factors within the ICT industry, PIKOM anticipates an 8.9% rise in the average salary of ICT professionals in 2013, to a fi gure no less than RM7,387 per month. Average Monthly Salary (Ringgit Malaysia) Average Monthly Salary 7,387 6, % 6, % 5,626 5,276 4,184 4,446 4, ,184 4,446 4,699 5,276 5,626 6,240 6,784 7,387 Figure 3: Average Salary of ICT Professionals: Source: Jobstret.com and PIKOM, 2013 By Job Category and Years of Working Experience It can be seen from Table 1 that all ICT job categories, except Junior Executive, registered signifi cant increase in the average salary in ICT professionals in the middle management level received the highest average rate of pay rise of 14.1%, followed by senior management (9.9%) and senior executive category (9.6%). Junior executives received only a raise of 1.7% where their average monthly salary increased from RM3,151 in 2011 to RM3,206 in The fresh graduates are, on average, netting a monthly salary of RM2,343, which is considered as a signifi cant rise from RM2,238 in the preceding year. 15 By Job Category Year Fresh Graduates: (Entry Level) Junior Executive: (1-4 Years Working Experience) Senior Executive: (> 5 Years Working Experience) Middle Management: (Manager) Senior Management: (Senior Manager) Overall ,936 4,514 7,005 10,795 5, ,238 3,151 5,039 7,837 12,166 6, ,343 3,206 5,521 8,946 13,374 6,784 Percentage Change (%) Benchmarking Against Average Monthly Salary of Fresh Graduates Table 1 : Average Salary of ICT Professionals by Job Category: Source: Jobstret.com and PIKOM, 2013
18 From Table 1, it can also be observed that Senior Managers earned 5.44 times higher than fresh graduates in 2011 and 5.71 times higher in Similarly, the fi gures for Middle Manager level were 3.50 and 3.82 while for Senior Executives it were 2.25 and 2.36, indicating a widening disparity in the salary structure. Industry Category Table 2 and Table 3 show the average monthly salary of ICT professionals by industry. 16 Industry (Central Malaysia) Fresh Graduates / Entry Level (Less than 1 year working experience) % Change Percentiles (Ringgit Malaysia) Weighted Mean 25th 50th 75th Automotive/Heavy Industry/Machinery 1,800 2,300 2,300 2,175 2, Bank 2,000 2,500 2,700 2,425 2, Call Centre/IT-Enabled Services 1,800 2,300 2,700 2,275 2, Computer/IT (Hardware) 2,000 2,400 2,670 2,368 2, Computer/IT (Software) 2,000 2,500 2,800 2,450 2, Construction/Building 1,715 1,800 2,775 2,023 1, Consulting (Business/Technical) 2,000 2,350 2,600 2,325 2, Education 1,600 2,000 2,331 1,983 1, Electrical & Electronics 1,950 2,310 2,800 2,343 2, Financial Services/Securities/Insurance 2,000 2,230 2,800 2,350 2, Hotel/Restaurant/Food Service 1,800 1,800 3,750 2,288 2, Manufacturing 2,150 2,540 2,800 2,508 2, Oil/Gas/Petroleum 2,300 2,800 3,200 2,775 2, Printing/Publishing 2,000 2,000 3, , Science & Technology/Aerospace/BioTechnology 2,500 2,500 2, , Semiconductor/Wafer Fabrication 3,280 3,280 3, , Services 1,900 2,030 2, , Telecommunication 1,700 2,200 2, , Transport/Storage/Freight/Shipping 1,600 2,300 2, , Wholesale/Retail/Trading 1,500 1,950 2, , Geometric Mean (GM) : (Ringgit Malaysia ) , Minimum (Ringgit Malaysia ) 1925 Maximum (Ringgit Malaysia ) 3280 Table 2: Average Monthly Salary of ICT Graduates by Industry in 2012 Source: Jobstret.com and PIKOM, 2013 Fresh graduates by Industry Table 2 shows that the Semiconductor and Wafer Fabrication industries paid the highest monthly salary of RM3,280 for fresh graduates in 2012 but had not changed since However, the Oil and Gas industry registered a signifi cant rise in the monthly salary for fresh graduates from RM2,418 in 2011 to RM2,775 in 2012, recording the highest percentage increase of 14.8%. This is followed by the Electrical and Electronics industry where the average salary for fresh graduates increased by 13.5%, which is an increase from RM2,063 in 2011 to RM2,343 in ICT graduates in the Construction and Building industry also experienced a signifi cant increase of 12.4% in their salary. Besides Semiconductor and Wafer Fabrication, industries like Automotive and Heavy Industry, Manufacturing, Transport, Storage, Freight and Shipping as well as Call Centre and IT enabled Services did not show any improvement in the average salary for fresh graduates in 2012.
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