Treatment of National an International Voice Services Provided over Internet Protocol (VoIP)

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Treatment of National an International Voice Services Provided over Internet Protocol (VoIP)"

Transcription

1 Austria Belgium Czech Republic Denmark France The New Regulatory Framework (NRF) generally is based on technological neutrality, i.e. allowing providers to offer services based on IP technology without any specific regulation necessary. In October 2005 the Austrian regulatory authority issued Guidelines for Providers of VoIP Services that aimed to provide regulatory clarity to operators offering public VoIP services in Austria. One of the fundamental conclusions of the guidelines document is the definition of 2 distinct classes of VoIP services: Class A VoIP Services: Publicly offered VoIP services providing access to and/or from the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) are defined as being a Publicly Available Telephone Service (PATS) and an Electronic Communication Service (ECS). Class B VoIP Services: Publicly offered VoIP Services for voice communication between Internet users without providing access to the PSTN are defined as being neither PATS nor ECS. The guidelines document further provides information regarding access to emergency services, general authorization procedures as well as numbering issues. Short chapters on legal interception, interconnection and competition conclude the document. VoIP has been classified in two categories, independently from the class A / class B distinction above: Voice over Broadband (VoB): VoB is defined as service offered in combination with (broadband) Internet access where VoIP technology is used for voice transport within the VoB provider s access network. Examples are Voice-over-DSL or Voice-over-CATV. In general, VoB services offer full connectivity to the PSTN, offer controlled quality in the access network and are deemed to be largely equivalent to traditional voice telephony services. Voice over Internet (VoI): VoI is defined as service offered on the basis of the Public Internet. In general, VoI services are not bundled with the subscriber s Internet access. The access to the customer is realized using an existing (broadband) Internet access provided by a third party access provider; therefore the Internet is used as access network to the customer. VoI is offered in various flavours ranging from Internet-only services to full PSTN connectivity. As stated in the current draft market definition, VoB services are to be included in the relevant retail markets (fixed networks voice telephony access markets for residential and no-residential customers, fixed networks minutes markets for residential and non-residential customers, national and international calls) as well as the relevant wholesale markets (termination and origination). VoI is to be included in neither of these markets. The VoIP element is not a key figure in the decision between PATS/ECS (public available telephone service or electronic communication service). The service is checked against the PATS conditions (in- and outgoing voice communication, national and international, with access to emergency services and using a national and international number plan), and if the service complies, it is classified as PATS, otherwise as ECS. These services are considered as telecommunication services and providers have only to be registered according to the General Licence obligations. No licence is required. VoIP is not considered as public telephone service, but as data transmission no regulatory approach has been undertaken. In 2004 NITA (National IT and Telecom Agency) publicly consulted relevant parties in Denmark on the question of whether there were barriers (also regulatory barriers) preventing widespread use of VoIP in Denmark. The review and consultation was concluded in March 2005 The consultation and analysis resulted in a number of information initiatives and minor legislative adjustments primarily related to provision of location information in relation to emergency services. ARCEP (L Autorité de Régulation des Communications Électroniques et des Postes) has differentiated between the various services using the Internet Protocol: voice over IP, which designates the technology using Internet Protocol for the transport of the voice, is also used for voice services on broad band (or VoB) on an Internet access network with speeds higher than 128 kbit/s, and where quality is controlled by the operator who provides the service. These services cannot be compared with the offers of voice over Internet (VoIP), which use the public Internet, because their quality of service is not controlled by the service supplier. Page 1 of 5

2 France (cont.) Germany The question of separation between voice over broadband services and voice on the PSTN was examined by the competition Council and then by the European Commission. The former wanted to include VoB in the relevant markets covering fixed telephony services. The latter agreed with ARCEP s modification to include services using VoIP technology in the pertinent market in the case that they are substitutable with traditional services, imposing obligations on the mainly telephony access services, as well as on the telephony services associated with them. Thus, it was considered that the relevant markets for interpersonal communications from a fixed telephone is conditional with the use of access to the PSTN. ARCEP has indicated that it would keep under review the market segment associated with multiservice access and would be ready to modify its decision not to impose obligation on this market segment. In September 2005 BNetzA (Bundesnetzagentur) published key elements of the regulatory treatment of Voice over IP. These key elements take account of the fact that VoIP services are only at the start of their development in the marketplace and that it is too early to say how viable existing and future business models will prove to be. In BNetzA's view, therefore, it is not helpful, and ultimately not even possible, to draw up a definitive and extensive body of rules for VoIP today covering all the regulatory issues that are bound to arise. In general providers of VoIP services are treated just like any other service provider. Their rights and obligations depend on how the respective service is classified according to its features under regulatory aspects especially telecommunications services, publicly available telephone service, operation of telecommunications networks or telecommunications systems. BNetzA considers however transitional arrangements for technical reasons a suitable means by which to encourage existing innovation potential and by which to respond to public interest in the fulfilment of legal obligations. Yet it is important that, at the end of the development process of VoIP services, different services (PSTN, VoIP etc.) can coexist with equal status. In the medium term, VoIP services will have to satisfy the same criteria as traditional services. BNetzA will keep a close watch on the further development of VoIP and take regulatory decisions if necessary, like it has proceeded in the past. For example BNetzA decided in its market analysis that national calls via VoIP services are part of the relevant retail market for national calls at fixed locations. So national calls (VoIP and PSTN) of the SMP provider are subject to the same regulation. Greece There is no specific regulation for VoIP at this point in time. EETT (the National regulatory authority) issued a public consultation for VoIP services on 19 May This consultation, among other issues, seeks the views of the market players regarding authorisation for VoIP services providers, numbering, access to emergency numbers, QoS, interconnection, etc. Based on the results of the public consultation and the analysis of the relevant markets, EETT will take decision on regulation of VoIP services. Hungary Ireland Italy From regulatory point of view, VoIP is only an alternative technology to PSTN. Therefore the treatment of VoIP service is similar to fixed telephone services. All service providers intending to offer an electronic communication service to the public must provide a notification to ComReg of this intention. This notification entitles the service provider to a General Authorisation, which is subject to a set of conditions. Further to these conditions, all services which qualify as Electronic Communications Services (ECS) must comply with a basic set of legislative obligations. If the service further satisfies the criteria to be categorised as a Publicly Available Telephone Service (PATS), then further legislative obligations apply. Perhaps the most crucial difference between the provision of an ECS or PATS is that when providing a PATS VoIP service, access to the emergency services must be ensured. Other PATS-related obligations include user rights such as access to directory inquiry and operator assistance services, the right to have an entry in a directory, and various network related obligations. VoIP services have been recently regulated by AGCOM (Autorità per le garanzie nelle comunicazioni). VoIP service can be provided using any IP identification system (e.g. SIP or H.323 URIs) or E.164 numbers. VoIP providers can use geographic E.164 numbers already used for PATS services using TDM technology. Nomadism with geographic numbers is only allowed within the district identified by the district code of the numbers used by the operator. Page 2 of 5

3 Luxembourg Netherlands Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Spain Sweden United Kingdom Norway Following the recommendations of the European Commission to special provisions are foreseen other than for public telecommunication operators. For interconnection to the public network a licence is required from the regulator. OPTA s (Onafhankelijke Post en Telecommunicatie Autoriteit) market analysis shows that VoB services are part of the same relevant access and conveyance markets at the retail level as traditional fixed telephony (PSTN) services. OPTA applies a price squeeze test for both PSTN and VoB services. However, the price floor on VoB services is more relaxed than on PSTN services, in the sense that KPN is allowed to use lower VoB tariffs than PSTN tariffs without ex-ante approval by OPTA. This price floor for VoB services only apply to the incumbent (KPN). Other obligations which apply to the VoB services of the incumbent: transparency and non-discrimination. The Polish Telecommunications Law reflects the EU Directives and thus there is no separate regulatory approach towards Voice over IP. UKE (Polish Office of Electronic Communications) is holding a consultation in order to identify barriers to the nomadic use of VoIP services. ANACOM (Autoridade Nacional de Comunicações) launched during November 2005 a public consultation on the regulatory approach to voice services based on IP technology (VoIP) which led to a Decision in February 2006 which distinguished between two types of services: (a) services provided at a single fixed location and under conditions perceived by the user as equivalent to those of traditional PSTN, which will be treated as a regular PSTN service; (b) services of typically nomadic use i.e. able to be used on several locations. The 30 numbering range was opened to accommodate the provision of nomadic VoIP services. The providers of nomadic VoIP services with numbers of the national Numbering Plan, when on national territory, must ensure the routing of VoIP calls to 112. All VoIP providers, including those of nomadic use, will be able to negotiate the terms of interconnection contracts with other service providers, keeping the same basic principles of the current interconnection agreements. According to national legislation, VoIP service is considered as an electronic communications service (ECS). There are some general obligations for providers of ECS. Problems concerning VoIP versus PATS ( Publicly Available Telephony Service ) in context with data location to provide for Emergency Calls ( 112 ). (Location data shall be any data processed in the network indicating the geographic location of terminal equipment of the user of publicly available service. The location data, other than traffic data may be processed only if they are made anonymous or with the consent of the user of public network or service, and in the scope and time necessary for provision of the value added service). Public numbering resources are allocated to fixed telephone services available to the public and to VoIP, and certain area codes are granted. The principle of technological neutrality is applied so that the conditions established for telephone service available to the public are applied to VoIP services which, due to their functional characteristics, can be considered as telephone service. and applying the generic regulatory framework defined throughout Europe for the electronic communications services to the VoIP modalities. The same regulations apply to all undertakings that provide fixed telephony services. For VoIP service, OFTEL considers this should be regulated as a publicly available telephone service if any of the following apply: the service is marketed as a substitute for traditional PSTN services, or the service appears to customers as a substitute for public voice telephony, or the service provides the customer s sole means of access to the traditional circuit switched PSTN. Three main categories of VoB offerings have been identified by the regulator: Category 1: VoB offerings which are not any-to-any communication enabled. Within this category no gateway to the PSTN/ISDN or mobile networks exists, and hence no possibility to call or receive calls from traditional telephone services (POTS). Examples of category 1 VoB offerings are the plain versions of Skype and MSN messenger. Category 2: VoB offerings which are partly any-to-any communication enabled. Within this category a gateway to the PSTN/ISDN or mobile networks exists which gives the possibility to either call or receive calls from POTS, but not to both call and receive calls to/from such services. Examples of category 2 VoB offerings are SkypeOut and SkypeIn. Page 3 of 5

4 Norway (cont.) Switzerland Turkey Australia Canada Japan New Zealand Category 3: VoB offerings which are any-to-any communication enabled. Within this category a gateway to the PSTN/ISDN or mobile networks exists giving the possibility to both call and receive calls from POTS. NPT has not been able to make a generally valid decision concerning category 1 services. Whether these services fall within the scope of the Ele tronic Communications Act or not must be decided in each individual case. NPT has concluded that category 2 services fall within the scope of the Electronic Communications Act. If available to the public, these services are deemed a public electronic communications service. Moreover, NPT has concluded that when used together two category 2 services are regulated as a category 3 service. NPT (Norwegian Post and Telecommunications Authority) has concluded that category 3 services fall within the scope of the Electronic Communications Act. If available to the public, the services are deemed as a public telephone service (PATS). Voice telephony over the Internet is regarded as a telecommunication services and consequently subject to telecommunication legislation. It is not considered as forming part of the universal service provision and is therefore not subject to the legal requirements applicable to that service and to its providers. Service providers offering national and international voice telephony services on Internet would be subject to a number of legal obligations which are applicable to service providers using the PSTN such as interconnection, secrecy of communications, etc. VoIP is not treated separately in terms of authorisation. With regard to the principle of technological neutrality, in the context of the authorisation of Long Distance Telephony Services, operators are authorised to provide service regardless of the technology used for the provision of the long distance telephony service where usage of VoIP technology is quite common. A review of VOIP found that the current policy and regulatory framework presents no significant barriers to the deployment of VOIP services but concluded there would be merit in the government providing clarity and flexibility for investors and consumers. Currently VOIP services that are essentially replacements for fixed standard telephone service are subject to the same regulatory framework as PSTN services. Other types of VoIP services may also be provided and are subject to fewer requirements. For example, the Customer Service Guarantee (CSG) is to be relaxed on many types of VoIP services. The review placed a heavy emphasis on public information activities to raise consumer awareness and understanding of VoIP. The Australian government is monitoring the development and growth of VOIP and the appropriateness of the regulatory arrangements, and will act if the need becomes apparent. The CRTC (Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission) decided to regulate Internet telephone services i.e. voice communication services which use Internet Protocol, in the same manner as it regulates traditional wireline local telephone service. The CRTC concluded that these services were not materially different from traditional telephone services in that they use telephone numbers and connect to anyone on the traditional telephone network. Thus, the Incumbent Local Exchange Carriers (ILECs) will be required to obtain CRTC approval for prices, features, terms and conditions for local Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) services before offering them in their incumbent territories. Also, if an ILEC wants to offer VoIP as part of a bundle with another service, it must get prior CRTC approval. The CRTC will not be regulating private computer-to-computer voice services over the Internet also called peer-to-peer (P2P) as these do not connect to the public telephone network. VoIP service providers should comply with the Telecommunications Business Law as telecommunications service providers1. There are two kinds of telecommunication numbers for VoIP services (numbers starting with "050" and numbers that are the same as those allocated for fixed telephony services) which are based on ITU-T E.164 in Japan. Especially, VoIP services using these E.164 numbers should be consistent with conditions for numbering allocation as specified in the Regulation on Telecommunications Numbers. Under New Zealand law, national and international voice telephony services provided over the Internet by entities other than a PTO, are defined and treated the same as such services provided by a PTO. Page 4 of 5

5 United States The FCC s consideration of issues surrounding VoIP and other IP-enabled services and applications takes place within a legal framework comprised of statutory provisions and judicial precedent, prior FCC orders, ongoing FCC proceedings, and state actions relating to IP-enabled services. The FCC has not yet determined the appropriate classification for all VoIP services in that context. The FCC has, however, clarified that certain social and public safety obligations apply to interconnected VoIP services VoIP services which, inter alia, allow an end user to place calls to, and receive calls from, the public switched telephone network. In the last two years, the FCC has required interconnected VoIP providers to provide 911 emergency access, comply with the Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act (CALEA), and contribute to the federal universal service fund, and has open proceedings to address additional, related issues. Glossary: ECS Electronic Communication Service ILEC Incumbent Local Exchange Carriers NRF New regulatory framework PATS - Publicly Available Telephone Service PSTN Public switched telecommunication network SMP Significant market power VoB Voice over Broadband VoI Voice over Internet. Source: OECD, Communications Outlook 2007, Paris 2007, pp Page 5 of 5

VoIP Regulation Klaus Nieminen Helsinki University of Technology klaus.nieminen@hut.fi

VoIP Regulation Klaus Nieminen Helsinki University of Technology klaus.nieminen@hut.fi VoIP Regulation Klaus Nieminen Helsinki University of Technology klaus.nieminen@hut.fi Abstract Voice over IP (VoIP) is currently the uppermost telecommunication regulatory question globally. The purpose

More information

ERG Common Statement for VoIP regulatory approaches ERG (05) 12

ERG Common Statement for VoIP regulatory approaches ERG (05) 12 ERG Common Statement for VoIP regulatory approaches ERG (05) 12 Content 1 Introduction... 3 2 ERG Common Statement... 5 3 Specific Statement for Numbering and Number Portability... 7 4 Specific Statement

More information

Table 2.10. Quality of service

Table 2.10. Quality of service Australia Table 2.10. Quality of service Fixed and mobile voice services: does the government publish or require operators to publish data on QoS? All service providers are required to provide services

More information

ERG (09) 19 VOIP ACTION PLAN TO ACHIEVE CONFORMITY WITH ERG COMMON POSITION

ERG (09) 19 VOIP ACTION PLAN TO ACHIEVE CONFORMITY WITH ERG COMMON POSITION VOIP ACTION PLAN TO ACHIEVE CONFORMITY WITH ERG COMMON POSITION June, 2009 VOIP ACTION PLAN TO ACHIEVE CONFORMITY WITH ERG COMMON POSITION Introduction In 2007, ERG adopted a Common Position 1 on the regulation

More information

Barbados Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) Policy

Barbados Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) Policy Barbados Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) Policy Policy in accordance with sections 4 (2)(b) and 4 (2)(f) of the Telecommunications Act Cap 282B. This policy describes the terms and outlines the techniques

More information

Guidelines for VoIP Service Providers

Guidelines for VoIP Service Providers Consultation Document Austrian Regulatory Authority for Broadcasting and Telecommunications (RTR-GmbH) Vienna April 2005 Executive Summary This consultation document aims to clarify the position of the

More information

European Commission Consultation document on Voice over IP

European Commission Consultation document on Voice over IP STELLUNGNAHME European Commission Consultation document on Voice over IP This paper provides the eco comment on the European Commission consultation document. eco is the association of German internet

More information

This guidance replaces the Frequently asked questions on the regulation of Voice over Internet Protocol services published in April 2002.

This guidance replaces the Frequently asked questions on the regulation of Voice over Internet Protocol services published in April 2002. Introduction This note is intended to provide informal guidance for companies who are using Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) technology to deliver communications services to customers. The guidance

More information

CONSULTATION. National Numbering Plan Review. A short Consultation issued by the Telecommunications Regulatory Authority 28 August 2007

CONSULTATION. National Numbering Plan Review. A short Consultation issued by the Telecommunications Regulatory Authority 28 August 2007 National Numbering Plan Review A short Consultation issued by the Telecommunications Regulatory Authority 28 August 2007 The address for responses to this document is: The General Director, Telecommunications

More information

Bahrain Telecom Pricing

Bahrain Telecom Pricing Bahrain Telecom Pricing International Benchmarking December 2015 2015 Disclaimer This benchmarking report contains information collected by an independent consultant commissioned by the Telecommunications

More information

The treatment of Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) under the EU Regulatory Framework

The treatment of Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) under the EU Regulatory Framework Comments on the Commission Consultation Document on The treatment of Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) under the EU Regulatory Framework submitted by the Austrian Regulatory Authority for Broadcasting

More information

APPLICATION OF THE NEW EU REGULATORY FRAMEWORK TO IP TELEPHONY

APPLICATION OF THE NEW EU REGULATORY FRAMEWORK TO IP TELEPHONY Electronic Communications Committee (ECC) within the European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT) APPLICATION OF THE NEW EU REGULATORY FRAMEWORK TO IP TELEPHONY Paris, March

More information

C O N T E N T 4. Leased lines... 39 4.1. Market players... 39 4.2. Market volume and market players... 39 4.3. Prices for the leased lines service...

C O N T E N T 4. Leased lines... 39 4.1. Market players... 39 4.2. Market volume and market players... 39 4.3. Prices for the leased lines service... C O N T E N T 4. Leased lines... 39 4.1. Market players... 39 4.2. Market volume and market players... 39 4.3. Prices for the leased lines service... 4 4. Leased lines 4.1. Market players Besides the incumbent

More information

The Economic Impact of VoIP Regulation in Europe

The Economic Impact of VoIP Regulation in Europe The Economic Impact of VoIP Regulation in Europe Dr. Christian Wernick Emergency Services Workshop Vienna, 22.10.2008 0 Agenda Introduction and overview of the study the regulation of VoIP 1 The different

More information

Report on. VoIP and Consumer Issues

Report on. VoIP and Consumer Issues European Regulators Group (ERG) Report on VoIP and Consumer Issues 2006 The report was prepared by the End User Working Group 1 Table of Contents Executive Summary 3-6 Background 3 Emergency Services 3

More information

The Regulation of VoIP in Europe Trends across Member States

The Regulation of VoIP in Europe Trends across Member States The Regulation of VoIP in Europe Trends across Member States Brussels, 11 March 2008 James Thomson Cullen International james.thomson@cullen-international.com Scope of Research VoIP regulation in 10 European

More information

Primary law in the light of market analysis experiences, best practice and recommendations

Primary law in the light of market analysis experiences, best practice and recommendations Primary law in the light of market analysis experiences, best practice and recommendations Workshop on carrying out relevant market analysis following new EC Recommendation 4-5 June 2009 Emily O Reilly

More information

Appendix C. National Subscription Television Regulations

Appendix C. National Subscription Television Regulations Appendix C National Subscription Television Regulations Australia At least 10% of annual programme expenditure on pay TV drama services must be on new eligible (Australian) Same requirements as cable television

More information

Delegation in human resource management

Delegation in human resource management From: Government at a Glance 2009 Access the complete publication at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264075061-en Delegation in human resource management Please cite this chapter as: OECD (2009), Delegation

More information

Panel: How broadband policy can contribute to deploy secured and universal broadband access. Presentation:

Panel: How broadband policy can contribute to deploy secured and universal broadband access. Presentation: Panel: How broadband policy can contribute to deploy secured and universal broadband access Presentation: Initiatives to deploy broadband access in Europe Erik BOHLIN Chalmers University of Technology,

More information

Flat Rate versus Per Minute Charges for Telephone Service: The Relationship between Internet Access and Telephone Tariffs.

Flat Rate versus Per Minute Charges for Telephone Service: The Relationship between Internet Access and Telephone Tariffs. Flat Rate versus Per Minute Charges for Telephone Service: The Relationship between Internet Access and Telephone Tariffs December 4, 2001 The vast majority of residential Internet users and many business

More information

Regulation of New Technologies: IP Telephony and Next Generation Networks

Regulation of New Technologies: IP Telephony and Next Generation Networks Regulation of New Technologies: IP Telephony and Next Generation Networks By Lawrence S M KWAN Seminar on Next Generation Networks and Telecommunication Regulations WuXi, China 25 26 August 2004 1 Outline

More information

TOWARDS PUBLIC PROCUREMENT KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS. Paulo Magina Public Sector Integrity Division

TOWARDS PUBLIC PROCUREMENT KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS. Paulo Magina Public Sector Integrity Division TOWARDS PUBLIC PROCUREMENT KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS Paulo Magina Public Sector Integrity Division 10 th Public Procurement Knowledge Exchange Platform Istanbul, May 2014 The Organization for Economic

More information

INFORMATION NOTE. Developments in the Regulation of Internet Protocol (IP) Telephony in Selected Overseas Places

INFORMATION NOTE. Developments in the Regulation of Internet Protocol (IP) Telephony in Selected Overseas Places INFORMATION NOTE Developments in the Regulation of Internet Protocol (IP) Telephony in Selected Overseas Places 1. Background 1.1 On 4 October 2004, the Office of the Telecommunications Authority (OFTA)

More information

Gibtelecom response to Public Consultation 01/07

Gibtelecom response to Public Consultation 01/07 Gibtelecom response to Public Consultation 01/07 Retail Fixed Markets 8 June 2007 Gibtelecom Limited Suite 942 Europort Gibraltar Gibtelecom Response to GRA Market Review for Retail Fixed Markets In response

More information

VoIP and IP-IC Regulatory aspects

VoIP and IP-IC Regulatory aspects VoIP and IP-IC Regulatory aspects Giovanni Santella g.santella@agcom.it What is VoIP? VoIP call scenarios (1) PC-to-PC PC-to-Phone VoIP call scenarios (2) Phone-to-Phone The value chain for the provision

More information

DRAFT Second Circulation for Comments

DRAFT Second Circulation for Comments 1 DRAFT Second Circulation for Comments Barbados (VoIP) Voice Over Internet Protocol Policy Policy in accordance with sections 4 (2)(b) and 4 (2)(f) of the Telecommunications Act 2001-36. This policy describes

More information

The treatment of Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) under the EU Regulatory Framework

The treatment of Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) under the EU Regulatory Framework The treatment of Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) under the EU Regulatory Framework Response from the UK s Internet Telephony Service Providers Association (ITSPA) About ITSPA This response is on behalf

More information

Bahrain Telecom Pricing International Benchmarking. April 2014

Bahrain Telecom Pricing International Benchmarking. April 2014 Bahrain Telecom Pricing International Benchmarking April 2014 2014 Contents of this report Report overview 3 PSTN basket results for GCC countries, including time series 4 Mobile basket results for GCC

More information

ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT

ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT 2 OECD RECOMMENDATION OF THE COUNCIL ON THE PROTECTION OF CRITICAL INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURES ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT The OECD is a unique forum where the governments of

More information

ADDITIONAL TERMS FOR ENTERPRISE VOICE SERVICES SCHEDULE 2K

ADDITIONAL TERMS FOR ENTERPRISE VOICE SERVICES SCHEDULE 2K ADDITIONAL TERMS FOR ENTERPRISE VOICE SERVICES SCHEDULE 2K CONTENTS 1 Service Description... 3 2 Definitions... 3 3 Services Terms... 4 3.1 Interoute One Termination Service... 4 3.2 Inbound Number Service...

More information

Licensing Options for Internet Service Providers June 23, 2001 Updated September 25, 2002

Licensing Options for Internet Service Providers June 23, 2001 Updated September 25, 2002 Licensing Options for Internet Service Providers June 23, 2001 Updated September 25, 2002 Some countries require Internet Service Providers ( ISPs ) to obtain government- issued licenses before commencing

More information

Higher education institutions as places to integrate individual lifelong learning strategies

Higher education institutions as places to integrate individual lifelong learning strategies Higher education institutions as places to integrate individual lifelong learning strategies Andrzej Krasniewski Warsaw University of Technology Bologna Expert QUALIFICATIONS FRAMEWORKS AS INSTRUMENTS

More information

The Regulation of Voice over IP (VoIP) in Europe

The Regulation of Voice over IP (VoIP) in Europe WIK-Consult Final Report Ref. Ares(2013)2990517-04/09/2013 Study for the European Commission The Regulation of Voice over IP () in Europe Authors: Dieter Elixmann J. Scott Marcus Dr. Christian Wernick

More information

RESPONSE TO ECTEL s POLICY RECOMMENDATION. THE REGULATION OF VOICE over INTERNET PROTOCOL (VoIP) IP TELEPHONY REGULATION

RESPONSE TO ECTEL s POLICY RECOMMENDATION. THE REGULATION OF VOICE over INTERNET PROTOCOL (VoIP) IP TELEPHONY REGULATION RESPONSE TO ECTEL s POLICY RECOMMENDATION on THE REGULATION OF VOICE over INTERNET PROTOCOL (VoIP) IP TELEPHONY REGULATION May 2009 BY E-MAIL TO: Consultation@ectel.int Introduction LIME is pleased to

More information

The European Commission s Approach to Voice over IP: Frequently Asked Questions

The European Commission s Approach to Voice over IP: Frequently Asked Questions MEMO/05/46 Brussels, 11 February 2005 The European Commission s Approach to Voice over IP: Frequently Asked Questions How does VoIP work? The technology called Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) allows

More information

Unbundling in Europe: Recent Trends

Unbundling in Europe: Recent Trends Unbundling in Europe: Recent Trends Sophie BISMUT IDATE, Montpellier O ver the past few years, a radical change has come about in the role of the copper local loop that connects subscribers to their operator's

More information

How many students study abroad and where do they go?

How many students study abroad and where do they go? From: Education at a Glance 2012 Highlights Access the complete publication at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/eag_highlights-2012-en How many students study abroad and where do they go? Please cite this chapter

More information

ETNO Reflection Document on the Commission's Consultation Document on VoIP

ETNO Reflection Document on the Commission's Consultation Document on VoIP August 2004 ETNO Reflection Document on the Commission's Consultation Document on VoIP Summary For ETNO it is essential that the regulatory treatment of the various VoIP services reflects in a harmonised

More information

/Amended by 26th resolution of 2009, 4th resolution of 2012, 39th resolution of 2014 of CRC respectively/

/Amended by 26th resolution of 2009, 4th resolution of 2012, 39th resolution of 2014 of CRC respectively/ Annex No.1 to the 25th resolution of the Communications Regulatory Commission, 2007 REGULATION ON VOICE OVER INTERNET PROTOCOL /Amended by 26th resolution of 2009, 4th resolution of 2012, 39th resolution

More information

1. SERVICE DESCRIPTION

1. SERVICE DESCRIPTION 1. SERVICE DESCRIPTION The Interoute One Voice Service provides inbound telephone numbers and outbound voice termination services to domestic and international destinations (the Service ). 2. DEFINITIONS

More information

Frequently asked questions on the regulation of Voice over Internet Protocol services

Frequently asked questions on the regulation of Voice over Internet Protocol services abc Frequently asked questions on the regulation of Voice over Internet Protocol services Issued by the Director General of Telecommunications 2 April 2002 50 Ludgate Hill London EC4M 7JJ Switchboard 020

More information

ADTRAN Overview Brochure

ADTRAN Overview Brochure C O R P O R A T E O V E R V I E W 1 ADTRAN has been improving telecommunications with smart solutions and innovation for more than 25 years. In the world of broadband, ADTRAN is the reliable business

More information

Cisco Multiservice VPN Solution Cisco Managed Transport and Dial Plan VPN

Cisco Multiservice VPN Solution Cisco Managed Transport and Dial Plan VPN Q & A Cisco Multiservice PN Solution Cisco Managed Transport and Dial Plan PN Q. What is the Cisco Managed Transport and Dial Plan PN? A. The Cisco Managed Transport and Dial Plan PN is one of the deployment

More information

Size and Development of the Shadow Economy of 31 European and 5 other OECD Countries from 2003 to 2015: Different Developments

Size and Development of the Shadow Economy of 31 European and 5 other OECD Countries from 2003 to 2015: Different Developments January 20, 2015 ShadEcEurope31_January2015.doc Size and Development of the Shadow Economy of 31 European and 5 other OECD Countries from 2003 to 2015: Different Developments by Friedrich Schneider *)

More information

Regulatory/Legal considerations -(.

Regulatory/Legal considerations -(. 8 Regulatory/Legal considerations -(. -(.8.1. Overall For a legal classification of Voice over IP, several aspects have to be taken into consideration. Where regulation focuses on technology - and there

More information

VOIP CONSUMER RETAIL OFFERS

VOIP CONSUMER RETAIL OFFERS VOIP CONSUMER RETAIL OFFERS VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) experienced a first period of hype during the late 1990s but available bandwidth and speech quality were such that faith in VoIP was quickly

More information

Submission by the Asia Pacific Carriers Coalition

Submission by the Asia Pacific Carriers Coalition Submission by the Asia Pacific Carriers Coalition In Response to Consultation Paper issued by TRAI on Relaxing Restrictive Provision of Internet Telephony (IPT) (Consultation Paper No. 11/08 issued on

More information

Preventing fraud and corruption in public procurement

Preventing fraud and corruption in public procurement Preventing fraud and corruption in public procurement CRIM, European Parliament 24 September 2012 Brussels János Bertók Head of division Public Sector Integrity OECD Data on trends in procurement Size

More information

NUMBERING FOR VoIP SERVICES

NUMBERING FOR VoIP SERVICES Electronic Communications Committee (ECC) within the European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT) NUMBERING FOR VoIP SERVICES Oxford, December 2004 Page 2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

More information

KANSAS CORPORATION COMMISSION IP-to-IP Interconnection Report

KANSAS CORPORATION COMMISSION IP-to-IP Interconnection Report KANSAS CORPORATION COMMISSION IP-to-IP Interconnection Report 2014 REPORT ON IP- TO- IP INTERCONNECTION A Summary of Status of the FCC s Internet Protocol- to- Internet Protocol Interconnection Proceeding

More information

Regulation of VoIP Services: Access to the Emergency Services Statement and publication of a statutory notification under section 48(1) of the

Regulation of VoIP Services: Access to the Emergency Services Statement and publication of a statutory notification under section 48(1) of the Regulation of VoIP Services: Access to the Emergency Services Statement and publication of a statutory notification under section 48(1) of the Communications Act 2003 modifying General Condition 4 Statement

More information

The Amended German Telecommunications Act New Challenges for the Regulation of VoIP-Networks and Services

The Amended German Telecommunications Act New Challenges for the Regulation of VoIP-Networks and Services The Amended German Telecommunications Act New Challenges for the Regulation of VoIP-Networks and Services Sven Tschoepe, LL.M Research Assistant at the Institute for Legal Informatics, University of Hannover

More information

The European Electronic Communications Regulation and Markets 11 th Report Frequently Asked Questions

The European Electronic Communications Regulation and Markets 11 th Report Frequently Asked Questions MEMO/06/84 Brussels, 20 February 2006 The European Electronic Communications Regulation and Markets 11 th Report Frequently Asked Questions What is the EU regulatory framework for electronic communications?

More information

Tax Concessions for Older People in OECD Countries, 2010

Tax Concessions for Older People in OECD Countries, 2010 Austria Belgium Czech Republic Tax credit of EUR 400 for low pension income up to EUR 17,000; the tax credit is fully phased out once pension income equals EUR 25,000. pension income of maximum EUR 1,901.19.

More information

REGULATION OF INTERNET PROTOCOL (IP) TELEPHONY CONSULTATION PAPER. 4 October 2004

REGULATION OF INTERNET PROTOCOL (IP) TELEPHONY CONSULTATION PAPER. 4 October 2004 REGULATION OF INTERNET PROTOCOL (IP) TELEPHONY CONSULTATION PAPER 4 October 2004 INTRODUCTION According to the World Telecommunication Policy Forum (WTPF) held by the International Telecommunication Union

More information

PUBLIC VS. PRIVATE HEALTH CARE IN CANADA. Norma Kozhaya, Ph.D Economist, Montreal economic Institute CPBI, Winnipeg June 15, 2007

PUBLIC VS. PRIVATE HEALTH CARE IN CANADA. Norma Kozhaya, Ph.D Economist, Montreal economic Institute CPBI, Winnipeg June 15, 2007 PUBLIC VS. PRIVATE HEALTH CARE IN CANADA Norma Kozhaya, Ph.D Economist, Montreal economic Institute CPBI, Winnipeg June 15, 2007 Possible private contribution Possible private contribution in the health

More information

Public Consultation. Regulatory approach to. voice services. supported in IP technology. (VoIP)

Public Consultation. Regulatory approach to. voice services. supported in IP technology. (VoIP) http://www.anacom.pt/template12.jsp?categoryid=169403 Public Consultation Regulatory approach to voice services supported in IP technology (VoIP) CONTENTS 1 CONSULTATION FRAMEWORK...3 1.1 INTERNATIONAL

More information

VoIP: more of the same, or a new regulatory paradigm? Will VoIP change the regulatory landscape?

VoIP: more of the same, or a new regulatory paradigm? Will VoIP change the regulatory landscape? VoIP: more of the same, or a new regulatory paradigm? Will VoIP change the regulatory landscape? About ECTA European Competitive Telecommunication Association represents some 150 operators across Europe

More information

Calling All Countries: The VoIP Revolution is Here!

Calling All Countries: The VoIP Revolution is Here! Calling All Countries: The VoIP Revolution is Here! Panel: Sheba Chacko BT Global Services Tony Oliver Microsoft Corporation Andrew Powell Leap Wireless International, Inc. Agenda What is VoIP? Regulating

More information

Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) - An Introduction

Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) - An Introduction PITCOM Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) - An Introduction Peter Ingram Chief Technology Officer Ofcom 18th January 2005 Ofcom What is Voice over IP? Carrying Voice Traffic on Networks Designed for Data

More information

IP network. Collaboration of Governments and private sector, its impact on the success of Internet

IP network. Collaboration of Governments and private sector, its impact on the success of Internet IP network Day one Collaboration of Governments and private sector, its impact on the success of Internet IP applications services definitions Differences between IP networks and PSTN The European policies

More information

European reach. Local expertise.

European reach. Local expertise. Why work libertyglobal-wholesale.eu Our network capabilities WE OWN A STATE OF THE ART NETWORK - We are managing one of the largest IP backbones in Europe - State of the art network with up to 100 Gbps

More information

Canada GO 2535 TM World Traveller's edition Maps of North America (Canada, US, Mexico), Western and Central Europe (including Russia) CAD 349,95

Canada GO 2535 TM World Traveller's edition Maps of North America (Canada, US, Mexico), Western and Central Europe (including Russia) CAD 349,95 Local products may have different maps, prices and products available. Please see below list for local information, prices in local currency and availability of services. An European device will have working

More information

How does Internet Usage Change in Turkey? An Assessment on Internet Users

How does Internet Usage Change in Turkey? An Assessment on Internet Users How does Internet Usage Change in Turkey? An Assessment on Internet Users Ü. Barış Urhan Research Associate İrem Kızılca Research Associate TEPAV Evaluation Note February 2011 How does Internet Usage Change

More information

Broadband Mapping 2013

Broadband Mapping 2013 Broadband Mapping 2013 Broadband Mapping 2013 Summary Publisher: The Danish Business Authority A full Danish edition can be downloaded from the website of the Danish Business Authority: www.erst.dk BROADBAND

More information

Quarterly Key Data Report

Quarterly Key Data Report Irish Communications Market Quarterly Key Data Report Data as of Q4 2008 Document No: 09/17 Date: 19 March 2009 Table of Contents SUMMARY... 6 Notes to data:... 7 1 OVERALL MARKET DATA... 8 1.1 Number

More information

Entanet Voice Products customer pricing

Entanet Voice Products customer pricing Entanet Voice Products customer pricing Please note all PTSN and ISDN lines are provisioned with all outgoing calls barred unless agreed separately with your account manager. PSTN LINES (Analogue Lines)

More information

ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT

ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT 2 OECD RECOMMENDATION OF THE COUNCIL FOR ENHANCED ACCESS AND MORE EFFECTIVE USE OF PUBLIC SECTOR INFORMATION ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT The OECD is a unique forum where the

More information

Bluetooth: Global Certification Requirements

Bluetooth: Global Certification Requirements Bluetooth: Global Certification Requirements Paul G. Didcott Understanding certification requirements can speed time to market for Bluetooth products. Bluetooth is a low-power wireless technology deployed

More information

Business Plan Calls Tariff The Choice for Business Telecoms

Business Plan Calls Tariff The Choice for Business Telecoms Business Plan Calls Tariff The Choice for Business Telecoms broadband / calls / data / / lines / mobile / numbers / voip A w a r d W i n n i n g B u s i n e s s Te l e c o m s FS32851 Quality Management

More information

Case No COMP/M.5730 - TELEFONICA/ HANSENET TELEKOMMUNIKATION. REGULATION (EC) No 139/2004 MERGER PROCEDURE

Case No COMP/M.5730 - TELEFONICA/ HANSENET TELEKOMMUNIKATION. REGULATION (EC) No 139/2004 MERGER PROCEDURE EN Case No COMP/M.5730 - TELEFONICA/ HANSENET TELEKOMMUNIKATION Only the English text is available and authentic. REGULATION (EC) No 139/2004 MERGER PROCEDURE Article 6(1)(b) NON-OPPOSITION Date: 29/01/2010

More information

PRIORITY RULES ON COMPENSATION FOR NUCLEAR DAMAGE IN NATIONAL LEGISLATION

PRIORITY RULES ON COMPENSATION FOR NUCLEAR DAMAGE IN NATIONAL LEGISLATION PRIORITY RULES ON COMPENSATION FOR NUCLEAR DAMAGE IN NATIONAL LEGISLATION (As of December 2009) The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency attempts to maintain the information contained in the attached table in as

More information

PERMANENT AND TEMPORARY WORKERS

PERMANENT AND TEMPORARY WORKERS PERMANENT AND TEMPORARY WORKERS Australia Permanent worker: Permanent workers are employees with paid leave entitlements in jobs or work contracts of unlimited duration, including regular workers whose

More information

relating to household s disposable income. A Gini Coefficient of zero indicates

relating to household s disposable income. A Gini Coefficient of zero indicates Gini Coefficient The Gini Coefficient is a measure of income inequality which is based on data relating to household s disposable income. A Gini Coefficient of zero indicates perfect income equality, whereas

More information

TESTIMONY OF THE VOICE ON THE NET COALITION BEFORE THE SENATE JOBS, AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEE. HEARING ON S.F. No.

TESTIMONY OF THE VOICE ON THE NET COALITION BEFORE THE SENATE JOBS, AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEE. HEARING ON S.F. No. TESTIMONY OF THE VOICE ON THE NET COALITION BEFORE THE SENATE JOBS, AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEE HEARING ON S.F. No. 895 FEBRUARY 25, 2015 Good afternoon Chairman Sparks, Vice Chair Schmit

More information

CENTRAL BANK OF CYPRUS

CENTRAL BANK OF CYPRUS APPENDIX 2 NOTIFICATION BY A BANK INCORPORATED IN CYPRUS, WHICH WISHES TO PROVIDE SERVICES, ON A CROSS BORDER BASIS, IN OTHER EUROPEAN UNION (E.U.) MEMBER STATES IN ACCORDANCE WITH ARTICLE (28) OF THE

More information

ISDN lines (digital lines) are available in ISDN2e & ISDN30e. Prices in the ISDN2e table are for 2 channels of basic rate ISDN2.

ISDN lines (digital lines) are available in ISDN2e & ISDN30e. Prices in the ISDN2e table are for 2 channels of basic rate ISDN2. Customer pricing Voice Effective from August 2014 By offering wholesale PSTN and ISDN lines, Entanet enables you to provide your customers with high quality, reliable telephone lines at competitive prices.

More information

41 T Korea, Rep. 52.3. 42 T Netherlands 51.4. 43 T Japan 51.1. 44 E Bulgaria 51.1. 45 T Argentina 50.8. 46 T Czech Republic 50.4. 47 T Greece 50.

41 T Korea, Rep. 52.3. 42 T Netherlands 51.4. 43 T Japan 51.1. 44 E Bulgaria 51.1. 45 T Argentina 50.8. 46 T Czech Republic 50.4. 47 T Greece 50. Overall Results Climate Change Performance Index 2012 Table 1 Rank Country Score** Partial Score Tendency Trend Level Policy 1* Rank Country Score** Partial Score Tendency Trend Level Policy 21 - Egypt***

More information

Expenditure and Outputs in the Irish Health System: A Cross Country Comparison

Expenditure and Outputs in the Irish Health System: A Cross Country Comparison Expenditure and Outputs in the Irish Health System: A Cross Country Comparison Paul Redmond Overview This document analyzes expenditure and outputs in the Irish health system and compares Ireland to other

More information

Report on Government Information Requests

Report on Government Information Requests Report on Government Information July 1 - December 31, 2014 apple Apple takes our commitment to protecting your data very seriously and we work incredibly hard to deliver the most secure hardware, software

More information

VoIP Statistics Market Analysis

VoIP Statistics Market Analysis VoIP Statistics Market Analysis Q2 2012 October 2012 Point Topic Ltd 73 Farringdon Road London EC1M 3JQ, UK Tel. +44 (0) 20 3301 3305 Email laura.kell@point-topic.com 2 Contents 1 Introduction 3 2 Global

More information

Electricity, Gas and Water: The European Market Report 2014

Electricity, Gas and Water: The European Market Report 2014 Brochure More information from http://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/2876228/ Electricity, Gas and Water: The European Market Report 2014 Description: The combined European annual demand for electricity,

More information

Premium Data Centre Europe - 2012 Pricing, Business Model & Services

Premium Data Centre Europe - 2012 Pricing, Business Model & Services Premium Data Centre Europe - 2012 Pricing, Business Models & Services Premium Data Centre Europe - 2012 Pricing, Business Model & Services Table of Contents A list of figures used in this report 5 Methodology

More information

PUBLIC & PRIVATE HEALTH CARE IN CANADA

PUBLIC & PRIVATE HEALTH CARE IN CANADA PUBLIC & PRIVATE HEALTH CARE IN CANADA by Norma Kozhaya, Ph.D. Economist, Montreal Economic Institute before the Canadian Pension & Benefits Institute Winnipeg - June 15, 2007 Possible private contribution

More information

TOMTOM BONUS INTERNATIONAL MAP INDONESIA PROMOTION HOW TO CLAIM

TOMTOM BONUS INTERNATIONAL MAP INDONESIA PROMOTION HOW TO CLAIM TOMTOM BONUS INTERNATIONAL MAP INDONESIA PROMOTION HOW TO CLAIM a) To be eligible to claim, individuals must purchase an eligible TomTom GPS model (as stipulated below in Clause 11) from a participating

More information

EUROPEAN COMMISSION. Comments pursuant to Article 7(3) of Directive 2002/21/EC

EUROPEAN COMMISSION. Comments pursuant to Article 7(3) of Directive 2002/21/EC EUROPEAN COMMISSION Brussels, 13.12.2012 C(2012) 9757 Institut Belge des Postes et Télécommunications (IBPT) 35 Boulevard du Roi Albert II B -1030 Bruxelles Belgium For the attention of: Mr. Luc Hindryckx

More information

COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, THE COUNCIL, THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE AND THE COMMITTEE OF THE REGIONS

COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, THE COUNCIL, THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE AND THE COMMITTEE OF THE REGIONS EUROPEAN COMMISSION Brussels, 19.4.2011 COM(2011) 222 final COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, THE COUNCIL, THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE AND THE COMMITTEE OF THE REGIONS

More information

Process and Principles for Interconnection rates calculation

Process and Principles for Interconnection rates calculation Process and Principles for Interconnection rates calculation by Werner Neu Arusha, 15 to 17 April 2002 Slide 0 Agenda What are Switched Interconnection Services? What should be regulated? How to set Prices

More information

European policy and regulation for convergence

European policy and regulation for convergence Antelope Consulting European policy and regulation for convergence Robert Milne rem@antelope.org.uk www.antelope.org.uk June 2007 Agenda Introduction Case study 1: Audiovisual media Case study 2: Publicly

More information

Australian Communications and Media Authority s Calling the Emergency Call Service Review of Arrangements Discussion Paper

Australian Communications and Media Authority s Calling the Emergency Call Service Review of Arrangements Discussion Paper Australian Communications and Media Authority s Calling the Emergency Call Service Review of Arrangements Discussion Paper Submission by Communications Alliance and the Australian Mobile Telecommunications

More information

SURVEY OF INVESTMENT REGULATION OF PENSION FUNDS. OECD Secretariat

SURVEY OF INVESTMENT REGULATION OF PENSION FUNDS. OECD Secretariat SURVEY OF INVESTMENT REGULATION OF PENSION FUNDS OECD Secretariat Methodological issues The information collected concerns all forms of quantitative portfolio restrictions applied to pension funds in OECD

More information

REPORT FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL

REPORT FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL EUROPEAN COMMISSION Brussels, 25.9.2014 COM(2014) 592 final REPORT FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL on the implementation in the period from 4 December 2011 until 31 December

More information

Definition of Mobile Instant Messaging (MIM) Systems

Definition of Mobile Instant Messaging (MIM) Systems J son & Partners Consulting Company presents the results of the research Mobile instant messaging systems as a direct threat to SMS. Definition of Mobile Instant Messaging (MIM) Systems MIM (Mobile Instant

More information

COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES

COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES Brussels, 20.2.2006 COM(2006)68 final COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE COUNCIL, THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE AND THE

More information

Vodafone encourages customers to go on roamin holiday. ~ Vodafone uses worldwide scale to slash international data roaming charges ~

Vodafone encourages customers to go on roamin holiday. ~ Vodafone uses worldwide scale to slash international data roaming charges ~ news release April 16, 2008 Vodafone encourages customers to go on roamin holiday ~ Vodafone uses worldwide scale to slash international data roaming charges ~ Vodafone Australia today launched two international

More information

Residential Wireline Telecommunications Services in Canada: Primary Exchange Services and Broadband 2015

Residential Wireline Telecommunications Services in Canada: Primary Exchange Services and Broadband 2015 Residential Wireline Telecommunications Services in Canada: Primary Exchange Services and Broadband 2015 Jeffrey Church Professor Department of Economics and Director Digital Economy Program, School of

More information

BROADBAND INTERNET MARKET IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC

BROADBAND INTERNET MARKET IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC BROADBAND INTERNET MARKET IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC Market Sizing & Opportunity September 2009 Tomáš Juppa This report is an example of my work done in September 2009. The report itself is available for download

More information

On What Resources and Services Is Education Funding Spent?

On What Resources and Services Is Education Funding Spent? Indicator On What Resources and Services Is Education Funding Spent? In primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education combined, current accounts for an average of 92% of total spending in

More information