1 Big Data: SMS + FDM = Safety Assurance* Orlando, FL March 3-4, 2015 Stuart Kipp Lau FDM Systems Manager SkyTrac Systems JHSIT Member Systems & Equipment WG Chair Global HFDM Steering Group IHST Liaison
2 Safety Space Welcome Safety Brief: Emergency Exits, Fire, Severe Weather, etc. PEDs: Please limit distractions by silencing ringers. Format Interactive workshop a top level overview that links two important safety programs w/ Q&A 2
3 3 Welcome and thank YOU!
5 Who are we? A team of government and industry leaders formed to address the factors affecting an unacceptable civil helicopter accident rate. Vision: A civil helicopter community with zero accidents Mission: Establish partnerships with significant helicopter operations and encourage development and implementation of safety interventions by sharing lessons learned through accident analysis. Goals: Zero Tolerance + Zero Accidents Reduce civil the helicopter rate by 2016, Reverse any negative trend and improve safety culture in the helicopter industry. Promote safety publications and toolkits to operators across the country for maximum awareness of the USHST message.
6 US Helicopter Fatal Accident & Fatality Rates *CY 14, Jan-Jul Only 6
7 Introduction(s) 121 PF/PM Career Civilian trained Kent State University Typical career progression including 4 airlines Current 757/767 +Union safety work FOQA ASAP LOSA Safety Publications Accident Investigation PNF Career (Kipp 3.0) SkyTrac Systems Implementation of FDM in non-scheduled ops Acquire, analyze and create applications for flight data Industry volunteer IHST, USHST, GHFDM Trade publications Pro Pilot, Vertical, etc. Consulting Avionics Safety Programs (FAA, HAI, etc.) Hi, I m: Kipp
8 Linking or connecting safety 121 Safety Background in airline safety including FOQA, ASAP and (now) LOSA Aviation Safety Information Analysis and Sharing (ASIAS - original NASA DNFA participant) FAA InfoShare Accident investigation Rotorcraft Safety Industry safety volunteer and consultant IHST/USHST FDM WG Lead (now Systems and Equipment WG Lead) [HeliShare vision] IHST HFDM Toolkit, HUMS Toolkit and HFAP(P) FOQA I&O plans (Air Log [now Bristow] and ACH) FDM hardware, software and program development (formerly CAPACG, CAE and now SkyTrac) HAI HFDM PEGASAS Joint industry and gov t program to improve rotorcraft safety FAA-funded [participants include industry (HAI and others), gov t (FAA) and academia (GA-Tech, Purdue, UND) HAI HFDM WG (Goal to gather SMEs to provide industry input leading to enhanced HFDM system & processes) Sharing (building on HeliShare success leading to formal inclusion in R-ASIAS program [finally])
9 Guest: Scott Collins: CTO Collcomp Consulting, LLC. R-ASIAS Data Model
10 Presentation / Web Tier... Web server presenting pages to end users and dispatching/scheduling workload to the application layer Application Layer... Query data, provide analysis and return results to presentation layer Data Tier RDBMS Cluster HADOOP MapR Cluster File Server cluster External Data Sources Matchmakers our role: Connect SMS and FDM Turn data into actionable information Share information to improve helicopter safety Ground rules yours: Have fun Participate Ask questions Meet your neighbor Network Caveat: Our goal is to provide a thoughtful presentation to improve safety in your operation it is not an all encompassing course on SMS and FDM (see next). FDM SMS FDM Big Data 10
11 SMS and FDM resources: 11
12 FDM and SMS: An enemy of safety? Question: Is FDM and SMS an enemy of safety? 1. No, a properly implemented FDM program within a SMS will improve safety. 2. Yes, if the programs aren t managed properly. 3. No, I m pretty sure I m in the wrong classroom and this guy is nuts. 4. Yes, this guy is a fan of Sydney Dekker (a contrarian s view). 5. All of the above 12
13 Success: an enemy of safety According to Sydney Dekker, Herein lies the current safety industry's biggest problem: by turning safety into a goal to achieve statistically, companies worry more about "looking good" than actually reducing illness and injuries. 13
14 Caveat: Communicating safety Background = buy-in Be proactive get out in front of the issue Promoting past successes does little to ensure future safety. Success is the enemy of safety (counterintuitive, but true.) 14
15 Communicating Safety Poorly: Use SMS as the playbook. 1. Risk identified 2. 2 Risk Defenses 1. Physical Defenses are objects that discourage or prevent inappropriate action or mitigate the consequences of events. 2. Administrative defenses include procedures and practices that mitigate the probability of an accident. 3. Order of Precedence for Hazard Control 1. Modify the system design the hazard out 2. Physical guards or barriers 3. Warning or Alert signal 4. Procedural or training change 5. Advise people placards, notices, briefings, etc.
16 Big Data: SMS+FDM=Safety Assurance Problem statements: 1 (Micro): How to grow from a safety department into an organizational safety enterprise? 2a and 2b (Macro): How best to share critical safety info between operators, segments and continents? 16
17 Problem statement #1: Pre-SMS, organizational safety structures were not connected. (micro) ASAP FOQA Safety FLT OPS AQP/ TRG STDs MX LOSA 17 Each operated in individual silos with different objectives, agendas, profit centers, etc
18 Problem statement #2a: HFDM programs (Pre 2009) were disconnected operating in individual silos. (macro) ERA CHC Aircraft S-76, S-92 Bristow Cougar SA-365/EC155, AS332/EC225, EC135 BH412 BH212 BH206 PHI Others ACH Aircraft S-76C+ Sector: Oil and Gas HEMS Others Each organization operated in a vacuum unwilling to share safety information with each due to competitive concerns (and a lack of understanding).
19 Problem statement 2b:Between HeliShare began connecting larger* operators in the US, while the small** operator is still not represented (macro) *HeliShare is US centered org s such as HeliOffshore are promoting expanded sharing **Small operators account for 80% of all operators R-ASIAS hopes to capture some of that data ERA Bristow PHI CHC Cougar Chevron CHI Shell Etc Aircraft S-76, S-92 SA-365/EC155, AS332/EC225, EC145, EC135 BH412, BH212, BH407 BH206 Metro PHI Air Methods ACH Aircraft EC145, EC135 S-76C+ BH407 Sector: Oil and Gas HEMS Others HeliShare connected a core group of operators in the Gulf of Mexico (OGP) and has grown to now include some HEMS operators.
20 Big Data: SMS+FDM=Safety Assurance The Agenda (and solutions): Big picture overview using really big pictures 20
21 Big Data: It s everywhere 21 GE s fuel studies are great example of an application of FDM.
22 Big Data: SMS+FDM=Safety Assurance Using wine, parenthood and Pringles we ll demonstrate how other industries are employing analytics to improve their business. 22
23 23 Big Data: SMS+FDM=Safety Assurance
24 Definition of SMS A safety management system (SMS) is an organized approach to managing safety, including the necessary organizational structures, accountabilities, policies and procedures. (ICAO SMM)
25 Canada s TSB on SMS: 25
26 Big Data: SMS+FDM=Safety Assurance Current Intervention Point 1 crash FDM Intervention Point K unreported incidents
27 Flight Data Monitoring defined Flight Data Monitoring (FDM) is the technology and methodology for collecting and analyzing data recorded in flight.* (FAA) A systematic method of accessing, analyzing and acting upon information obtained from digital flight data records of routine operations to improve safety * *In a just, non-punitive, culture.
28 SMS provides a path to act upon safety information
29 Big Data: SMS+FDM=Safety Assurance Safety policy and objectives 1.1 Management commitment and responsibility 1.2 Safety accountabilities of managers 1.3 Appointment of key safety personnel 1.4 Coordination of emergency response planning 1.5 SMS Documentation Safety risk management 2.1 Hazard identification processes 2.2 Risk assessment and mitigation processes Safety assurance 3.1 Safety performance monitoring and measurement 3.2 The management of change 3.3 Continuous improvement of the SMS Safety promotion 4.1 Training and education 4.2 Safety communication SMS is your organization s Safety Play Book; use it!
30 30 Big Data: Data rich, information poor, etc.
31 31 Big Data: It s more than charts and graphs
32 Big Data: Knowledge and Wisdom = Value $$$$ $$$ $$ $ 32
33 FDM supports SMS In the Safety Management Systems (SMS) context of risk management strategies, FDM is reactive (past events), proactive (seeks identification of hazards) and predictive (identifies future problems/trends). Safety risk management is assured by using objective flight data to support an SMS. FDM allows the operator to objectively establish the context or level of risk and then identify, analyze and evaluate risks.
34 FDM is tactical SMS is strategic Essentially, FDM is the tactical component of a strategic SMS. By monitoring routine flight data, the organization can achieve greater insight into the flight operation and provides additional information to enhance safety.
35 Introducing Mr. Scott Collins: IT Architecture Presentation / Web Tier Chief Technology Officer Collcomp Consulting, LLC. Provides a unique nonaviation perspective at a complex problem of handling, processing and analyzing data from very different sources. Application Layer Data Tier RDBMS Cluster HADOOP MapR Cluster File Server cluster FDR Open Data From operators FDR systems via web interface Web server presenting pages to end users and dispatching/scheduling workload to the application layer Query data, provide analysis and return results to presentation layer R-ASIAS Data Feeds FDR de-identified Operator Data N Number, Pilot, Company, Location made less specific... Aircraft Database List of aircraft models and operational limits for each FDR parameter... Weather Data SOAP interface to NOAA (30 years available) External Data Sources Maintenance Data????? FDR Database List of all FDR vendors and models with full parameter list Mission Types i.e. Testing, training, etc. Already defined and available through HAI Common keys across sources must be defined and limited based on de-identification such as location data Unified Query of all available Databases We need use cases or sample queries to begin development of hard requirements for design. This can be ranked by complexity and availability and mapped to a software release schedule with a version 1 release being relatively simple and easy to implement with the design keeping greater complexity in mind. FAA Trafic Data What is this and how can it be accessed FDR BLOB Data Video Audio Waveform
36 << Menu >>
37 What is Big? How Much Data From the dawn of civilization until 2003, humankind generated five exabytes of data. Now we produce five exabytes every two days and the pace is accelerating. Eric Schmidt, Executive chairman, Google
38 What kind of data are we talking about for this industry? Discreet numeric values from flight data recorders Weather data Flight traffic data Geographic and topographic data Aircraft performance characterizations Video Data Voice Data Vibrational Data / Noise
39 Big data is about challenges and opportunities Characteristics Growing quantity of data Quickening speed of data generation Increase in types of data Veracity of the data Opportunities Making better informed decisions Discovering hidden insights Anomalies, forensics, patterns and trends Automation
40 Example 1: The Grapes of Math Opportunity Advise vintners on Wine Spectator scores & competitions and how to improve winemaking Data & Analytics Database of hundreds of thousands of wines including chemical analysis of 100+ chemical compounds Proprietary method (pattern matching, machine learning) for sampling and analyzing grapes Results Ability to predict Wine Spectator scores and simulate tasting notes Winemakers improve wine scores, and optimize inventory, pricing and promotion
41 Example 2: An Infamous Retail Tale Opportunity Target consumers with promotions based on their determined life situation Data & Analytics Transaction receipts and other undisclosed information Inference engine to predict future needs based on shopping and purchase pattern changes Result Identified woman was pregnant; even estimated her due date Woman was a pregnant teen; her father didn t know until coupons arrived Coupons now sealed
42 Example 3: Flight of the Pringle Opportunity All worldwide Pringles are made in 1 of 3 plants using the same process adapted from other baked goods in N. America, Europe and Asia As production rates ramped up, almost 20% of production was lost due to broken chips Data & Analytics Using big data analytics, they were able to correlate chip breakage with specific spots in the production line and correlated that to aerodynamic effects of the Pringles on conveyors at speed They then used supercomputing combined with big data analysis to redesign the shape of the Pringle to make it more aerodynamically sound Result Failure / breakage rate dropped from ~20% to ~3% saving over $7 million dollars per plant annually in lost revenue.
43 Big Data: SMS+FDM=Safety Assurance Problem statements: 1 (Micro): How to grow from a safety department to an organizational safety enterprise? (Solution) SMS provides tools and processes for an organization to grow its safety enterprise. 43
44 Problem statement #1: Pre-SMS, an organization s safety structures were not connected. (micro) ASAP FOQA Safety FLT OPS AQP/ TRG STDs MX LOSA Story follows: 44
45 A short story Purpose Provide historical perspective of modern safety systems. Frame session material Promise It s fiction; names and identities have been changed to protect the innocent. No small animals or children were harmed in anyway Working Title Next 45
46 Analyst Confessions: back in the day 46
47 Setting: there were many different silos ASAP FOQA Safety FLT OPS AQP/ TRG STDs MX LOSA 47 Each with different objectives, agendas, profit centers, etc
48 48 Characters: The safety forum
49 The plot: A desire to bend the story (and a few other silly questions): Safety Manager: Can we adjust the event definition at XYZ to decrease the rate of unstable approaches? Fleet Supervisor: That can t be we ve flown these aircraft for years. We re no different than other fleets! The data must be wrong. Etc 49
52 Characteristics of a UA 80% of UA were either a non-precision approach or non-standard ILS w/: Steeper than normal glideslope Short distance from FAF to TDZ (<4 nm) High elevation airport (= high TAS) Steep or no PAPI/VASI Etc. NOTE: Qrt/Qrt improvement in UA rates (below 2%) / Only 5% of UA flew a Go-Around (95% noncompliance w/ policy) 52
55 Why? (How can it be fixed?) ASAP FOQA Safety FLT OPS AQP/ TRG STDs MX LOSA 55 No formal process to take action on meaningful info
56 56 Answer: SMS provides a path
57 ICAO SMS Framework: A formal approach to safety management Safety policy and objectives 1.1 Management commitment and responsibility 1.2 Safety accountabilities of managers 1.3 Appointment of key safety personnel 1.4 Coordination of emergency response planning 1.5 SMS Documentation Safety risk management 2.1 Hazard identification processes 2.2 Risk assessment and mitigation processes Safety assurance 3.1 Safety performance monitoring and measurement 3.2 The management of change 3.3 Continuous improvement of the SMS Safety promotion 4.1 Training and education 4.2 Safety communication SMS is your organization s Safety Play Book; use it!
58 Definition of Safety (ICAO) Safety is the state in which the risk of harm to persons or of property damage is reduced to, and maintained at or below, an acceptable level through a continuing process of hazard identification and risk management
59 Safety Risk The assessment, in terms of probability and severity, of the consequences of a hazard, taking as reference the worst foreseeable situation.
60 What is Safety Risk Management (SRM) A formal process within the SMS describes the system identifies the hazards assesses and analyses the risk and causes controls the risk to as low as reasonably practicable monitors the changes to ensure effectiveness Integrated within the processes used to provide the product/service Data Driven (Safety Reports, FDM, ASAP, AQP, LOSA, etc.)
61 CFIT or Approach and Landing Accident
62 Catastrophe HIGH Bankruptcy Production Protection COST LOW RISK Perception Politics
63 Safety Management System Fly Crash Analyse Adjust
64 Focus on 3 primary areas of SMS Managing Risk (James Reason s 3 elements) Organization Technology People Human beings, the technology they operate, and the organization they work within, are the three sets of factors likely to be implicated in breaching defences put in place to avoid accidents Must read: Managing the Risks of Organizational Accidents (Reason) (Also Just Culture (Dekker)
65 Accidents (there s a Reason ) Elements of an accident 1. Organization 2. Technology 3. People 4. (Luck) 65
66 How accidents happen TSB: A lack of an effective transition from a traditional safety management to a functional SMS prevented an adequate risk assessment of the intro of the Global 5000 No risk assessment of operating into A 4,800 RWY Humans Technology Organization Low experience in aircraft type, EWH and PAPI understanding, duck-under approach, etc. VGSI, FMS VPTH, EWH, RWY length
67 Global vs the CL604 67
68 Controls to mitigate the threat? What controls may have mitigated this accident? Organization? Technology? People? Other 68
69 Change Management Types of changes: 1. Organizational Change New people, roles, company structure, <to include operational> etc. 2. Technology New a/c type, construction, new tools, etc. 3. Human Change Personal, emotional, group dynamics.
70 Big Data: SMS+FDM=Safety Assurance Problem statements: 2a and 2b(Macro): How best to share critical safety info between operators, segments and continents? (Solution) Sharing and analyzing flight data and other sources of safety information provides operators with apples-to-apples comparisons of like operations and provides opportunities for systematic improvements throughout the industry. 70
71 Problem statement #2a: HFDM programs (Pre 2009) were disconnected operating in individual silos. (macro) ERA CHC Aircraft S-76, S-92 Bristow Cougar SA-365/EC155, AS332/EC225, EC135 BH412 BH212 BH206 PHI Others ACH Aircraft S-76C+ Sector: Oil and Gas HEMS Others Each organization operated in a vacuum unwilling to share safety information with each due to competitive concerns (and a lack of understanding).
72 Problem statement 2b:Between HeliShare began connecting larger* operators in the US, while the small** operator is still not represented (macro) *HeliShare is US centered org s such as HeliOffshore are promoting expanded sharing **Small operators account for 80% of all operators R-ASIAS hopes to capture some of that data ERA Bristow PHI CHC Cougar Chevron CHI Shell Etc Aircraft S-76, S-92 SA-365/EC155, AS332/EC225, EC145, EC135 BH412, BH212, BH407 BH206 Metro PHI Air Methods ACH Aircraft EC145, EC135 S-76C+ BH407 Sector: Oil and Gas HEMS Others HeliShare connected a core group of operators in the Gulf of Mexico (OGP) and has grown to now include some HEMS operators.
73 Roadmap for HFDM programs beyond 2015 (R-ASIAS conceptual) ERA Bristow CHC Cougar CHI Shell CalStar MedFlt 7Bar Metro Boston MedFlt Air Methods Others: to include 91 ops PHI Chevron AMGH PHI ACH Las Vegas PD Fairfax Co. Sector: Oil and Gas HEMS Others Checkout: Wed, March 4 th (1:00-2:00) Room 320E Developing R-ASIAS: An Overview of HFDM and Research
74 Thank you! 74 May 12-13, 2015 Miami, FL Kipp Lau SkyTrac Systems
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