Health Science / Anatomy Exam 1 Study Guide

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1 THIS EXAM WILL ONLY COVER ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO LECTURES Alcohol What is Alcohol? Alcohol is a depressant Contains intoxicating substance called ethyl alcohol or ethanol Alcohol use Approximately 59.8% of students report having consumed an alcoholic beverage in the past 30 days. Of college students, 44% engage in binge drinking. Binge drinking for men is consuming 5 or more drinks in about 2 hours; for women, consuming 4 or more. Alcohol use among college students disrupts sleep, decreases alertness, and may affect academic performance. Advertising and promotions target college students. College students are more likely to drink recklessly. Students are vulnerable to peer influence. Proof Measure of the percent alcohol 80 proof whiskey = 40% alcohol Absorption and Metabolism About 20% of absorption occurs in the stomach. About 80% of absorption occurs in the small intestine. Factors that influence absorption Concentration of the drink Amount consumed Food in the stomach Mood Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) Ratio of alcohol to total blood volume The legal limit for BAC is 0.08% in all states. Both breath analysis (breathalyzer tests) and urinalysis are used to determine whether an individual is legally intoxicated, but blood tests are more accurate. Alcohol Posining Acute alcohol intoxication can be fatal. The amount of alcohol that causes unconsciousness is dangerously close to a fatal dose. BAC continues to rise even after a drinker is unconscious. Signs include inability to be roused, weak, rapid pulse, cool, pale, or bluish skin. Call immediately. 1 P a g e

2 Binge Drinking Binge drinking for men is consuming 5 or more drinks in about 2 hours; for women, consuming 4 or more. Problem among young people Dangerous because it is possible to consume a fatal dose of alcohol Alcohol and Pregnancy Teratogenic substances cause birth defects; alcohol is one of the most dangerous and common. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Mental retardation, impaired learning, poor memory, small head, tremors, impulsive behaviors, reduced attention span, and abnormalities of face, limbs, heart, and brain Drinking and Driving Thirty-two percent of all traffic fatalities in 2008 were alcohol related. Many college students drink and drive. Effects of Alcohol on the body Know effects of alcohol on the nervous system, brain, senses, heart, stomach, and liver 2 P a g e

3 Tobacco use in United States Tobacco Use Worldwide: 3,000,000 deaths annually one every 10 sec 1 billion people smoke about 6 trillion cigarettes a year Nearly 443,000 Americans die annually of tobacco-related diseases. Another 10 million suffer tobacco-induced health disorders. Tobacco causes about 25 diseases, and about half of all regular smokers die of smoking-related diseases. Why do tobacco companies target kids? Tobacco industry needs to replace 3,000 smokers who die or quit each day Very small percentage of smokers begin after teens Students and Tobacco use Heavy tobacco marketing and advertising is aimed at students, but smoking among college students is declining. Why do college students smoke? To relax or reduce stress To fit in/social pressure Because of addiction 3 P a g e

4 Social smoking Many students identify themselves as social smokers: those that smoke only around other smokers. This can lead to dependence and all the same health risks as smoking regularly. Tobacco and its effects Nicotine Highly addictive, psychoactive substance Tar and Carbon Monoxide Tar is the carcinogenic Nicotine paralyzes cilia, which become unable to clear out tar. Tobacco Addiction Nicotine poisoning Tobacco products Cigarettes Cigars Bidis Smokeless tobacco 4 P a g e

5 Health Hazards of Tobacco products Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death. Smoking just one cigar a day can double the risk of oral cancers. Chewing tobacco is responsible for 75% of new oral cancers. Other tobacco-induced cancers: pancreatic, kidney, bladder, lip, tongue, esophagus, and larynx Smokers have a 70% higher death rate from heart disease than do non-smokers. Daily cigar smoking doubles the risk of heart attack and stroke. Smokers are twice as likely to suffer strokes. Quitting reduces risk by half after only 1 year Secondhand smoke exposure You breathe in more than 4,000 chemicals when you are around someone who is smoking. The chemicals found in secondhand smoke hurt your health, and many are known to cause cancer. Children who are around smoke are more likely to have the following: Lung problems Ear infections Severe asthma Quitting Smoking Breaking the Nicotine Addiction Seventy percent attempt to quit a year Only between 4 and 7% succeed Nicotine Replacement Products Nicotine chewing gum Nicotine patch Nicotine nasal spray Nicotine inhaler Nicotine lozenges 5 P a g e

6 Lungs Be able to identify smoker from non-smoker lungs 6 P a g e

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Alcohol and Tobacco

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