THE IST DESIGN STUDIO: a plan for action

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1 Instituto Superior Técnico Universidade Técnica de Lisboa THE IST DESIGN STUDIO: a plan for action by Manuel Heitor 1 and Arlindo Silva 2 1. Center for Innovation, Technology and Policy Research, IN+, 2. Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, ICEMS October, 2003

2 Executive Summary The IST Design Studio aims at renewing and strengthening research and education in engineering design in a way to improve manufacturing competitiveness and innovation. The studio is centred on activities developed through the IST s M.Sc. on Engineering Design, in close collaboration with industry, bringing together staff, researchers and students from the IST s Department of Mechanical Engineering, as well as from the Department of Engineering and Management Science, the Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture and the Department of Informatics. The Design Studio is established through a joint initiative of the Center for Innovation, Technology and Policy Research, IN+, together with the Institute of Mechanical Engineering, IDMEC and the Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, ICESM, in close collaboration with leading international institutions. Its ultimate goal is to help extending the enterprise value chain in emerging and traditional sectors by incorporating the necessary design skills for new product development practices. To achieve this goal, our strategy is to introduce and promote product development strategies in Portugal by establishing a sustainable research and education programme to develop and transfer knowledge of engineering design, which will enable companies to continually: integrate design competencies improving product quality, and significantly reduce leadtime in product development, while increasing performance/cost ratio. Our vision for the coming decade is the establishment of routine procedures of collaborative product development in Portuguese manufacturing, allowing the incorporation of design competencies in industry in a way to increase product value and reduce product development lead times, while simultaneously reducing life-cycle costs, improving quality and satisfying the general design requirements of minimum energy consumption, recycling capability and environmental friendliness. To achieve these objectives, the agenda of the Design Studio includes the development of projects under the following main topics: o Autoparts for the future o Train applications o Sustainable mobility o Design for citizenship o Collaborative design Areas of future development under planning include: o Aero components and systems o Miniaturized equipments and systems o Human - body interfacing and interaction o MIMICS configurable and adaptive surfaces 2

3 Sumário Executivo Pretende-se promover a capacidade de engenharia de concepção e design, assim como a noção de projecto de engenharia associado á concepção de requisitos funcionais, atraves de iniciativas de ensino e investigação em estreita cooperação com o meio empresarial de forma a potenciar a capacidade de desenvolvimento de novos produtos de maior valor acrescentado. O Design Studio está baseado em actividades desenvolvidas através do Programa de mestrado do IST em Engenharia de Concepção ( Engineering Design, ), em estreita colaboração com a industria e reunindo docentes, estudantes e investigadores do Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica do IST, assim como dos Departamentos de Engenharia e Gestão, de Engenharia Civil e Arquitectura, e de Informática. O Design Studio foi estabelecido através de uma iniciativa conjunta do centro de Estudos em Inovação, tecnologia e Políticas de Desenvolvimento, IN+, juntamente com o Instituto de Engenharia Mecânica, IDMEC, e o Instituto de Ciências e Engenharia de Materiais, ICESM, em estreita colaboração com instituições de reconhecida reputação internacional. Em particular pretende-se promover a formação de novas competências orientadas para o desenvolvimento de novos produtos e serviços de base tecnológica e, sobretudo, a integração sistémica de produtos e serviços em harmonia com o ambiente e garantindo principios de fiabilidade, disponibilidade, manutenção e segurança, juntamente com a optimização dos custos associados aos produtos-serviços. Considera-se um conceito lato de design, combinando aspectos estéticos e de definição de forma, com a concepção de novos materiais, o desenvolvimento de microsistemas, a introdução de processos de fabrico de elevada intensidade tecnológica e a minimização de custos associados à interacção dos produtos-serviços com o ambiente durante todo o seu ciclo de vida. O programa aqui proposto surge particularmente enquadrado num contexto de desenvolvimento e inovação empresarial reclamado por vários sectores industriais, com o objectivo ultimo de promover uma infraestrutura de investigação de base académica capaz de contribuir para a competitividade empresarial através da evolução na cadeia de valor, em particular nas áreas de sistemas de transporte e bens de consumo. Para se atingirem estes objectivos, o Design Studio inclui o desenvolvimento de projectos nas seguintes areas: o Autoparts for the future o Train applications o Sustainable mobility o Design for citizenship o Collaborative design Desenvolvimentos futuros estão planeados para as seguintes areas: o Aero components and systems o Miniaturized equipments and systems o Human - body interfacing and interaction o MIMICS configurable and adaptive surfaces 3

4 List of Contents Executive Summary Sumário executivo (in Portuguese) 1. Mission Statement 2. Objectives 3. Strategy 4. Work Plan 4.1 Scientific areas and Research topics 4.2 Topics for Projects 5. Projects 6. HANDS-ON 7. Education and Training 7.1 Degree Programmes M.Sc. on Engineering Design Towards a national PhD programme 7.2 Non-Degree Programmes Workshop series Executive Education 8. Cooperation 8.1 National cooperation 8.2 International Cooperation 9. Organization 9.1 Overall management and Organization 9.2 Visiting Committee 10. Contacts 11. Links 4

5 1. Mission Statement The mission of the IST Design Studio is to promote engineering design competencies through collaborative research and education programmes, with the ultimate goal of improving the competitiveness of firms through the integration of collaborative product development routines. This encompasses the desire to expand the awareness of engineering design through education, the development of new teaching curricula and materials for use in engineering and business education, and the establishment of public-private partnerships and industry-science relationships aimed to improve industrial competitiveness. Our vision for the coming decade is the establishment of routine procedures of collaborative product development in Portuguese manufacturing, allowing the incorporation of design competencies in industry in a way to increase product value and reduce product development lead times, while simultaneously reducing life-cycle costs, improving quality and satisfying the general design requirements of minimum energy consumption, recycling capability and environmental friendliness. 2. Objectives Enabling the future of engineering design for human development through discovery, learning and innovation. At the onset of the 20th century few could have guessed the importance that the then nascent engineering and technological disciplines would have in the improvement of the quality of life over the ensuing century. As we enter the 21st century the promise of further improvements based on new and deeper applications of engineering systems is a reason for optimism. While it is difficult to forecast the exact shape and form that the engineering disciplines of the future will assume, it is safe to say that there are a number of problems to which engineering design can provide, at least partially, a response. The vision supporting the IST Design Studio is based on an identification of some of these problems that, although specific to the Portuguese reality, must be understood in a context in which the integration of the country in an increasingly open and interconnected world cannot be ignored. The Design Studio is aimed to promote new engineering design competencies in a way to increase the Portuguese innovative capacity, through the development of research and education programmes directed to contribute extending the enterprise value chain in emerging and traditional sectors by incorporating the necessary design skills for new product development practices. The ultimate goal is to affect the product development programs of manufacturing companies located in Portugal by establishing a sustainable research and education program to develop and transfer knowledge of engineering design, which will enable these companies to continually: integrate design competencies improving product quality, and significantly reduce leadtime in product development, while increasing performance/cost ratio. 5

6 The goal of creating a transdisciplinary bridge across different engineering researchers, students and companies, as well as across researchers in different areas (namely, in engineering, art and the social sciences), is emphasised during the cooperative process upon which the various activities involved in the agenda is based. This will achieved through the following major aspects, as schematically represented in Figure 1: Mission-oriented and integrated research and development activities: Research and development of integrated competencies in design engineering; Research networking: Stimulation of the co-operation between different national research entities, in order to enable matching of complementary competencies and the achievement of a critical research and knowledge dimension; Promoting industry-science relationships: Promotion of synergies with the industrial environment to support the companies facing the challenge imposed in several industries towards outsourcing of responsibilities over engineering and manufacturing tasks. The buzz word is full service supplier, with the supplier being responsible for black-boxing new products; Creating new technology-based firms, NTBF s, and fostering entrepreneurship: New firm creation and development to promote the renewal of the private sector, stimulating innovation as a continued process of creative destruction. 6

7 Innovative Capacity for Product Development Disciplinary Knowledge and new Scientific Developments: Simulation and virtual prototyping Design Methods and Management Materials Science Manufacturing Tech Mechanical Design Thermo-Fluids Technology CAE Collaborative Product Development Information and Knowledge Management Entrepreneurial Culture and Attitude Electronics Sustainability Eco-Design Shape Systems Engng. Emotions Virtual Prototyping Management of Technology Industry Needs and requirements Design Ergonomics Design Figure 1. Systemic approach to Collaborative product development, as conceived through the IST Design Studio 7

8 3. Strategy: Promoting creativity for innovation The importance of designing discovery approaches that go beyond scientific method has been widely discussed, and the strategy of the IST Design Studio is focused on stimulating a creative attitude towards innovation. In general, the analysis shows that in the emerging learning economies, the secret of success is a combination of expertise in a productive manner. This breaks with existing concepts of time, space, mass and behaviour. In fact, current technological systems are complex, and carry many levels of cultural meaning, which per se brings new challenges and opportunities for innovative product development. The building-up of design capabilities involves multiple learning routes, including formal and informal processes, where the roles of design development and production experience are simultaneously important, as schematically represented in Figure 2. The lower half of this diagram considers avenues through which production capabilities evolve. They include development projects, which are associated with the launch of new products, and production experience, which provides capabilities for new product development. The diagram is symmetric because both development projects and production experience have dual roles as users and producers of capabilities. This framework raises interesting issues in the development of design and production capabilities and here our attention is focused on learning before doing in terms of the product development process itself. However, the learning-by-doing component is particularly important in the process of network building, through experiencing long-distance interactions with students with different backgrounds. Knowledge Required for Design Process Development Design Development Capabilities Knowledge about Production Problems and Conditions Design Process Development Production Experience New Process Technology Learning before Doing Production Capabilities Learning by Doing Capabilities Required for Production Figure 2. Capabilities development for complex product design. 8

9 In this context, the IST Design Studio considers the development of joint educational and research programmes that allow implementing the idea of learning-networks through the establishment of a learning environment in which multiple sites distributed around Portugal ( and the world) share an educational and/or research experience. This has been possible due to advances in information and communications technologies that have increased the ability of networking, and here we consider learning networks that lead to self-reinforcing learning cycles. We will consider fully distributed systems, in that learning is provided any time, any place, and beyond a single organisation. In this context, virtual teams will be associated with the emergence of distributed cross-organizational arrangements, which involve people from different organizations who work in different places. 4. Work Plan: transdiciplinary and multi-task The practical relevance of the IST Design Studio requires the continued adaptation of research and education programmes to industrial needs, but also the understanding of major industry needs and opportunities, namely at the level of new product and process development, as well as of leading edge scientific knowledge. This is to be made based on the continued integration of traditional disciplinary knowledge and scientific achievements into well-defined mission-oriented projects with real significance. The procedure will encompass the continuous development of software tools in the form of CAE products, providing the necessary technological knowledge for project implementation. Figures 3 and 4 show the various phases involved in product and process development, respectively, and identifies the main areas of application of the IST Design Studio, in that the development of any successful idea and/or concept should encompass its simulation, prototyping, test and process implementation. This will make from the IST Design Studio a unique programme, but requires the careful integration of transdisciplinary knowledge making use of multi-task procedures. 9

10 Ideia Ideia Concept Concept Design Design Methods Methods Reverse Reverse Engng. Engng. Prototype Prototype Development Development Engineering Engineering Modelling Modelling CAD CAD Simulation Simulation CAE CAE Costs Costs Evaluation Evaluation Economic Economic Evaluation Evaluation Product Devcelopment Process Development Figure 3. Schematic Diagram of Typical Product Development Phases Product Development Preliminary Preliminary project project Project Project Moulds Moulds / / dies dies modelling modelling Process Process simulation simulation Quality Quality plans plans CAD/CAE CAD/CAE Costs Costs evaluation evaluation Quality Quality Control Control (dimensions/form) (dimensions/form) Prototipagem Prototipagem Process planning Process planning Production Production Production Production Simulation Simulation Economic Economic evaluation evaluation Assembly / test Assembly / test Process Development Figure 4. Schematic Diagram of Typical Process Development Phases 10

11 Today s activities in industry are characterized by an increasing collaboration between product development and the manufacturing process. The research programs to be promoted through the IST Design Studio will, like the industrial process itself, both treat product development and manufacture, but with different emphasis. The goal is to achieve a holistic view of the entire process. This approach is essential since it is on one hand important to treat product development with a perspective from the manufacturing side and on the other hand to treat issues regarding the manufacturing process with a perspective from product development. In this context the IST Design Studio agenda will be implemented based on a matrix of strategic scientific areas and integrating projects, as in Figure 5. While the scientific areas represent disciplinary-based knowledge in the way traditionally developed in engineering schools, the integrating projects are the actual cross-functional tools to achieve the required practical relevance of the Agenda. These projects will appear in clusters and should allow the clear implementation of industryscience relationships. The Agenda will be implemented by integrating expertise in eight different groups of scientific areas, including: o Materials and Manufacturing Technologies o Mechanics o Electronics and Microsystems o Sustainability O Simulation and virtual prototyping O Systems & design methods O Management of technology and business innovation O Design The projects considered of strategic value for Portugal by the time of the definition of the IST Design Studio are grouped in the following topics: o Autoparts for the future o Train applications o Sustainable mobility o Design for citizenship o Collaborative design Areas of future development under planning include: o Aero components and systems o Miniaturized equipments and systems o Human - body interfacing and interaction o MIMICS configurable and adaptive surfaces 11

12 Figure 5. IST Design Studio Programme CLUSTERS OF PROJECTS 1. Materials and Manufacturing Technologies Composites Multi-material products Intelligent structures Rapid Prototyping and Tooling Casting, Machining, Assembling Micro manufacturing SCIENTIFIC AREAS / RESEARCH TOPICS 2. Mechanics 3. Electronics and Microsystems 4. Sustainability 5. Simulation and Virtual Prototyping 6. Systems & Design Methods 7. Management of Technology and Business Innovation 8. Design Mechanical systems (Multi-body dynamics) Structural mechanics and Vibrations Computational thermo-fluids Experimental Fluid Mechanics Systems design MEMS Control Life cycle and impact assessment Design for X Eco-Design Computer Aided design and Drafting, CADD Virtual Reality, VR, and Augmented Reality Intelligent virtual environments Value chain management and Project evaluation RAMS Design methods and Management Technical Change and Innovation managemnt Innovation and Productivity Marketing and Business Models Design and emotion Interaction design Design theory and history Autoparts for the future Train applications sustainable mobility Design for citisenship Collaborative design Aero components and systems Miniaturized equipments and systems Human - body interfacing and interaction MIMICS configurable and adaptive surfaces P4 12

13 4.1 Scientific areas and Research topics The various scientific areas considered are briefly described below, independently of the institutions involved: 1. Materials Science and Manufacturing Technologies Research focuses on how to process materials and how to improve or predict the life of materials used in engineering components, but emerging areas will consider the development of multi-material products and intelligent structures. Attention will also include the development of constitutive models of engineering materials for solid deformation processing operations and in-service loading, as well as experimental investigations of the large deformation response of polymers and composites. In addition, a particular emphasis will be given to rapid prototyping and tooling as specific tools for materials processing and new product development. Within the development of this research area, the goal is to specialize in the design of smart structures, with particular concentration on the development of innovative actuators incorporating smart materials such as piezoelectrics, electrostrictives, and shape memory alloys. This research area includes the following research subjects: Composites Multi-material products Intelligent structures Rapid Prototyping and Tooling Casting, Machining, Assembling Micro manufacturing 2. Mechanics Research emphasis derives from traditional solid and fluid mechanics, in a way to promte the development of new and reliable products, with particular attention to transport systems. This includes automotive and trains structural durability by developing techniques for components modeling, subsystem and full vehicle dynamic simulation, stress and fatigue life prediction, and design optimisation, but also the development of the necessary skills in computational and experimental fluid mechanics for vehicle aerodynamics, and fluid-body, interaction studies. A major driving force of this research effort has been the urgent need to reduce up to one order of magnitude the necessary time in the design cycle of new products, with significant increases in productivity and manufacturing quality. Consequently, the use of CAD technology is essential in order to improve and modernize some portuguese industries, providing them with a competitive edge in a global market economy. In addition, a major research task has been associated with the development of experimental fluid mechanics and thermal analysis for new and reliable products. This research area includes the following research subjects: Mechanical systems and dynamics (Multi-body dynamics) Structural mechanics and vibrations Tribology: direct contact and wear, hydrodynamic lubrication and lubricated contact Computational thermo-fluids 13

14 Experimental fluid mechanics and thermal analysis. 3. Electronics and Microsystems Research will be developed to focus on the intersection of three key areas: microelectronics, wireless communications, and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). This includes precision sensors, micropower circuits, wireless interfaces and wafer-level packaging, and the necessary interdisciplinary skills to produce engineering leaders for the emerging microsystems field in order to allow considering the societal impacts that these developments will have on how we live. This research area includes the following research subjects: Systems design MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) Control 4. Sustainability This area considers the necessary scientific and technological knowledge to support the development, engineering and social acceptance of sustainable, eco-efficient concepts (products, services and product-systems) that are produced for mass consumption or use in a professional context. This is because the economic success of firms depends on their ability to identify the needs of customers and to quickly create products that meet these needs and can be produced at low cost, but also following proper environmental limitations. The approach to be adopted is based on the concept of life cycle, as it considers manufacturing (including raw material processing), utilization, disposal, reutilization and recycling strategies. This requires a multidisciplinary approach taking into consideration that a product is engineered, and therefore product development combines new engineering solutions, product design, marketing strategies and environmental considerations, amongst others. Main applications areas will include: Car components Industry; Consumer Goods; Burning equipments. The following research subjects are considered: Life cycle and impact assessment Design for X Eco-Design 5. Simulation and Virtual Prototyping The area of cooperative virtual environments has become strategically relevant, given the emergence of new interaction paradigms involving people and intelligent devices. Research will focus on virtual environments and ubiquitous computing architectures, supporting new modalities and paradigms for interaction and cooperative work. This involves the development of intelligent environments as well as the required infrastructure to support concurrent engineering tasks using multimodal interaction techniques, personal design assistants and tools for cooperative work. In addition, special emphasis will be given to virtual environments that provide an intuitive humanmachine interface for the creation and manipulation of three-dimensional models in a semi-immersive design space. Immersive and semi-immersive environments hold the potential to design new products entirely in a virtual environment, thus extending and complementing the use of physical models..main applications domains for our research 14

15 range from mechanical engineering and virtual prototyping to scientific data visualization, and medical system for planning and training. In this context, augmented reality (AR) is a growing area in virtual prototyping research. The world environment around us provides a wealth of information that is difficult to duplicate in a computer. An augmented reality system generates a composite view for the user. It is a combination of the real scene viewed by the user and a virtual scene generated by the computer that augments the scene with additional information. The application domains reveal that the augmentation can take on a number of different forms. In all those applications the augmented reality presented to the user enhances that person's performance in and perception of the world. The following research subjects are considered: Computer Aided design and Drafting, CADD Virtual Reality, VR, and Augmented Reality Intelligent virtual environments 6. Systems and Design Methods This area includes the design management strategies and methodologies to build on innovative and agile product design. A particular emphasis will be put on the identification of success factors and on the efficiency and effectiveness of the design process, measured by qualitative and quantitative indicators, in a concurrent and distributed engineering environment. The research area also includes the development and use of design methods and tools that improve the design process and the quality of designed artifacts; design process paradigm uses decision-making models to describe design alternatives, and mathematical methods that search the design space. These will be developed considering the industrial competitive pressures to achieve world class products suitable to the market requirements and needs. An enlarged engineering quality perspective will be contemplate, which means product reliability, availability, manutability and safety requirements fulfilled, in a minimum cost context. Finally, a systemic approach of design management and methods will be taken as a solution to develop high quality and economic products and reach the market sooner than the competition to meet the opportunity. The research will consider integrated product development and production through cross-functional teams. The aim is to increase the understanding and to build conceptual models of the efficient use of cross-functional teams in different product development phases. The following research subjects are considered: Value chain management and Project evaluation RAMS (reliability, availability, maintenance and safety) Design methods and Management Distributed, Agile and Virtual Manufacturing (Production) Systems and Enterprises Design and Control 15

16 7. Management of Technology and Business Innovation Research will focus on three main aspects: i) development and use advanced research methodologies for the analysis of techno-economic systems, with particular emphasis for product innovation; ii) the exchange of knowledge in advanced technologies and the management of technology and innovation for the optimisation of industrial processes, as a way to promote competitive advantages at the corporate level; iii) To derive science and technology policies and innovation strategies, namely in terms of environmental protection, rational use of energy and economic growth. These aspects will be implemented with the following specific objectives: o Identification and assessment of technology platforms sustaining emerging clusters and continuous monitoring of specific regional clusters in Portugal and related training needs. o Industry-Science relationships: Continuous analysis of the institutional framework involved in the Portuguese catching-up process with emphasis on industry-science relationships, following main OECD guidelines. o Innovation and the environment: Continuous assessment of how environmental policies can stimulate technological innovation, and how innovation policies can enhance environmentally sustainable economic development. o Innovation and productivity: within the large field of possible issues associated with how innovation contributes to produce capital accumulation, we propose to focus on the relationship between innovation and productivity. In fact, productivity growth is, in the long run, the main driver of economic growth, and we suggest that it is important to complement generic research on how innovation contributes to productivity with specific analysis of technologies at the firm and sectorial level. The following research subjects are considered: Technical Change and Innovation management Innovation and Productivity Marketing and Business Models 8. Design This area includes research related to design inquiry in four ways: design and human emotion; developing new ways of harnessing the computer for the purposes of design; observations and analysis of the activity of interaction for design in various settings; and the history of design, with emphasis for design technology. Current research is polarized around the application of computer technology to design. It includes study of imaging and image synthesis, use of computational media as vehicles for representation and encoding of design knowledge; application of computer graphics techniques to acoustics, lighting, weathering, and other architectural processes; and study of collaboration in design and on the technologies and spaces that support it. This area also considers synthesis methods aimed to expand the role of computation in the design process from a tool for modeling and analysis to a synthesis partner. Synthesis tools actively contribute to the design process through rapid generation of innovative alternatives, such as structural systems, some beyond our own insight. Incorporating performance models to guide the generation process is aimed at creating tools that help engineers, architects and designers think critically yet qualitatively from 16

17 different viewpoints, e.g. engineering performance, spatial performance, cost, and fabrication, throughout design conception. The following research subjects are considered: Design and emotion Interaction design Design technology Design theory and history 4.2 Topics for Projects The projects represent the main characteristic of the IST Design Studio, in that they will provide the necessary content to establish design competencies at the enterprise level. The projects considered by the launching of the IST Design Studio are grouped as follows: 1. Autoparts for the future. This topic will represent a major contribution of the IST Design Studio and will focus on critical aspects influencing major suppliers in the car industry, with emphasis on the following specific objectives: Development of a database with materials and main manufacturing processes; Design of specific autoparts, in close collaboration with leading designers; Eco-design of auto parts: Establishment of typical dismantling sequence for a set of vehicle. Guidelines for optimum recycling sequences. Software enabling the evaluation of the Environmental Impacts of design innovations on car components, over the Total Life Cycle; New propulsion systems that may enhance function innovation by vehicle modularization It should be noted that the current plan has been developed in close collaboration with INTELI and the recently established Center for Engineering and Product Development, CEDP, under implementation at Maia, North of Portugal. In addition, the companies more apt to deal with to the new rules of the global competitiveness have developed business and engineering processes where the direct links to suppliers, clients and partners are effective in a perspective of active and open collaboration. In this context, the Portuguese automotive components sector is being encouraged through specific structural funds (namely the INAUTO project, under sponsorship from the Ministry of Economy) to establish such collaboration with universities. The challenge to the universities is to create the infrastructure, in physical and human terms to have the responsiveness required and expected by the industry and by the society in general. The link between the INAUTO project and IST Design Studio will contribute to: o Dissemination through the industry of new technologies for collaborative work and advanced engineering tools, suited to the application requirements. o Improving the technological knowledge and the learning capacities of the industrial companies in advanced technologies for design and product development through industrial case studies that will be performed from the conceptual modelling, 17

18 functional and engineering analysis to the virtual, functional and technical prototypes. o Promotion of partnerships between companies and universities overcoming the cultural and physical distance and achieving mutual benefits. 2. Train Applications This topic results from a long term partnership involving researchers at IDMEC and Bombardier Portugal (ex-sorefame) and attention will focus on critical aspects influencing the design of major parts in train development, with emphasis on the following specific objectives: Development of a database with materials and main manufacturing processes; Design of specific train components Application of CAE to model train behaviour This project s to be considered will built from past experience on basic and applied research on structural dynamics and a critical evaluation of the train design activity currently used in industry. This has been achieved by researchers of IDMEC in close collaboration with Bombardier Portugal and the work will gives emphasis on the development of critical issues associated with train design for realiability, availability, maintenance and safety, RAMS. A design methodology has been developed that takes into account a number of clearly defined stages including: requirements capture; design specification; circuit configuration; component selection and sizing; performance assessment; and safety, cost and technical constraints. This will be extended to incorporate RAMS and design skills, encompassing the cooperative development of train components and systems. 3. Sustainable Mobility Sustainable mobility is an emerging topic of world-wide relevance and particular significance for Portuguese cities. It will be considered under the scope of the IST Design Studio in terms of sustainable product systems, but also considering the design of new types of transport or the adaptation of existing ones. This includes the combination of individual and collective transport, the development of new infrastructures and multi-functional means of transports, as well as approaches for sustainable tourism. New solutions for intermediate transport systems between a car and a bicycle will be considered, with particular application for mountain cities like Lisbon or Porto. This will involve the development of specific skills on modular construction, ergonomics, power and transmission, identity and comfort. 4. Design for Citizenship This project is is aimed to deepen and extend current knowledge and practice on inclusive design to emerging areas of design for sustainability, design against crime and design for safety. New technology and products have the potential to improve quality of life, but need to be conceived in a way to foster sustainability and the inclusiveness of all. In this context, main issues considered include: Waste recovery systems for sustainable urban and industrial waste 18

19 inclusive design: unless the technology is made available to everyone then it also has the opportunity to alienate. As many products are designed to appeal to the lucrative younger generation, the older people, disabled and all sort of minorities are being ignored and large sections of the population are being excluded. Design for safety, in cities 5. Collaborative design The aim of this area is to increase the understanding and to build conceptual models of the efficient use of cross-functional teams in different product development phases, with emphasis on the design process. It is planned that this area of projects should consider in the future three main parts, related respectively with: I) cooperative design methods; ii) cooperative design studios; and iii) intelligent rooms and multimodal interaction. Cooperative design methods: The need for an integrated design research methodology has been widely acknowledged in industry and the world-wide academic community. Currently, there is no consistent and agreed design research methodology, hence research results are often fragmented and the resulting design methods not validated. In addition, many researchers experience difficulty in producing credible software to validate and demonstrate new methods. We aim to bring together design research methods into a consistent practical design research methodology, integrated with a flexible and comprehensive software platform on which to build demonstrators. The results will be tested on case studies, leading to more convincing design methods that may adopted by industry and thus improve future competitiveness. A clear example of the need to develop design methodologies for cooperative environments can be analysed from the car industry. Vehicle manufactures now require suppliers to provide fully-designed and developed sub-systems and modules rather than manufacture to specifications. This actual tendency is driving suppliers to focus on product development as a basis to sustain their competitive position. However to achieve a world class level of product development within automotive components suppliers several engineering and design competences are required, which are only compatible with large companies able to support the involved technological, marketing and financing risks. When small and medium sized automotive components companies face this new competitive pressure the strategy required to sustain their position in the value chain is the establishment of active partnerships to carry out, what we call, an extended enterprise. In this project the collaboration framework actually present between industrial companies will be analysed and evaluated, to identify the characteristics of a successful partnership in the design and product development in the automotive context, in order to provide findings and guidelines that practitioners within this sector are able to implement. Cooperative design studios: Integrated with physical prototyping and 3D scanners facilities, an Augmented Reality laboratory creates the environment for a high technology development Design Studio. Designers can develop a joint design review even though they are physically separated. If each of them had a conference room that was equipped with an augmented reality display this could be accomplished. The physical prototype that the designers have physically mocked up is imaged and 19

20 displayed in the conference room in 3D. Designers can point at the prototype to highlight sections or virtual animations and this will be reflected on the real model in the augmented display. AR can also be a tool to inform designers of engineering models results, in areas such as fluid mechanics, heat transfer, mechanical structures or life cycle analysis. A standard virtual reality system seeks to completely immerse the user in a computergenerated environment. Because the user is looking at a virtual world there is no natural connection with reality. In an augmented reality system the user cannot become more immersed in the real world. The task is to now register the virtual frame of reference with what the user is seeing. The scene is viewed by an imaging device, which in this case is depicted as a video camera. The camera performs a perspective projection of the 3D world onto a 2D image plane. The intrinsic (focal length and lens distortion) and extrinsic (position and pose) parameters of the device determine exactly what is projected onto its image plane. The generation of the virtual image is done with a standard computer graphics system. The virtual objects are modelled in an object reference frame. The graphics system requires information about the imaging of the real scene so that it can correctly render these objects One important point of AR is the required display technologies. Head-mounted displays (HMD) have been widely used in virtual reality systems. Augmented reality researchers have been working with two types of HMD. These are called video see-through and optical see-through. The "see-through" designation comes from the need for the user to be able to see the real worldview that is immediately in front of him even when wearing the HMD. Tracking the position and motions of the user is another very important equipment. Errors in these 6 degrees of freedom that can be tolerated are now smaller than in virtual reality system, when the aim is to interact between real and virtual world. Additional tracking facilities can be implemented, combining image and recognition software. Multimodal interaction for concurrent engineering: A significant part of this project will consider intelligent rooms and multimodal interaction for concurrent engineering and rapid prototyping. This is because conventional VR and AR systems resort to unnatural interaction devices that need to be worn over large periods of time, such as head mounted displays, gloves, etc. While these apparati are effective for certain tasks, such as animation and capturing motion by humans, they are not suitable for wearing over extended periods. Therefore much research effort has been directed towards gadget-free interaction. This project aims at building a quasi-immersive environment using stereoscopic displays and passive polarized glasses, which will make it possible to experience non-tethered quasi-immersive display of complex three-dimensional scenes. Natural interaction will be achieved through spoken commands and personal devices which will allow users to communicate and control information being displayed in a natural manner. In order to allow several people to engage in collaborative activities, we plan to use image capture systems to detect where various people are in a room, tracking their body position, and gestures, such as pointing, grasping, etc. 20

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