Using a Comprehensive Framework: Assisting Schools to Plan Using this Framework. The Safe & Responsive Schools Project

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1 What Works in and Violence? Reece L Peterson & Courtney K Miller University of Nebraska-Lincoln Russell J Skiba Indiana University International Council for Exceptional Children 2003 Annual Convention April 11, 2003 Seattle, WA The Safe & Responsive s Project The Safe and Responsive s Project was designed to develop a process for schools to implement our best knowledge of school-wide behavior planning in order to reduce the likelihood of school violence, and to diminish problems with inappropriate behavior in school It included: Three-tiered model Gathering a wide variety of data -based team planning and decision making Focus on helping medium/smaller sized schools & districts plan to improve behavior and reduce violence Using a Comprehensive Framework: Assisting s to Plan Using this Framework Thinking About s 1-7% 5-15% Small number of chronic offenders with serious behavior problems - Individual student systems 80-90% of all students s at-risk for serious behavior problems - At-risk systems Large number of students without serious problem behaviors - wide and classroom systems (Adapted from work of George Sugai) s with Intense or Chronic Behavior Problems 1-7% s at Risk for Disruption or Violence 5-15% s Who are Extremely Violent Less than % 1

2 Effective Responses to Inappropriate Behavior The SRS Framework Early Identification & Intervention I can t count the number of times I have heard over the past number of months that schools need to do a better job of identifying troubled kids Heck, we don t have any trouble identifying them, especially when they bite, swear, throw things or make threats The real problem is not in identifying; the problem lies in what services are available to us for meaningful intervention The Content- What can schools do to use this structure to implement strategies at each level? Interventions for the Three Components- Creating a Safe and Responsive Climate Early Identification and Intervention Effective Responses to Inappropriate Behavior Compare SRS to PBIS (Positive Behavior Interventions & Supports) (Sometimes also called PBS or Positive Behavior Supports) Depends on the which one of two versions of PBIS- Two Versions of PBIS- Sometimes PBIS is used as an umbrella term for any preventionbased continuum of support, to teach and improve social behaviors It uses data for decision making & sound empirically validated practices to create systems change SRS is compatible and one example of this version of PBIS Sometimes PBIS is used to refer to the process of a school setting up rules or expectations, teaching those, reinforcing appropriate behavior, consistently monitoring or correcting behavioral errors, and using data to improve the system SRS takes a broader and much wider view, although this version of PBIS is one useful example of a strategy schools might choose to implement Optional Elements at Each Level- Resources? What are the programs which could be implemented? How much would they cost? Dollars? Time? Space? Materials or Equip? Staff Development time? 2

3 Teen Courts/ Decision making Alternative Physical Restraint Training & Standards Caring & Community Strategies Security Audits and Inspections Functional Assess & Individ Behav Mgmt Plans Violence Curriculum Peer Mediation Probation Officer Cooperative Learning -wide Bullying Install Security Technology Crisis Response Following a Crisis Within a Anger Management Character Education Threat Assessment Increase Positive Reinforcement Service Learning s Address Early Warning Signs Emergency Preparation Resource Officer Systematic Early Identification Wraparound Increase Parent Involvement Organizing the Chaos Chaos, Confusion? Which of these should be priority? Do we need all of these? Which ones are most suited to our needs? What are the costs or needed resources? More Confusion within many of thesehere are two examples: -wide Many others also have numerous options within Positive Assertive Boys Town Administrative Intervention More Confusion within many of thesetwo examples Created -wide with Dignity Team Mates- Congressman Osborn Glasser- Control Theory/ Reality Therapy Numerous Others Big Brother/ Big Sister Community s Own Foster Grandparent Numerous Others Existing for Gifted I Creating a Safe & Responsive Climate Provide foundations for good behavior for all students I Creating a Positive, Welcoming Climate And More! Caring & Community Strategies Peer Mediation Violence Curriculum Increase Parent Involvement Bullying Security Audits and Inspections Cooperative Learning Within a Character Education Increase Positive Reinforcement Service Learning s 3

4 I Creating a Safe & Responsive Climate 1 s to Improve & Classroom Climate Eg Caring & Community in s; Cooperative Learning; etc 2 Smaller Groupings/ More Connections 3 Increased Parent Involvement 4 Improved Classroom Management & 5 Character Education/ Values 6 Social Skills Instruction/ Violence Curricula 7 Conflict De-Escalation and Conflict Resolution s 8 Service Learning s 9 Screening and Early Identification 10 Add After- and Other Community s 11 Security Audits/ Environmental Planning II Early Identification & Intervention Criteria- Identify and serve at-risk students Functional Assess & Individ Behav Mgmt Plans Early Identification & Intervention Peer Mediation -wide Bullying Anger Management Threat Assessment Address Early Warning Signs Academic Support s Systematic Early Identification 1 Assessing Dangerousness EG Using Early Warning Signs Threat Assessment 2 Individual Behavior Plans EGFunctional Behavioral Assessments & Individual Behavior Plans 2 Early Identification & Intervention 3 -wide s EG Positive ; Boys Town Intervention/Administrative Model; with Dignity 4 Conflict Resolution and Peer Mediation s 5 Anger Management/ Counseling II Early Identification & Intervention 6 Bullying & Intervention s 7 s EG Big Brothers and Sisters; Teammates; Foster Grandparent programs; etc 8 Academic Support s 9 Drug, Alcohol & Gang /Intervention s III Effective Responses to Inappropriate Behavior Preparation & Response for s w/ Serious Behavior Problems Teen Courts/ Decision making Alternative Physical Restraint Training & Standards -based Mental Health Services Probation Officer Install Security Technology Coordinate Police & Agency Information Crisis Response Following a Crisis Emergency Preparation Resource Officer Wraparound 4

5 III Effective Responses to Serious Inappropriate Behavior 1 Behavior Support Teams, Safety Teams, & Assistance Teams 2 Increase Effective Alternatives 3 Involving s in Decision Making Eg Teen Courts; disciplinary boards, etc 4 Obtain & Manage Information; Coordinate with Agencies Eg Sharing information/ Service Coordination; Community Resource or Probation Officers; Wraparound; Family Group Conferencing or Restorative Conferencing; Multi-systemic Therapy 5 Appropriate Use of Medication for s 6 Technology for Security Eg cameras, ID badges, metal detectors, radios, intercoms, etc 7 Planning for Crisis and Emergencies Eg Physical Restraint; Emergency Preparation and Crisis Planning; Crisis Response Following a Crisis 8 Develop Educational Alternative Options Eg Alternative schools or programs; Residential or hospital treatment; Other Alternative Settings Process and Procedures How can schools use data in a strategic planning process to implement a comprehensive model? Planning Process Who plans? One individual A group or team If a group, How does this tie to other plans or planning efforts? How is the group picked? How many? Group dynamics? SRS Strategic Planning Problem Solving Process Gather information Identify goals or needs Identify possible actions Evaluate potential actions Choose and prioritize actions- develop plan Coordinate to Existing Planning Process Is there an existing school planning process such as school improvement planning? Are long and short range plans created? How do behavioral issues fit into the school improvement planning process? Is there a school Safety or Security Plan? Is it updated? Creating and implementing a plan? A process for keeping plans up-to-date Team outcome: Developing the Plan At least one strategy from each dimension» Creating Climate» Early Identification» Effective Response Maintain overarching focus» Mission / Goal Evaluation» What data are helpful?» What do we target?» How do we know if its effective? 5

6 Potential Data for Planning Data existing in Office Referrals Absences and tardiness Grades Academic Achievement Data Special Education Referrals Surveys Climate Surveys Safety Surveys Focus Groups- open ended Needs Assessment by team or faculty And More SRS Instruments or Procedures Office referral, suspension & expulsion data SRS Practices & s Inventory SRS Needs Assessment Worksheet SRS Behavior Responsibility Worksheet SRS Safe s Survey SRS Practices & s Inventory Questionnaire Consists of 28 items + places to add Likert scale assessing degree of implementation Assesses presence of programs at each of the three levels Compilation of Results Discussed ratings, came to consensus Discuss why there are variations in the team members responses I Creating a Positive Climate To what extent does your school have: 1 s for students who are struggling academically? No awareness Know of, but Good awareness Frequently used Well-estab not used Beginning to use school-wide Documentation: 2 One or more programs that focus on building a sense of community or a sense of belonging for students in your school? No awareness Know of, but Good awareness Frequently used Well-estab not used Beginning to use school-wide Documentation: SRS Needs Assessment Worksheet Questionnaire Open ended questions Assesses perceptions regarding needs related to behavior from various perspectives Compilation of Results Discuss, come to consensus Discuss why there are variations in the team members responses Behavior Responsibility Worksheet An inventory of responsibilities related to behavior Completed individually, the discussed and a group consensus created Follow up built into the plan 6

7 Functions or Tasks I CREATING A SAFE & RESPONSIVE CLIMATE Insuring that bullying prevention is implemented by educators, and to plan training and data gathering Defining and teaching behavioral expectations and monitor behavioral issues within a building Establishing school-wide rules of conduct; Establishing school-wide positive behavioral expectations Insuring that all parents and students are provided information about the school s code of conduct Providing supervision related to behavior in hallways, lunchrooms and school grounds How important is this function or task for this school? 1=Not at all 3=somewhat 5=very important Is this task performed in your school now? Yes/No Explain Person or group responsible? Name Position Changes needed? Yes/No Explain SRS Safety / Climate Survey Developed from a combination of conflict resolution, school climate, bullying, and violence prevention surveys Three versions Elementary (25 items) Secondary (45 items) Staff (40 items) Parent (27 items) Items overlap across versions Sample Secondary Response SRS Safety Survey Item 1 I feel that I can talk to a teacher or an administrator if I have a problem s responding Rating 1-Strongly disagree % 2-Disagree % 3-Neutral % 4-Agree % 5-Strongly agree % Count % Mean 31 SD= 1 2 Mode 4 Scale SRS Survey Subscales Elementary Secondary Staff Parents Personal safety X X X X Belongingness X X X X Effective learning and X X X X general climate Personal school experience X X Major safety issues X X X X Drugs/ alcohol X X Incivility/ disruption X X X X Lie scale X SRS Fact Sheets Basic Information about programs What is this program or topic? What research supports this approach? What would it take to implement this? How to get more information? Topics organized by SRS Framework Provide understanding of the types of programs available or possible Strategies to research other topics or update these 7

8 Use Discussion to Identify Gaps & to Create a Plan Use data about existing activities to identify gaps Understand the possible programs to fill those gaps For example, See SRS Project Fact Sheets Identify new elements to be added Identify existing elements to be expanded or rejuvenated Develop an implementation plan SRS Plans Plans varied by school Built upon preexisting programs Created new programs Used commercially available programs Examples Bullying Social Skills Training After Education Out of Classroom Intervention Community Connections Some Factors Impacting Team Decision Making Purpose of team Duration of team Availability of resources Team size & composition Leadership of team Administration support Commitment & motivation of members Project Outcome Data Owen Valley High : Changes in Disciplinary Data* from 1999/2000 to 2000/2001 Owen Valley Middle : Changes in Disciplinary Data* from 1999/2000 to 2000/ / /2001 PERCENTAGE SCHOOL YEAR SCHOOL YEAR CHANGE (+ OR -) Total Number of Suspensions % YEAR TO YEAR Number of In Suspensions % Number of Out of % Suspensions Number of Expulsions % Average Length of Expulsion (in % days) Number of Dropouts % Number of s with an IEP Suspended Number of s with an IEP Expelled % % Note: These numbers are based on figures reported to the state of Indiana 1999/ /2001 PERCENTAGE SCHOOL YEAR SCHOOL YEAR CHANGE (+ OR -) Total Number of Suspensions % YEAR TO YEAR Number of In Suspensions % Number of Out of % Suspensions Number of Expulsions % Average Length of Expulsion (in % days) Number of Dropouts 0 0 Number of s with an IEP Suspended* Number of s with an IEP Percentage of s with an IEP Suspended 41% 17% Note: These numbers are based on figures reported to the state of Indiana *OVM consisted of grades 6, 7, & 8 in the year 1999/2000 but only grades 7 and 8 for the year 2000/ 2001 Thus the appropriate comparison figure for OVM to avoid compounding numbers of suspensions and numbers of suspensions is the last row, Percentage of s with an IEP Suspended 8

9 Greater awareness of options: Bullying Implementation As a teacher I have some options now to work with kids, either the victim or the aggressor Where before I didn t feel like it was really a valid issue that anybody was willing to talk about Well you know if they didn t throw a punch there is nothing we can do I mean that was the kind of response that we would get and that s not the only kind of bullying So I feel like now we are making valid the comments that kids are making to each other and realizing the effect that just comments can have on a person Elementary Teacher Conclusions A Framework to assist school planning is essential! A team-based needs assessment approach allows meeting specific school needs A team-based approach can change perspectives The process can impact important outcomes Is it creating real & systemic change? Resources from Safe & Responsive s Project: Process Guide Detailed procedures Safe & Responsive s Surveys Resource Guide Fact sheets Other resources based on comprehensive model Websites Access to materials when available Samples of school produced products Consultation Safe and Responsive s Project Website: Reece L Peterson & Courtney K Miller 202A & 204L Barkley Center University of Nebraska-Lincoln Lincoln, NE / Russell J Skiba Indiana Education Policy Center 100 Smith Research 2805 E 10 th St Bloomington, IN

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