Table of Contents. A Data Driven Model of TIO2 Printed Memristors... 1 Lucia Valentina Gambuzza, Natasa Samardzic, Mattia Frasca


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1 Table of Contents Special Session SpatioTemporal Dynamics in Memristor Circuits A Data Driven Model of TIO2 Printed Memristors... 1 Lucia Valentina Gambuzza, Natasa Samardzic, Mattia Frasca Realization of a 4port Generalized Mutator and its Application to Memstor1 Simulations... 5 Elham Minayi, İzzet Cem Göknar Autowaves in 3D Memristive Cellular Neural Networks... 9 Giusi Sotera, Mustak Erhan Yalcin, Mattia Frasca Dynamic Behavior of 1D Array of the Memristivelycoupled Chua's Circuits Mustak Yalcin Special Session: Advances and New Design Possibilities for Analog Signal ProcessingI VDDDA New Voltage Differencing Device for Analog Signal Processing Norbert Herencsar, Roman Sotner, Bilgin Metin, Jaroslav Koton, Kamil Vrba Tunable Oscillator Derived from Colpitts Structure with Simply Controllable Condition of Oscillation and Synthetic Inductor Based on Current Amplifier and Voltage Differencing Transconductance Amplifier Roman Sotner, Jan Jerabek, Norbert Herencsar, Jiri Petrzela, Kamil Vrba, Zdenek Kincl Low Input Impedance Current Differencing Unit for Current Mode Active Devices Improved by Positive Feedback and ZCCDBA Filter Application Ersin Alaybeyoğlu, Arda Güney, Mustafa Altun, Hakan Kuntman An Ultra LowVoltage, Ultra LowPower DTMOSBased CCII Design for Speech Processing Filters Atilla Uygur, Hakan Kuntman MOSOnly Allpass Filters Modified for Low Operating Frequency Range Hacer A. Yıldız, Ali Toker, Ahmed S. Elwakil, Serdar Ozoguz Special Session: Advances and New Design Possibilities for Analog Signal ProcessingII Study of Practical Problems in TwoLoop CCTA Based Biquad: Finite Attenuations in Stop Bands Jan Jerabek, Roman Sotner, Zdenek Kincl, Tomas Dostal, Kamil Vrba On the Realization of Memristor Based RC High Pass Filter Hasan Sozen, Ugur Cam Fast VoltageMode FullWave Rectifier Using CCII and DXCCII Jaroslav Koton, Kamil Vrba, Norbert Herencsar The VDDDA in Multifunction Filter with Mutually Independent Q and ω0 Control Feature Jaroslav Koton, Norbert Herencsar, Kamil Vrba, Bilgin Metin A New 7thOrder LogDomain Elliptic Video Filter Using ECell Circuits Approach Murat Dindar, Ali Kırçay, Erkan Yüce
2 A1Energy Sources and Power MarketsI A Fuzzy Logic Voltage Controller for OffGrid Wind Turbine/Supercapacitor Renewable Energy Source İsmail Hakkı Altaş, Onur Özdal Mengi Optimal Allocation of Wind Turbine in Multi Carrier Energy Networks Improving Loss and Voltage Profile Samaneh Pazouki, Amin Mohsenzadeh, Mahmoud Reza Haghifam Impact of DLC Programs Levels on Reliability Improvement of Smart Distribution Network Considering Multi Carrier Energy Networks Amin Mohsenzadeh, Samaneh Pazouki, Mahmoud Reza Haghifam Short Term Scheduling of Multi Carrier Systems through Interruptible Load and Energy Storage toward Future Sustainable Energy Needs Samaneh Pazouki, MahmoudReza Haghifam Maximum Load Behaviour of a Fuel Cell Stack under Different Ambient Temperatures Yasin Özçelep, Koray Gürkan, Ayten Kuntman A2Power Electronics and ApplicationsI Control of DC link Voltage Unit with Fuzzy Logic Controller in the Wind Farm M.Kenan Döşoğlu, Gökhan Poyraz, Mustafa Dursun, Ali Öztürk Evaluation of TwoStage SoftSwitched Flyback Microinverter for Photovoltaic Applications Sinan Zengin, Mutlu Boztepe New Cascaded Multilevel Inverter Topology with Reduced Number of Switches and Sources Seyed Hossein Hosseini, Amir Farakhor, Saeideh Khadem Haghighian Variable Switching Frequency operation of DCM Flyback Microinverter Sinan Zengin, Mutlu Boztepe A Simulation Study of CrazyPSO Controller for Direct Matrix Converter Haluk Gözde, M.Cengiz Taplamacıoğlu A3Electric Power SystemsI Genetic Algorithm in Electrical Transmission Lines Path Finding Problems Hasan Eroğlu, Musa Aydın A new Approach for AC State Estimation Based on a Linear Network Model Amir Safdarian, Mahmud FotuhiFiruzabad, Farrokh Aminifar, Matti Lehtonen, Aydogan Ozdemir A New Approach for LongTerm Electricity Load Forecasting Amir Safdarian, Mahmud FotuhiFiruzabad, Matti Lehtonen, Milad Aghazadeh, Aydogan Ozdemir Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for Optimal Placement and Sizing of Distributed Generation Ayse Aybike Seker, Mehmet Hakan Hocaoglu A Comparison between ANN Based Methods of Critical Clearing Time Estimation Cavit Fatih Küçüktezcan, Veysel Murat İstemihan Genç
3 A4Energy Sources and Power MarketsII Steam Generator Level Control with an ObserverBased Algebraic Approach Günyaz Ablay Rooftop PV with Battery Storage for Constant Output Power Production Considering Load Characteristics Nasim Jabalameli, Sara Deilami, Mohammad Sherkat Masoum, Farhad Shahnia A Comparison between Perfectly and Imperfectly Competitive Downstream Electricity Markets under the Effect of Upstream Fuel Market Price Osman Bayındır, Yong Lu, John N. Jiang Waveform Quality Comparison of Scalar PWM Methods for Modular Multilevel Converters Bariş Çiftçi, Ahmet Masum Hava Design and Performance Analysis of a Grid Connected PWMVSI System Emre Kantar, S. Nadir Usluer, Ahmet M. Hava Optimal Scheduling of LTC and Switched Shunt Capacitors in Smart Grid with Electric Vehicles and Charging Stations Sara Deilami, Amir Sherkat Masoum, Nasim Jabalameli, Mohammad Sherkat Masoum A5Electric Power SystemsII Power Flow Solution for Multiphase Unbalanced Distribution Networks with High Penetration of Photovoltaics Hossein Hooshyar, Luigi Vanfretti Economic Dispatch Using Classical Methods and Neural Networks Imen Labed, Mouhamed Boucherma, Djamel Labed Short Term Load Forecesting for a Micro Region Using NNs and Regression Models Kübra Kaysal, Fatih Onur Hocaoğlu, Yüksel Oğuz, Ahmet Kaysal A Positive and Negative Sequences Detecting Method Based on an Improved PQ Theory for Power Grid Synchronization Abdlfettah Boussaid, Yassine Maouche, Ahmed Lokmane Nemmour, Abdelmalek Khezzar Control Algorithm for an SSSC Using Model Based Predictive Control Amir Farakhor, Saeideh Khadem Haghighian A6Energy Sources and Power MarketsIII DVR with Fuzzy Logic Controller and Photovoltaic for Improving the Operation of wind farm Morteza Farsadi, Ali Garashahrak, Selda Dabagh Tabrizi Performance Analysis of Artificial and Wavelet Neural Networks for Short Term Wind Speed Prediction Serkan Senkal, Okan Özgönenel Investigation of SSR Risk in Akkuyu NEPP Özgür Tanıdır, Mahmut Erkut Cebeci
4 A Proposed Artificial Neural Network Model for PEM Fuel Cells Ali Sarı, Abdulkadir Balıkçi, Sezai Taşkın, Serkan Aydın Measuring Existing System Security Using Thermal Security Index Hale Çetinay, Mahmut Erkut Cebeci A7Electrical Machines and DrivesI Analysis of Reduced Order Model Based on DoublyFed Induction Generators during Different Fault Times M.Kenan Döşoğlu, Ayşen Basa Arsoy Control Strategies for Grid Connected PWMVSI Systems Emre Kantar, S. Nadir Usluer, Ahmet M. Hava A Novel Transformer Protection Method Based on Hilbert Huang Transform and Artificial Neural Network Okan Ozgonenel, Serap Karagol A New Approach for RealTime Tool Dedicated to the Detection of Broken Bar Fault in Induction Motor Mohamed Amine Moussa, Yassine Maouche, Mohamed El Kamel Oumaamar, Abdelmalek Khezzar Design Studies of Axial Flux Hybrid Excitation Synchronous Machine with Magnetic Bridge Emin Yıldırız, Güven Önbilgin A8Power Electronics and ApplicationsII An ObserverBased Fault Diagnosis in Battery Systems of Hybrid Vehicles Günyaz Ablay Novel Algorithm of Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) for Variable Speed PMSG Wind Generation Systems through Model Predictive Control Seyed Hossein Hosseini, Amir Farakhor, Saeideh Khadem Haghighian Modified parallel resonance type fault current limiter Murtaza Farsadi, Sttarpur Tohid, Kakesoury Bijan On the Use of Harmonic Detection Algorithms for Active Power Filtering Control Abdlfettah Boussaid, Yassine Maouche, Ahmed Lokmane Nemmour, Abdelmalek Khezzar A9Electrical Machines and DrivesII Voltage Signatures between Two SubWindings in Dual ThreePhase Induction Motor under Static AirGap Eccentricity Yassine Maouche, Mohamed El Kamel Oumaamar, Ahmed Lokmane Nemmour, Abdelmalek Khezzar Investigation of the Effect of Pole Shape on Braking Torque for a Low Power Eddy Current Brake by Finite Elements Method Mehmet Onur Gulbahce, Derya Ahmet Kocabas, Fatmanur Nayman Dynamics and Limits of Electrical Braking Can Gökçe, Ozgur Ustun, Ahmet Yasin Yeksan
5 The Performance Analyses of an Induction Motor due to Specified Fault Conditions Alperen Üşüdüm, Deniz Bölükbaş A10Power Electronics and ApplicationsIII A Dimmer Circuit for Various Lighting Devices Remzi Barış Dai, Mert Turhan, Deniz Yıldırım, Canbolat Uçak Energy Conversion Efficiency of SinglePhase Transformerless PV Inverters Ziya Özkan, Ahmet Hava Volume and Efficiency Optimization of a Stepdown DC/DC Converter Based on FLN Parameters İlker Şahin, Ahmet Hava B1Communication & Signal Processing Determination of the Optimum Pilot Density for an OFDM System over Empirical Channels Begüm Korunur Engiz, Çetin Kurnaz, Hatice Sezgin Neural Network Based Receiver Design for Software Defined Radio over Unknown Channels Mürsel Önder, Aydın Akan, Hakan Doğan Doppler Effects of Wind Turbines Rotating Blades on the Error Performance of DirectSequence/SpreadSpectrum Communications System Ahmet Faruk Coşkun, Osman Karabayır, Hüseyin Avni Serim A Secure and Robust Watermarking Algorithm Based on the Combination of DWT, SVD, and LU Decomposition with Arnold s Cat Map Approach Onur Jane, Hakki Gökhan İlk, Ersin Elbası Detection of CopyMove Forgery Using Krawtchouk Moment Mustafa Bilgehan İmamoğlu, Güzin Ulutaş, Mustafa Ulutaş Action Recognition Using Random Forest Prediction with Combined Posebased and Motionbased Features İlktan Ar, Yusuf Sinan Akgül C1Circuits and Systems Text Encryption by Using OneDimensional Chaos Generators and Nonlinear Equations Akif Akgül, Sezgin Kaçar, Burak Arıcıoğlu, İhsan Pehlivan Pulse Omission Fractional Frequency Synthesizer Milan Stork Analysis of Chaotic Dynamics of Chua s Circuit with lncosh Nonlinearity Aykut Kocaoğlu, Ömer Karal, Cüneyt Güzeliş A Novel Dual Entropy Core True Random Number Generator Ihsan Çiçek, Ali Emre Pusane, Günhan Dündar Broadband Equalizers with Commensurate Transmission Lines Metin Şengül
6 C2ElectronicsI A XBand SiGe Driver Amplifier Hasip Terlemez, Osman Palamutçuoğulları 2W Wideband Microwave PA Design for MHz Band Using Normalized Gain Function Method Ramazan Köprü, Hakan Kuntman, Sıddık Yarman Time Delay Calculation in CurrentMode Circuits Melek Kurnaz, Shahram Minaei, İzzet Cem Göknar Real Time Industrial Application of Single Board Computer Based Color Detection System Serdar Solak, Emine Doğru Bolat A New Currentmode Squaring Circuit with Compensation for Error Resulting from Carrier Mobility Reduction Munir AlAbsi, Ibrahim AsSabban C3Biolectronics Mathematical Modeling of Human Heart as an Hydroelectromechanical System Fikret Yalçınkaya, Ertem Kızılkaplan, Ali Erbaş VibroCap: A Mobility Supporting Hat for Blind Koray Gürkan, Aydın Akan ClosedLoop Control of Blood Glucose Level in Type1 Diabetics: A Simulation Study Selim Soylu, Kenan Danışman, İbrahim Ethem Saçu, Mustafa Alçı Course of unborn baby's heart by Wireless Baby Tracking System Metin Mete Özbilen, Hakan Işıker, Enes Yiğit, Mustafa Kaplanoğlu C4ElectronicsII Reducing Performance Impact of Process Variation for Data Caches İsmail Kadayıf, Kadir Tuncer Dynamic current activity measurement for integrated circuit emission model Muhammed Emin Başak, Ayten Kuntman An Investigation of the SONOS with SideBlock Oxide for NonVolatile Memory ShihChuan Tseng, JyiTsong Lin, ShihWen Hsu A Novel High IntegrationDensity TFTCMOS Inverter with Vertical Structure for Low Power Application MinYan Lin, JyiTsong Lin, YouRen Lu A high performance PIN diode design in 0.25μm SiGe HBT process Enes Cesur, Ali Tangel
7 D1Sensors and Instrumentation Wireless 3Axis Accelerometer System for Measurement of Structural Displacement Koray Gürkan, Güray Gürkan, Ahmet Anıl Dindar, Burak Akpınar, Engin Gülal FTIR investigations on XN bonds of annealed PolySi/NIDOS films Lynda Saci Development of a Multichannel Temperature and Humidity Monitoring Device Ismail Köpüklü, Gökhan Ertaş A Device to Measure Joint Angles and Foot Force for Lower Extremity Force Distribution Computations Ecem M. Onaran, Gökhan Ertaş, Haluk Küçük D2Electromagnetic ApplicationsI Read/Write Mode Operating Distance Optimization for 13.56MHz Contactless IC Cards Sadık Arslan A Compact Low Pass Filter Design with a FanShaped Defected Ground Structure for Broad Stopband Agâh Oktay Ertay, Mehmet Abbak, Serkan Şimşek Retrieval of effective parameters of left handed materials by using different approaches Zakarya Hafdi, Sabah Zemouli, Abdelhafıd Chaabi D3Electromagnetic ApplicationsII Particle Swarm Optimization for Pattern Synthesis of Superconducting Antenna Array Ouarda Barkat A Compact multi band MIMO antenna ChingSong Chuang, Tung Hsu Wu, Ming Chun Lin A Compact ProximityCoupling Multiband Planar Antenna ChingSong Chuang, HungChih Liu A Simple and Compact CPWFed UWB Printed Monopole Antenna with Defected Ground Structures Müzeyyen Karamanoğlu, Mehmet Abbak, Serkan Şimşek Conformal Antenna Array Synthesis Using Taguchi Algorithm Mahmud Esad Yiğit, Tayfun Günel D4Optoelectronics Postgrowth Large Energy Bandgap Tuning of the 980 nm High Power Laser Diode Structures Xiaohong Tang, Zhongliang Qiao, Peng Huei Lim, Baoxue Bo Design and Simulation of SiOxNy Thin Films Based Planar Optical Waveguide for Integrated Optics Mohammed Boulesbaa, Ramdane Mahamdi, Lynda Saci
8 Optical Fiber Distributed Sensing of Temperature, Thermal Strain and ThermoMechanical Force Formations on OPGW Cables under Wind Effects Abdurrahman Günday, Sait Eser Karlık A Novel Periodic Macrobending HeteroCore Fiber Optic Sensor Embedded In Textiles Kübra Alemdar, Sümeyra Likoglu, Kemal Fidanboylu, Onur Toker D5Control Theory and Applications Based on the FOA algorithm Research of Oceangoing Vessels Economy Speed DongQin Jia, BuHai Shi Antenna Azimuth Position Control with Fuzzy Logic and SelfTuning Fuzzy Logic Controllers Erdinç Şahin, Ömür Akyazı, Halil İbrahim Okumuş Adaptive LeaderFollowing Consensus in MultiAgent Systems with SecondOrder Nonlinear Dynamics and Directed Switching Topologies Hajar Atrianfar, Mohammad Haeri Decomposition of the time delay systems with one delay: the simultaneous similarity of two matrices Afshin Mesbahi, Mohammad Haeri D6Robotics and Automation State Vector Estimation Using Extended Filter Kalman for the Sliding Mode Controlled Quadrotor Helicopter in Vertical Flight Samir Zeghlache, Djamel Saigaa, Kamel Kara, Abderrahmen Bouguerrra Configuration Space Control of a Parallel Delta Robot with a Neural Network Based Inverse Kinematics Tarik Uzunovic, Edin Golubovic, Eray Abdurrahman Baran, Asif Sabanovic Lightweight Design and Encoderless Control of a Miniature Direct Drive Linear Delta Robot Eray A. Baran, Tarik E. Kurt, Asif Sabanovic BUG Algorithm Analysis using Petri net Alpaslan Yufka, Aydın Aybar Control of Pattern Tracking Nonholonomic Mobile Robot with Feedback Linearization Onur Akbatı, Galip Cansever D7Intelligent Systems Extraction of Brain Tumors from MRI Images with Artificial Bee Colony Based Segmentation Methodology Emrah Hancer, Celal Öztürk, Derviş Karaboğa A Novel Classification and Estimation Approach for Detecting Keratoconus Disease with Intelligent Systems Murat Uçar, Baha Şen, Hasan Basri Çakmak Use of Kaczmarz s Method in IntelligentParticle Swarm Optimization O. Tolga Altınoz, A. Egemen Yılmaz, Gabriela Ciuprina
9 Extracting Turkish Tweet Topics Using LDA Fahriye Gemci, Kadir Peker Poster SessionI Usage of HoG (Histograms of Oriented Gradients) Features for Victim Detection at Disaster Areas Yücel Uzun, Muhammet Balcılar, Khudaydad Mahmoodi, Feruz Davletov, M. Fatih Amasyalı, Sırma Yavuz Statistical Model Study for Narrowband Power Line Communication Noises Mehmet Ali Sönmez, Mustafa Bağrıyanık Economic dispatch by the combination of HNN and the Lagrange method Riad Bouakacha, Salah Leulmi Application of Modified Subgradient Algorithm Based on Feasible Values to Security Constrained Economic Dispatch Problem with Prohibited Operation Zones Salih Fadıl, Burak Urazel Two Axis Solar Tracker Design and Implementation Salih Fadıl, Ahmet Can Çapar, Kerim Çağlar Simulation of a Novel Approach of Accurate Solar Photovoltaic Array Özgür Cemal Özerdem, Hayder Hassan Abbas Radar Cross Section Calculation of a Wind Turbine Modeled by PEC Canonical Structures Okan Mert Yücedağ, Senem Makal Yücedağ, Huseyin Avni Serim Fault Diagnosis in a Nonlinear ThreeTank System via ANFIS Kemal Uçak, Fikret Çalışkan, Gülay Öke A New Model for IPMSM with Rotating High Frequency Voltage Injection Sihem Damkhi Examination of Radial Force with Finite Element Method in Switched Reluctance Motor Mehmet Polat, Eyyüp Öksüztepe, Zeki Omaç, Merve Yıldırım, Hasan Kürüm Impact of Coupling Breakers in a Power Plant Fault Analysis Levent Kılıç, Ayşen Basa Arsoy Design and Analysis of Switched Reluctance Motors İbrahim Şengör, Abdullah Polat, Lale T. Ergene
10 Poster SessionII Design of Low Phase Noise 7.7 GHz Dielectric Resonator Oscillator Oğuzhan Kızılbey, Osman Palamutçuoğulları, Sıddık Yarman Input and Output Matched SiGe RF Mixer with High Dynamic Range Zehra Gülru Çam, Osman Palamutçuoğulları Gain and Noise Figure Enhancements of both C and L Bands Double Pass Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier Murat Yücel, Zuhal Aslan, Fatih V. Çelebi, H. Haldun Göktaş Reconfigurable Implementations of PWLBased Multiscroll Chaos Generator Recai Kılıç, Nimet Korkmaz, İsmail Özturk, Enis Günay, Seda Arık Theory of Doping Management Amira Tandirovic Gursel, Parviz Elahi, Ömer İlday, M. Sadettin Özyazıcı Interpretation of Thyroid Blood Tests Using Mamdani Type Fuzzy Logic Sets Emre Canayaz, Raşit Buran, Ali Sarıkaş A twopass hybrid training algorithm for RBF networks Ali Ekber Özdemir, İlyas Eminoğlu Implementation of a Secure Near Field Communication System on a FPGA Ahmet Çağrı Bağbaba, S. Berna Örs Gender Identification of a Speaker Using MFCC And GMM Ergün Yücesoy, Vasif Nabiyev Effects of Dimension Reduction in Mammograms Classification Canan Oral, Hatice Sezgin Wavelet Based Principal Component Analysis for Process Monitoring with Experimental Application Alkan Alkaya, İlyas Eker
11 A Fuzzy Logic Voltage Controller for OffGrid Wind Turbine/Supercapacitor Renewable Energy Source Ismail Hakki ALTAS 1 and Onur Ozdal MENGI 2 1 Karadeniz Technical University Engineering Faculty Trabzon, Turkey 2 Giresun University Engineering Faculty Giresun, Turkey Abstract The amplitude and frequency of the voltage obtained from renewable energy sources change because the environmental conditions change continuously. This situation causes ripples, harmonics and faults on loads. Therefore, it is important to fix the voltage on the load busses. In wind energy systems, continuous change in wind speed results in varying load voltage. In order to discard this situation, there is a need for controlled power conditioning devices which will fix the voltage at desired levels. In this paper, a Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) which is designed to stabilize the voltage value of the load busses fed by Wind Turbine/Super capacitor (WT/SC) hybrid energy system. The improvement obtained with the proposed method is depicted by comparing the results with those of PI controller. All the system is designed in MATLAB/Simulink environment. 1. Introduction Lately, the studies on wind energy have increased rapidly all over the world. There may be various reasons of the interest in wind energy. However, the major reasons are the energy demand, environmental issues and the concerns about the reserves of the conventional energy sources such as oil and natural gas. Along with the other renewable energy sources, the wind energy gets high attention, probably the most one. Hence, wind turbines and different energy storage systems have become important sources and devices [1,2]. It is obvious that wind energy is a widely used renewable energy source. Since the electricity is produced from the variable speed of the wind, the magnitude of the generated voltage and its frequency are also variable. However, the voltage at load busses must have constant magnitude and frequency since the commercially available appliances and loads are manufactured to be operated at standard voltage and frequency values. Therefore the operating conditions and power quality issues have to be considered in wind energy systems. That is where the power conditioning devices become important. In order to stabilize and control the voltage, different schemes have been studied and introduced in literature. Some researchers suggest the scheme with an AC/DC then DC/AC link [3] while some suggest just AC/AC converters with magnitude and frequency control ability [4]. Besides using DC link and/or converters supporting active and passive filtering are also employed for power conditioning and voltagefrequency stabilization [5]. Controlling the power electronics converters and the filters is also important as much as designing the converters and filters. Therefore studies on power electronics converter used in wind energy systems are always accompanied by controllers. It is possible to find many works on designing controllers for the converters in wind energy systems [2]. A DC link used in this study as the main interface between the wind generator and the AC load bus as shown in Figure 1. The voltage from the wind turbine is converted to DC using a rectifier. Then a DC link filter is used to stabilize the voltage magnitude before it is converted to AC by a controlled IGBT inverter. After the inverter, an AC filter is employed to smooth the current ripples while maintain a constant voltage magnitude. During this process, the amplitude of the voltage is set by the rectifier and DC filter and frequency is controlled by the inverter. Therefore the magnitude and the frequency of the voltage at load bus are kept at desired standard values. The proposed scheme has two additional parts, which are the supercapacitor and the controller. The supercapacitor acts to prevent the loads from being powerless as a result of sudden change in wind speed. A 50 kw load is used as a load in the system. Wind Turbine Rectifier Supercapacitor Line Filter IGBT Inverter LC Filter Fuzzy Logic Controller Fig. 1. Wind/SC renewable energy source Loads The system responses are obtained and analyzed for two operating cases. The case when there are rapid changes in wind speed and the case when there are sudden load changes and excursions. 2. The Wind Energy Conversion Scheme The proposed wind energy conversion scheme (WECS) is shown in Figure 1. As it is depicted, the scheme consists of a wind turbine including a coupled induction generator, a rectifier, a supercapacitor, an inverter, loads, FLC, and filters. 62
12 2.1. Wind Turbine Wind turbines convert wind speed to rotational mechanical torque, which is used by electrical generators to produce electrical energy. Usually synchronous, asynchronous or direct current generators are used in wind turbines. The asynchronous generator used in this simulation. Wind turbine model is developed taking steady state power characteristics into consideration. The mechanical power produced by the wind turbine can be given as m C p(, ) Av (1) P Where, Pm represents mechanical output power of the turbine (W), C p is the performance coefficient, λ is pitch angle (degree), β is peak speed rate, ρ is the air density (kg/m 3 ), Α is rotor sweep area (m 2 ) and v is the wind speed (m/s). C p (λ, β) is calculated. As follows. Where; C3 C 2 i p C(, ) C C C e C 1 1 0,035 (3) 3 i 0,08 1 The values used here are C1=0.5176, C2= 116, C3=0.4, C4=5, C5=21 and C6= β value is taken as 0 [6,7] Supercapacitor Equivalent Circuit The devices called as ultracapacitors or supercapasitors are used for energy storage and filtering processes. They are used in high power discharging applications. Owing to their high energy density, they have the capacity to send hundreds of amperes current. Their usage increases because they can provide short time sudden power need. They achieve this without any chemical process. Being unmaintained and durable are other characteristics of these machines [8]. The internal structure of the supercapacitor can be seen in Figure 2. (2) 2.3. Fuzzy Logic Controller After the invention of fuzzy logic by L.A. Zadeh in 1965 [10] and its application to control systems by Mamdani in mid 1970s [11], so many researches and applications done related to fuzzy logic controller. Although some reasoning algorithms, such as Sugeno and TSK algorithms [12], have been developed, Mamdani reasoning algorithm is used widely. Actually the fuzzy logic control (FLC) algorithms in all fuzzy reasoning methods have the similar structure consisting of a fuzzifier, a rule base a fuzzy reasoning and a defuzzifier as shown in Figure 3. Input Variables (Crisp) Fuzzification Crisp Out Fuzzy Rule Base Defuzzification Fuzzy Conclusion Fig. 3. Basic configuration of a FLC. Fuzzy Outputs If the inputs are crisp, as they are in this study, they are converted to fuzzy membership values by the fuzzifier first. Then, the rule base evaluates these fuzzy membership values so that a fuzzy output can be yielded after running a fuzzy reasoning process. If a crisp output is required as in Mamdani reasoning algorithm, the defuzzifier stage is employed to convert the fuzzy output to a crisp output. The main elements of FLC are membership functions. Triangle membership functions seen in Figure 4 are used to define fuzzy membership functions at the input and output spaces of the FLC. The fuzzy membership value of the variable x in fuzzy subset A represented by a triangle membership function is calculated by using equation (5). x 1 L1 R1 R2 R3 R4 0 x x 1 x x T 2 x C1 C2 C3 C4 Fig. 4. Triangle membership function Fig. 2. The equivalent circuit model of the supercapacitor The equation representing the charging case of the supercapacitor is: SOC 1 V V (V / 2) (4) rated rated Where V is the terminal voltage of supercapacitor [9]. x x1 x2 x 1 A(x) max min,,0 xt x1 x2 x T The FLC algorithm defined above has been used in many applications. The one used here is a modification of the algorithm studied in [13]. This algorithm is nothing but a Matlab/Simulink model of Mamdani algorithm. It is modified for this study to suit the problem studied here. The error e and its change de in every sampling are two inputs the fuzzification and rule base block. Parameters of triangular fuzzy subsets shown in Figures 5 and 6 are also the (5) 63
13 inputs to fuzzifier and rule base block. Since there are five fuzzy subsets for e and five other fuzzy subsets for de, a 25 rule based is processed inside the block using the verbal implication as If x is A and y is B then z is C. NBe e) NSe Ze PSe PBe small, Z is zero, PS is positive small and PB is positive big. The membership values generated by the rule base for the output space are used along with the parameters of triangular fuzzy subsets given in Figure 7 of the output space in the block called Defuzzification 1, which is nothing but the process of the numerator of defuzzification method called center of area. The block Defuzzification 2 represents the denumarator of the center of area method. The final output of the FLC is the division of Defuzzification 1 by Defuzzification 2, which is the result of defuzzification formula called the center of area method [13]. The main Simulink block diagram of the FLC used in this study is given Figure e Fig. 5. Error membership functions de) NBde NSde Zde PSde PBde Fig. 8. Simulink model of defuzzification process 3. System Simulation de Fig. 6. Variation of error membership functions du) The simulated system can be seen in Figure 9. Here, the system consists of a 60 kw wind turbine, rectifier, line filter, inverter, load filter, 50 kw resistive load and controller. The simulation is done to keep the linetoline voltage at 380 V and 50 Hz during the changes in wind speed. NBdu NSdu Zdu PSdu PBdu du Fig. 9. Simulation system Fig. 7. Output space Where x is e, y is de, z is du and A, B, and C are the fuzzy subsets in the universes of e (error), de (error change) and du (output), respectively. Here, NB is negative big, NS is negative When the wind speed is sufficient, the whole system is supplied by the wind turbine; otherwise, the supercapacitor is turned on to supply the system. The DC voltage produced by the wind/supercapacitor system is converted to AC voltage using a 3phase inverter in order to supply power to the 3phase 64
14 load. The voltage output of the inverter is controlled to keep the voltage at 380 V, line to line, at a fixed frequency of 50 Hz. The 3phase voltages are converted to dq axis layouts as directaxis voltage V d and quadrature voltage V q, to be used by the PI controller and the FLC. The output of the controller is then used to generate a pulsewidth modulated signal, which is used to control the output voltage of the inverter. The frequency of the inverter is controlled and kept constant at 50 Hz through a phaselocked loop process. There is a filter (LC) parallel to the loads so as to straighten the wave shape of the voltage on the load in the system. The wave shape of the load voltage is tried to be straightened. During this time, total harmonic distortion is measures as well. The regulator that is used is a system which does measurements and switching in order to activate the supercapacitor when the wind speed falls under 5 m/s. The changes in the environment affect the working of system. Therefore, it is aimed to create different environmental conditions by changing the wind speed level. The wind speed is changed as seen in Figure 10. Fig. 10. Wind speed 4. Discussion and Result Analysis The results obtained by using PI controller are given in Figures In Figure 11, it is seen that PI controller does not set at 380 V value. The supercapacitor is active since there is not enough wind speed at t=0.81s period; therefore, the voltage on the load sets at 380V value in this period. The Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) change during the simulation with PI controller goes up to 0.2 as shown in Figure 12. Distorted wave shape across the load terminals is given in Figure 13. The distortion in the voltage wave shape is because the changes in the wind speed. Even if there is supercapacitor in the circuit the the harmonics are not being eliminated completely. Figure 14 shows the error which is below 0.4. The results obtained by using FLC are given in Figures 15 to 18. The voltage on the load bus is 380 V with some ripples as shown in Figure 15. Supercapacitor is active during t=0,81 s period for this case as in the case with the PI controller. The THD change for the case with FLC is below 0.2 as depicted in Figure 16. In Figure 17, the wave shape of the voltage on the load is shown. This wave shape is very close to sine wave. In Figure 18, the time response of the error is given. The error value is below 0.4 for this case. 5. Conclusions When the graphs between Figure 11 and 18 are analyzed, in simulations conducted with both PI and FLC controller, it is seen that the voltage on the load is pretty distorted in PI controller. When FLC is used, it is seen that this distortion decreases. The difference is very obvious in Figures 12 and 16. When THD values are analyzed, it is seen that there is not a significant difference. Similarly, error values vary more or less the same. FLC s maximum exceeding is a high value as 450 V. However, since the voltage on the load is very different from 380 V with PI controller, it is not preferred to be used. There is very little ripple with FLC and it sets to 380 V value. Obviously, FLC puts forward more qualified results than PI controller. 6. References [1] S.M. Muyeen, "Wind Energy Conversion Systems", Springer, London, UK, [2] A. Lara, N. Jankins, J. Ekanakaye, P. Cartwright and M. Hughes "Wind Energy Generation Modelling and Control", Wiley, UK, [3] J. F. Manwell, J. G. Mcgovan and A. L. Rogers, "Wind Energy Explained Theory, Design and Application 2e", Wiley, London, UK, [4] C. L. Kana, M. Thamodharan and A. Wolf, "System Management of a WindEnergy Converter", IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol.16, Issue.3, 2001, pp [5] C. Wnag and M. H. Nehrir, "Power Management of a StandAlone Wind/Photovoltaic/Fuel Cell Energy System", IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversation, Vol.23, Issue.3, 2008, pp [6] O. O. Mengi and I. H. Altas, " Wind/Battery Renewable Energy Production System", Turkish Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences (TJEECS), TUBITAK, Vol:20, Issue:2, Turkey, 2012, pp: [7] S. Voller, A. R. Awaad and J. F. Verstege, "Wind Farms with Energy Storages Integrated at The Control Power Market", CIGRE/IEEE PES Joint Symp., 2009, pp [8] B. Kocaman, Akilli Sebekeler ve Mikro Sebekelerde Enerji Depolama Teknolojileri, Akilli Sebekeler ve Turkiye Elektrik Sebekesinin Gelecegi Semp., Ankara, [9] H. Babazadeh, W. Gao, J. Lin ve L. Cheng, Sizing of Battery and Supercapasitor in a Hybrid Energy Storage System for Wind Turbines, Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exposition, 710 May 2012, p:17. [10] L.A. Zadeh, "Fuzzy Sets", Information and Control, Vol:8, pp , [11] T.J. Ross, "Fuzzy Logic with Engineering Applications", John Wiley and Sons, London, England, [12] N. Baykan ve T. Beyan, "Bulanik Mantik Uzman Sistemler ve Denetleyiciler", Bicaklar Kitapevi, Istanbul, [13] I. H. Altas and A. M. Sharaf, "A Generalized Direct Approach for Designing Fuzzy Logic Controllers in Matlab/Simulink GUI Environment", International Journal of Information Technology and Intelligent Computing, Int. J. IT&IC No.4, Vol:1,
15 Fig. 11. The result of PI controller, V load variation Fig. 15. The result of FLC controller, V load variation Fig. 12. PI controller THD exchange Fig. 16. FLC THD exchange Fig. 13. V load variation for the PI controller Fig. 17. V load variation for the FLC Fig. 14. PI controller error change Fig. 18. FLC error change 66
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