Demand Response in California- From Hot Summer to Any Time DR

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1 Demand Response in California- From Hot Summer to Any Time DR Mary Ann Piette Director, Demand Response Research Center Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

2 Presentation Outline The Past Demand Response for Extreme Events The Present Any Time Dispatchable Resource Automate Once Use Many Times Future Quantifying Resource Availability on Multiple Time Scales Summary and Next Steps

3 The Past DR for Extreme Events Development of automated DR started in 2002 Cost - Develop low-cost, automation infrastructure Technology Evaluate reliability & readiness Capability Evaluate strategies to modify loads OpenADR - open standard for price & reliability signals OpenADR - used for utility and ISO Automated DR programs

4 Linking Energy Efficiency and DR

5 Demand Response Simplified Objectives Data Model Automation Control Strategies Reliability Schedule Manual Centralized D Economics Price Automated Gateway Congestion Signaling Standards Embedded Intermittent Resources 1/9/2015 5

6 Monthly reports on DR programs are available by each utility

7 OpenADR Fundamentals Provides non proprietary, open standardized DR interface Allows electricity providers to communicate DR signals directly to existing customers Uses common XML language and existing communications such as the Internet Pricing Data Models Physical Communications Control Strategies Price Signal $/kwh Data Model OpenADR Comm Internet Auto DR Client Server End Use Controls Building Action

8 Historic focus on Seasonal Grid Stress OpenADR PG&E Demand Bid Test Day OpenADR Northwest Test on Cold Morning Test Period OpenADR Cumulative Shed in July CPP MA Baseline :00 AM 1:00 AM 2:00 AM 3:00 AM 4:00 AM 5:00 AM 6:00 AM 7:00 AM 8:00 AM 9:00 AM 10:00 AM 11:00 AM 12:00 PM 1:00 PM 2:00 PM 3:00 PM 4:00 PM 5:00 PM 6:00 PM 7:00 PM 8:00 PM 9:00 PM 10:00 PM 11:00 PM 12:00 AM Whole Building Power (kw) 0:00 1:00 2:00 3:00 4:00 5:00 6:00 7:00 8:00 9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00 19:00 20:00 21:00 22:00 23:00 Power [MW] Seattle Municipal Tower Mckinstry Target - T1284 3/10 BL OAT Reg BL 8

9 Control Strategies Evaluated in Previous Demos Building use HVAC Lighting Other Global temp. adjustment Duct static pres. Increase SAT Increase Fan VFD limit C H W tem p. Increase Fan qty. reduction P re-cooling C ooling valve lim it B oiler lockout Slow recovery Extended shed period Common area light dim Office area light dim Turn off light Dimmable ballast Bi-level switching Non-critical process shed CPP two-level GTA CPP one-level GTA DBP Customer Normal Moderate High CPP Ave. temp. increase (mod): 2.75 F Ave. temp. increase (high): 1.88 F DBP Ave. temp. increase: 2.3 F ACWD Office, lab X X X X X X X B of A Office, data center X X X X X Chabot Museum X X 2530 Arnold Office X X 50 Douglas Office X X MDF Detention facility X Echelon Hi-tech office X X X X X X X X Centerville Junior Highschool X X Irvington Highschool X X Gilead 300 Office X Gilead 342 Office, Lab X X Gilead 357 Office, Lab X X IKEA EPaloAlto Furniture retail X IKEA Emeryville Furniture retail X IKEA WSacto Furniture retail Oracle Rocklin Office X X Safeway Stockton Supermarket X Solectron Office, Manufacture X X Svenhard's Bakery X Sybase Hi-tech office X Target Antioch Retail X X Target Bakersfield Retail X X Target Hayward Retail X X X X Walmart Fresno Retail X X Temperature (F) Lab/Office Retail Museum Average Office 1 Retail 1A Average Retail 2 School Office 3 Government 1 Lab/Office2 Average Government 2 Government 3 Retail 3 Government 4 Office 4 9

10 DR Data from 22 Commercial Buildings School 1 School 2 Office/Data Center 2 Office/Lab 1 Retail 1 Office/Data Center 1 Offfice/Lab 2 Retail 2 Office/Lab 3 Office 2 Office 5 Retail 3 Bakery Office 1 Museum Office 3 Office 4 Detention Center Retail 4 Retail 5 Retail 6 Office/Data Center 3 CPP Sites Average Shed Estimated Shed Demand reduction (kw)

11 Demand Response Strategies Guide for Commercial Buildings HVAC Systems Global temperature adjustment Passive thermal mass storage Duct static pressure decrease Fan variable frequency drive limit Supply air temperature increase Fan quantity reduction Cooling valve limit Chilled water temperature increase Chiller demand limit Chiller quantity reduction Rebound avoidance strategies...36 Lighting Systems Zone switching Luminaire/lamp switching Stepped dimming Continuous dimming...42 Miscellaneous Equipment...43 Non Component Specific Strategies Demand limit strategy Price level response strategy Implementation of DR Strategies 4.1. DR Strategy Development and Commissioning...47

12 DR Quick Assessment Tool Simple free EnergyPlus tool for retail and office buildings to provide DR estimates for common HVAC and lighting strategies Baseline Pre-cooling with exponential temp set up Pre-cooling with step temp set up Pre-cooling with linear temp set up No pre-cooling with exponential temp set up High Price Period Whole Building Power kw ` Average Demand Savings (W/Sq ft) :00 2:00 4:00 6:00 8:00 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00 20:00 22:00 Actual data #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 Time Simulation Results Excellent performance predicting DR in southern Calif. Included modeling pre-cooling strategies

13 Research initiated by LBNL/ CEC OpenADR Interoperability Progress Pilots and field trials Developments, tests (Utilities) OpenADR 1.0 Commercialization (PG&E, SCE, and SDG&E) Official OpenADR specification (1.0) by LBNL/CEC* 1. Anytime DR Pilots - Wholesale markets - International demonstrations - Dynamic pricing, renewables 2. All end-use sectors Over 250 MW automated in California National outreach with USGBC 2002 to OpenADR Standards Development - OASIS (EI TC), UCA, IEC 2. NIST Smart Grid, PAP 09 EI 1.0 standards - OpenADR profiles Communication Standards Development: 1. Research and development 2. Pilots and field trials 3. Standards development 4. Conformance and interoperability OpenADR 2.0 specifications - Products, commercialization - International standards (IEC) Certification/Testing (v2.0)

14 OpenADR 2.0 Application *Figure Source: OASIS Energy Interop Draft Standards ( open.org/committees/energyinterop/) 14

15 Current Status OpenADR in California As of summer, 2014, 234 MW, 1200 accounts currently enrolled ~$215/kW statewide average enablement cost Additional sites in SMUD, Palo Alto, coming to LADWP Additional sites with WIFI Communicating Thermostats

16 Demand Response and Baseline Models Utilities use 10 previous days as baseline May use a morning adjustment Regression, built from baseline o Time-of-week indicator variables o Piecewise linear temperature dependence [Mathieu, Price, Kiliccote, and Piette, IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid] ˆ L u (t i,t(t i )) i u T(t i )

17 Renewables and Managing the Duck Curve Source: Sanders, H., CEC IEPR Demand Response Workshop, June 17, 2013, slide 3.

18 New Markets for Responsive Loads Product Physical Requirements Product Type General Description How fast to respond Length of response Time to respond How often called Regulation Flexibility Contingency Energy Capacity Response to random unscheduled deviations in scheduled net load Load following reserve for un forecasted wind/solar ramps Rapid & immediate response to supply loss Shed or shift energy consumption over time Ability to serve as an alternative to generation 30 sec Energy neutral in 15 min 5 min Continuous w/in specified bid period 5 min 1 hr 20 min Continuous w/in specified bid period 1 min 30 min 10 min Once/day 5 min 1 hr 10 min 1 2 x/day & 4 8 hr notification Top 20 hrs coincident w/balancing authority peak

19 Ancillary Services Operating Reserves respond when a contingency event occurs to restore balance. respond within 10 minutes event duration typically minutes Includes Synchronous and Non-Synchronous Regulation rectifies small discrepancies between load and 5-minute real time dispatch Receives operating point instruction and responds within 4 sec Energy neutral, although not in practice

20 Advanced Applications- Using Demand-side Resources for Grid Reliability with DR and Microgrids Fast DR Evaluating how loads can act like generators Development of communication, control and telemetry requirements Understanding markets and market participation rules Research concepts supported with field tests Communication Latency Architecture Loads Demand (kw) 0 0:05 0:45 1:25 2:05 2:45 3:25 4:05 4:45 5:25 6:05 6:45 7:25 8:05 8:45 9:25 10:05 10:45 11:25 12:05 12:45 13:25 14:05 14:45 15:25 16:05 16:45 17:25 18:05 18:45 19:25 20:05 20:45 21:25 22:05 22:45 23: Time of Day Forecasted - Actual Hourly Forecasted Bids

21 Evaluating Which Loads are Most Flexible LOADS FLEXIBILITY FILTER ANCILLARY SERVICES PRODUCTS Response Parameters Flexibility range (reg up, reg down, both) Residential Municipal Commercial Speed of Response Store, Shift or Shed Size of Response Controllable Sizing of Resource Min and max daily consumption requirements Cycling Rate Impacts (wear/tear) Impacts on Overall Response Rebound/Recovery Issues Charge/Discharge Independence How to Predict Predictable or Variable (daily, seasonal, geographic) Time or Operational dependence How it Participates Individual or Aggregated MODELS Agricultural *Builds on 10 years of field work by DRRC 21

22 Field Studies Beyond Hot Summer Days Cold mornings for winter peak regions (Seattle) Non-spin reserve ancillary services (No. Cal) Regulation ancillary services (No. Cal) Economic dispatch - integrated price signals (NY NY) Fast telemetry for small commercial (No. Cal.) Test Period HVAC Lighting Other Site Power [MW] 0:00 1:00 2:00 3:00 4:00 5:00 6:00 7:00 8:00 9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00 19:00 20:00 21:00 22:00 23:00 Global tem p. adjustm ent Duct static pres. decrease SAT decrease Fan VFD lim it RTU Shut off Duty Cycling RTUs Pre heating Pre cooling Fan coil unit off Cycle electric heaters Cycle AHU Fans Cycle VAVs Set up CO2 Setpoints Common area light dim Office area light dim Turn off light Dimmable ballast Bi level sw itching Non critical process shed Elevator cycling Slow Recovery McKinstry S W S S W Target T1284 WS WS WS Seattle Municiple Tower WS W W WS Seattle University WS W W S W W W W W Seattle Municipal Tower Mckinstry Target - T1284 3/10 BL OAT Reg BL

23 Fast DR in Commercial Buildings Buildings can provide ramping - Costs will be lower if used in many DR programs - How often can load be called? 600 PLP EVENT :05 0:45 1:25 2:05 2:45 3:25 4:05 4:45 5:25 6:05 6:45 7:25 8:05 8:45 9:25 10:05 10:45 11:25 12:05 12:45 13:25 14:05 14:45 15:25 16:05 16:45 17:25 18:05 18:45 19:25 20:05 20:45 21:25 22:05 22:45 23:25 Demand (kw) Time of Day Actual 5 min. Data Hourly Forecast with reduction Forecasted Data Site Available Capacity (MW) Min. Operating Limit (MW) Max. Operating Limit (MW) UC Merced Ramp Rate (MW/min.) Reg up: Reg down: West Hill Farms Reg up/down:0.03 SMCC Reg up: 0.05 Reg down_1: Reg down_2: 0.134

24 Integrated Sensing and Communication: Low-Cost Telemetry of Demand Side Ancillary Services Low-cost, Internet connected embedded systems enable telemetry and control $50/kW site enablement vs traditional at $300/kW Demonstrated across 12 sites and four load types

25 Metrics for Response

26 Title 24 - SECTION CONTROLS FOR SPACE-CONDITIONING SYSTEMS (h) Automatic Demand Shed Controls. DDC to Zone level be programmed to allow centralized demand shed for non-critical zones: Controls have capability to - remotely setup cooling temp by 4 F or more in non-critical zones with EMCS Controls require following features: - Manual control. Manual control by authorized facility operators to allow adjustment of heating and cooling set points globally from a single point in the EMCS; and - Automatic Demand Shed Control. Upon receipt of a DR signal, space-conditioning systems conduct a centralized demand shed, as specified in Sections 120.2(h)1 and 120.2(h)2. Period ACTIVE IDLE High Price Nor. Mod. Start Time Load Level End Time 26

27 Occupant Controlled Smart Thermostat in Title 24 OCSTs are self-certified by manufacturer to Energy Commission to meet T24. Spec focuses on 3 interfaces: Communications, User Display and HVAC System Interface Appendix JA Price Signals Price signals allow utility or entity to send a signal or message to occupant s OCST to provide pricing info to occupant and initiate DR Control for DR Period utilizing a DR Signal. JA Demand Response Periods This event class allows utility to initiate DR Control for DR Period utilizing a DR Signal. Signal attributes shall be specified within messaging protocol. Messaging Protocols in CEC List are Apples and Oranges ZigBee Wireless Mesh BACnet MSTP ANSI OpenADR 2.0 Enocean Wireless Protocol

28 Summary Key Issues California has a vibrant set of DR programs Continued changes in goals and motivations Growing capabilities of buildings to provide services to the electric grid New telemetry and control systems provide low cost automation Acknowledgements / Sponsors California Energy Commission, US DOE, Bonneville Power Administration, PG&E, SCE

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